Prevli Wordlist

Note to the reader: To view this page you need to have a font with phonetic characters installed. If you are on Linux or Windows Vista you probably already have. If not I recommend the DejaVu fonts. Or SIL's Gentium, or find and download the Vista version of Times New Roman, which includes the IPA. I also suggest reading/reviewing the Phonology.pdf and Morphology (there are, or will be, links on the main Contents page


"Words of Our Language"

This wordlist is still a work in progress, and in time will surely grow larger and more complete.

Prevli is not, ordinarily, a written language; consequently, for this Romanized version, a number of special characters are used. They are, along with their phonetic values, as follows:

--ś for the voiceless palatal fricative [ʃ] or "š", used by some (in the Phonology pdf it is written with "S")
--ž for the voiced palatal fricative [ʒ] or "ž" (written "Z" in the Phonology)
--ğ for the voiced velar fricative [γ], used only when necessary to distinguish it in final or pre-consonantal position; otherwise, "g" is always a fricative between vowels (written "G" in the Phonology)
--ä represents the low front vowel [æ]; ö the mid front rounded vowel (same in IPA); and ü the high front rounded vowel [y]; å the low back rounded vowel [ɔ]
--ê and ô represent long ä and å resp.; they are usually pronounced with a schwa off-glide: [æə], [ɔə]
--a consonant followed by a comma indicates palatalization, e.g. b, = [bj]; note that k, g, are pronounced as the palatal affricates [tʃ] or tš, and [dʒ] or dž, i.e. English "ch, j" resp.
--"hr, hl" are voiceless r, l resp. IPA [r̥, l̥ ]
--ŋ is the velar nasal; x is the voiceless velar fricative; ə is schwa-- familiar IPA characters
--the acute accent indicates stress --the letter "v" is usually pronounced as the bilabial fricative [β]

English alphabetical order is used; "ŋ" has a separate listing following "n"; most of the other special characters occur only in derivations cited under head entries; only ś can appear initially (rarely) in lexical items, and these are included under "s"-- thus "śu..." will follow "su...".

Base (underlying) forms are cited phonemically, in slashes: /..../, the surface forms are then given. Forms cited without slashes are in some way phonologically irregular, and the cited form is the surface form.


a (~an before a vowel) marker of personal direct object; pl. at; can combine with def.article o > to, pl. tot

/abá/ avá (interj.) be careful! watch out! see /pabaC/

/abit/ aved afte tight (vi); as vt, to tighten s.t.; (hidden h-) irreal. /ahbít/ [a:fít] pass. yä:fít; INCH inafte become tight, tighten (vi); CAUS (formal) apafte, pass. yäpafte to tighten s.t.; noml. /h-h.../ xafte tightness, constriction; ahavit há really tight!

/adá, adadá/ ará, arará hortatory part. 'let's..., come on!'

/adak/ arka distilled liquor, often flavored (distilled in towns, less skillfully in the villages), about 30% alcohol; /gi-adak/ g,arka ['džarka] distiller-- now illegal, a "moonshiner"

/adut/ arod arto dead, of humans; no regular (/in-/) INCHO, no PROGRESSIVE; special INCHO. /nidut/ q.v. is used for 'dying, moribund'; no regular CAUS., see special CAUS. /padut/

/aha/ aha interj. to express surprise or amazement-- Wow! Guess what!!...(the -h- is clearly pronounced)

ai [aj] ~ aí cry of pain

/akas/ aksa a skewer or spit, for cooking; as vt, to skewer/spit ~put on a skewer/spit, pass. yäksa, irreal. a:kás pass. yä:kás; kaśriŋ meat on a skewer ~shish kebab

/akup/ akob akpo to sell (bi ~trivalent), pass. yäkpo, irreal. a:kúp yä:kúp; /gi-akup/ g,akpo [džakpo] seller

amba thousand(s), < Kash id.; amba-amba ~amamba thousands of...

/amid/ amer abre (vi) to travel, make/take a trip; roam; irreal. a:mír; no INCH, redup. ahabre well- traveled (of a road, path); /gi-amid/ g,abre [džabre] traveller; vagabond; (pl.)also, nomads; nomadic-- dolo-dolo elda laktelna g,abret in the old days, our existence/life was nomadic

/anid/ aner (~ner) again--saneá mo ner sing it again!; ande (an)other/more, additional--ande yalnu pore another glass of wine, anernu pore more wine; (idiom.) tavrá ner have some more! (another helping e.g. of food); as question (si) tavra nér? '(do you) want some more?; anertaner over and over, again and again

aro hour, in standard time-telling (< Kash id.) pl. arot

aratu street, road (< Kash ratu id.) (the initial a- is usu. dropped if a vowel precedes, e.g. i o ratu in the road, iki ratu this road)

/asi/ ase the bladder (inalien.)-- orig. referred only to animal bladders

/asip/ aseb aśpe (vt) wait for, expect pass. yäśpe; IMP. asíb

atriśpá a person of indeterminate/ambiguous sexuality-- may be hermaphroditic, homosexual, cross-dressing etc.-- not stigmatized, in fact held in some awe, esp. if they become shamans/curers, as they often do (unusual compd. based on "irrealis" forms of /tadu+sipa/)

avá (interj.) be careful! watch out! see /paban/

avak ~vak- base of several compounds referring to firearems (< Kash ambak); vaknilu ~vakhul handgun, pistol; vaklivi ~vakní 'long gun', rifle, shotgun

aya ~[ai] cry of pain

azlinhel [azlin'thel] accident, mishap (< irreal. /azla/ (< /zala/ bad) + /inheli/ happen)

/azu/ azo to ooze, seep, irreal. /ahzú/ a:sú

/ayas/ äśa an axe; see also /payas/, /yayas/


ba-ba (affect.) dad, daddy, papa-- NB: pronounced ['baba] not *['bava]

/babap/ bavab bafpa to babble, speak incoherently; noml. /b-babap/ > irreg. pfapfa 'nonsense, gibberish'

/bak(a)/ bak prep., from, away from, off of...

/bal(a)/ bal prep., with (accompanying), ~in the company of... see /dabal/

/bam(a)/ a large drum; see also /tabam/, bandi

bandi a small drum, hand-held

/bapa/ father (inalien.), pl. bapat~bapta--bapak, bapka my...; bapan(ta) our father, baptan our fathers/forefathers--see also /lombap/

/basan/ basan baśna (vt) to believe; baśnak u semi hen I believe he said it; semirz u baśna zehim he said that he believes you; uzbaśna ko I don't believe it/that; uzbaśna kaz I don't believe him; uzbaśna kame I don't believe you

/bau/ bao (n.) smell, odor--good or bad, usu.occurs with descriptor, e.g. zal bao bad smell (can be inalien.); as vi, redup. /babau/ bavao to smell, have a smell, e.g. zal bavao ok that smells bad

/bekat/ bekäd bektä (modern) the elected head of a longhouse; formerly, a "captain", the leader of a group/tribe in battle

/bili/ bili (vt, vi) to speak; pass. b,i:li, irreal. ivlí pass. yi:vlí [ži:v'lí]; noml./b-bili/ bbili [(ə)b'vili] --usu. intrans., but may be trans. in the sense 'speak [words, a language]' or 'speak to s.o. about...'-- bilir kaz a lüsi ut... I spoke to Lüsi about...; bivilí ha! 'well spoken!'; /gibil/ givli speaker, orator

/bisus/ bisüs biśü wise; as noun, wise person, sage; clan elder; NB ibzús traditional wisdom/lore

/bizgod/ bižğor council ("table") of elders (/bisus/+/godi/ table)-- the ruling body of a clan (may be both M/F), takes plural verb

/boad/ bôr ought to, should (moral but non-obligatory duty); irr. /ob:ár/ obvár; < bor- when another syllable is added, e.g. borka ~bork I ought to, užvormi you oughtn't/shouldn't; see bor-

/bon(a)/ bon a men's dance, celebratory and/or ecstatic ~paplevon; bovon to do that dance

/bonud/ bonur bondu a plant, and the extract of its root, formerly used to poison arrowheads

bor- prefix of the debitive aspect (< /boad/), usu. takes irrealis

brunå the 4th day of the 7-day week < Kash vuruna id.

/budi/ buri the back of the body (inalien.); back (side, surface); in preps. divúr to the back of, (to) behind..., ivúr in/at the back of, behind..., bavúr from the back of, from behind... etc.

/budak/ buråg burkå mountain; NB el burkåt there are mountains, it's mountainous

budzi hill, hillock (irreg. dim. of /budak/ mountain)

/buluŋ/ buluŋ bulgu dark/forest green, irreal. uvlúŋ

/bunaz/ bunåz bunzå a plant, and the extract of its roots, used to stun fish in rivers/streams

/buti/ buti (hum., anim.) backside, rear end, buttocks, (dim. butsi, nursery speech) inalien.; (inanim.) bottom part of s.t. (NOT underside); in preps., divút to the bottom of..., ivút at...., bavút from the bottom...


/dabal/ daval davla to accompany, go along with, pass. d,avla, irreal. arvál pass. yärvál, no INCH, CAUS abdavla send s.o. along with... see also /bal/

/dabut/ dabod dafto to get, obtain, pass. d,afto, irreal. arvút, pass. yärvút

/dain/ däin side (comb.form dän); idän (prep.) beside; hordän river-side=shore (flat, accessible) but däinza tagur/rośe ~däinz orośe seashore, beach

/dais/ däis pregnant, irreal. ad:ís; INCHO indäis, inad:ís become pregnant, CAUS abdäis impregnate, make s.o. pregnant, pass. yäbdäis, irreal. apad:ís etc.; see /dasin/

/dakas/ dakas daksa roof of a house (inalien.); as vb. only CAUS abdaksa to roof (a house) pass. yäbdaksa, irreal. aparkás, pass. yäparkás

/danag/ danağ daŋga to forbid, ban, pass. d,äŋga, irreal. arnáğ yärnáğ see daznäğ, /koyad/

/dasi/ dase ~das- less; as prep., (~das) without, lacking; dasi-tavu more or less

/dasik/ daseg daśke to lack, to need, pass. d,äśke, irreal. arsík

/dasin/ dasen daśne pregnancy (irreg. < /dais/)

/daum/ dåum the chest (anat.) inalien.

/dayam/ dayam da:m,a to build/lay a fire, pass. d,ä:m,a, irreal. ad,äm pass. yäd,äm; noml. /d-dayam/ ddä:m,a [(ə)'d:æmja] fireplace (firepit)

/daz(a)/ daza daz neg. imperative, do not...; daza kravá 'do not run'; dazda absolutely do not....

daznäğ taboo, (culturally) forbidden--el daznäğ it is taboo/forbidden (ult. < daz n,äga not to be done) see /danag/

/dei/ dee ['deʔe] little, a little (bit)....~/dedei/ dereʔe. derenu a little (bit) of...; comb.form -dik, e.g. madík too little

/deit/ deet ['deit] few (small no.) pl. deetsa e.g. de:tsa humot few gardens; /dedit/ derit derti a few (indeterm.number), dertipi just a few, derinu a few of...; madét too few; madét malúk (ha) too little, too late

/delum/ delöm delmö to stop, cease from, pass. d,e:lmö; irreal. edlúm pass. ye:dlúm; CAUS abdelmö to prevent; IMPER dəlumá

/desi/ desi enough, sufficient, irreal. ersí; CAUS abdesi to make enough of s.t., as abdesi hen yotsu sugnát olta she made enough yotus for all of us; pass. yäbdesi, irreal. apersí, yäpersí; interj. deśók 'enough! that's enough!'

/dez(a)/ dez fur, of humans (Lañ-Lañ, Kash, Gwr) and some animals

/dinam/ dinäm dimnä (vt) to bind/join together pass. d,i:mnä, irreal. irnám pass. yi:rnám [žir'nam]

/di/ locative prep.: to (usu. d,- [dj-] before a V)

/dibi/ divi an impolite word for the male's penis, see also /dimad/, latsi

/didi/ diri (vt) to boil; as adj., boiled--dir yotsu boiled yotus; pass. d,i:ri; irreal. iddí, yi:ddí; [ži:d'di]; INCH indiri (vi) to boil, be boiling, e.g. indiri o yotsu the yotus is boiling, or indiri yotsu bal nôm nasa yotus boils with (=in) 10 minutes; NO CAUS; dirirí ha really boiling ~at a full boil

/diki/ ~dik (to ~at) here; /didik/ dirik right here

/dimad/ dimär dibrä the correct/polite term for the male's penis; see also /dibi/

/dinam/ dinäm dimnä to bind/join together pass. d,i:mnä, irr irnám Pass. yi:rnám INCH indimnä indimná become bound, joined,

/dinin/ dinin dindi cold, irreal. idnín; INCH indindi inidnín become cool, cold; CAUS abdindi pass. yäbdindi to make s.t. cold, to chill, to cool s.t. off

/diŋ(a)/ diŋ flesh (inalien.); meat (inalien. or alien.), often in compound e.g. lóporiŋ lopa meat, póporiŋ popo meat; as inalien. note digza lopo meat/flesh of a lopa

dis- prefix of the intentive aspect, < /disak/

/disak/ disäg diśkä to intend, plan to...; to be going to...; irreal. irsák; noml. /d-disak/ ddiśkä intention, plan

/dodum/ NB as n.: dorum sleep; as vi: dormu to sleep, irreal. odrúm; INCH. indormu, irreal. inodrúm get sleepy; CAUS abdormu put s.o. to bed (esp. of children); doru-dormu go to sleep, irreal. /ododrúm/ orodrúm

/dogi/ doge the largest wild lopa sp., about the size of a llama or deer

/doku/ doko ~dok (to ~at) there--specific irók at there, dirók to there; bakrók from there; dorók right there; doklá (< /latan/ far) way over there

/dola/ dolo part. of time: used to, formerly; earlier...; dolo-dolo in the old days ~long, long ago; with times of day: dolo mitsä earlier (this) morning; with days/months/years 'last'--dolo teo ivrä last Ivar-day, dolo trelo last week (contrast: dolo ikteo 'earlier today', dolo iki trelo earlier this week), dolo śurak 'last month'; also, postposed, 'ago'--lag teo dolo two days ago (see also /luga/)

/dolum/ dolum dolmu (vi) to drift/float in the air or water irreal. odlúm; lat dolmu float/drift away

/domik/ domög dopkö earthquake; elda dopkö there was an earthquake, onda ... there probably was...

dompelöm the autumn season (compd. leaf+drop)

/dona/ dono to give pass. d,öno, irreal. odná pass. yödná no INCH., CAUS. passive only yäbdono (cause to be given) but used as an active verb 'to donate', as yäbdonor hen toe he donated money; /gidon/ girno giver, donor

dontimu the spring season (compd. leaf+sprout)

/dopal/ doplå "digit", i.e. finger doplolo (/dopal+hulo/); toe dopliku (/dopal+ikun/) (inalien.); also refers to the fruit of a banana-like plant (alien.); redup. /dopal+dopal/ > doproplå the index finger

/doun/ do:n pl. donta leaf (of trees, plants); sheet (of paper)

/dukap/ dukåb dukpå carcass/dead body of an animal (dead+body)

dukeŋ a stun-gun (used only by the national police) < Kash kandukeñ id.

/dukil/ dukül duklü corpse of a human (dead+person)

/duŋu/ ~duŋ none, no, nothing, zero; duŋgil no-one, duŋgidlá no-one at all; duŋulá (colloq. duglá) nothing at all/whatsoever; requires negative verb: uś:emir hen duŋ he said nothing, uśme: ko duglá I dont want anything at all; usel duŋ there is none/nothing, pfuru azlinthel ya, usel dukt ernitsa iśké because of an accident, he has no arms; usu. combines with a following noun/adjective, as dumpore no wine, duntavno no more (of it)

/dupuŋ/ dupuŋ dupku to forget; pass. d,üpku, irreal. urpúŋ pass. yürpúŋ

/duzu/ duzu (vi) to walk; irreal. udzú; INCHO induzu, irreal. inudzú-- used mainly to refer to infants beginning to walk; no PASS.


/edin/ erin erni arm (body part) inalien.

/el(a)/ el there is, there are ; suppletive irreal. /on(a)/ on; (negative usel, uson there isn't/aren't...; tense forms are: realis past elar ~elda, future elal ~edla; irreal. past onar ~onda future onal odla conditional onas ~otsa. It is also used to describe weather conditions: el lo: it's raining/rainy; el yan it's sunny; el dindi it's cold, etc. When used to provide tense to "surprise" forms, irregular real. past er, fut. la; regular tense forms of /on/ are used here, but some dialects have irreg. irreal. past da, fut. lo, cond. so--e.g. er tataŋá há it was really big!, odla (~lo) tataŋá há it'll probably be really big!

elis personal name (fem.), elis diez purán Elis's restaurant

/enik/ enik eŋki high, tall; irr. e:ník INCH ineŋki, ine:ník becoming tall(er), CAUS apeŋki make s.t. tall(er); maeŋki [ma'ʔeŋki] too tall, too high; maeniklá way too tall; eniklá kind of tall; see /henik/, nikpin

/epi/ epi (as adv.) up, upwards; as preps. epio [epjo] or epo 'up the...', epri up to..., epí up in/at...; epilá way up (high), e.g. la:te ko kaŋ epilá i ok haŋe I see something way up (high) in that tree; see /epid/

/epid/ epir epri high (in elevation or extent); irr. e:pír; ehepri very high--ehepri okta burkåt those mountains are very high; ehepri o more the price is very high; surprise ehepír há really high!; noml. /h-(h)epid/ xepri height, elevation; altitude; see pirpin

et variant of /te/ conj., and


/gaba/ gava lumpy, irregular in shape; irreal. ağvá; INCH iŋgava becoming so, becoming deformed/out of shape, CAUS abgava to make s.t. so, to deform s.t.

/gabus/ gavos gafso to mate (of animals), pass. g,äfso ['džæfso]; /gagabus/ gagavos gagafso of human, act lewdly, in an inappropriately sexual way toward s.o.; irreg. gigavo stud animal

/gadak/ garag garka black, see also gartelag, gardik

/gadim/ garem garme to answer, reply, pass. g,ärme, irr. agrím pass. yägrím; noml. /g-gadim/ ggarme answer, reply--si hondöd mo zek dieza ggarme did you hear his reply?

/gadu/ garo(t) mud-brick(s), ~adobe

/gaku/ gako (n.) smoke

/gali/ gale clay (soil type, also for pottery); /gi-.../ gigale a potter (profession)

/galaŋ/ galaŋ galga the color red see /laŋis/, lantel

gardik the color grey (black+little)

garo personal name (M)

gartel (ult < black+half) the "black" moiety, one of two fundamental divisions of Lañ-lañ society, see also lantel

/gaup/ gåub- (inalien.) the body (living, of hum/animal), with suffixes gå(pb)- e.g. pl gåpta; torså gåpsa (~torsåz) the waist (middle of the body) see also /dukap/, /dukil/

/gel(a)/ gel(a) stone, rock pl. gelta

gephin low/depressed land, lowland(s) in genl. (< /*gehu+pina/)

/geu/ geo low (of elevation) (*gehu), irreal. eg:ú, INCH iŋgeo, ineg:ú become low(er), CAUS abgeo make s.t. low(er), decrease the height of...; see gephin

/gi-/ a no longer productive prefix, it formed agent nouns (animate), prob. ult. < /gila/ person; (most gi- forms are fossilized, often irreg.)

/giba/ give the nose (inalien.) pl. givet, gifta

/giham/ gihäm gi:mä to understand pass. g,i:mä ['dži:mæ], irreal. /ighám/ ighám [ix:ám], pass. yi:x:ám

/gikik/ gikki [gikʔi] the small lizard, agricultural pest; called necu in Kash

/gila/ gile person, someone (suppletive pl. gilgä people, see /gilaŋ/); gidlá whoever, anyone at all (gila+lá)--donol ko kigidlá or kutnå hen I'll give it to anyone who asks for it

/gilaŋ/ giläŋ tribe, pl. giläkta; gilgä people, usu. treated as a plural--e.g. tuhi zente deet gilgä (lit. like they+him few people) few people like him; (rare pl. gilgät (various) peoples (i.e perhaps "ethnic groups") e.g. o pinen diez gilgät olta (the world poss. peoples all-pl) all the peoples of the World)

gildik a doll (of human form); ~ a puppet (worked by strings or sticks) ult. < person+little

/ginam/ ginäm gimnä an unmarried person (adult); also as vb. to be unmarried, irreal. iğnám

givmoŋ snout/muzzle of certain animals and saurians (compd. nose+mouth)

/godi/ gore table; see also /bisus/

/gola/ golo edge, rim; pirgol embankment, bank (high, not easily accessible (of a river) (epid+gola)

/goza/ gozo direction; as prep., goz ~digóz toward(s)

grumpak see /guduŋ/

(/gud/) gur a Gwr, pl. gurta ~gurat the Gwr people--usu. compd. uśänta gur: aha, ikteo la:terk uśänta gur Wow! today I saw a Gwr'; dio enze kaftu alhitla mizent uśänta gurta in Kavatu-city you'll probably see Gwrs (they are rarely seen in Lañ-lañ territory)

/guduŋ/ guruŋ ~gruŋ (NB no *gurŋu) thunder; el guruŋ there's thunder, it's thundering; gurumpak ~grumpak thunder and lightning, a thunderstorm

/gunaz/ gunåz gunzå bitter; irreal. uğnáz; gunzå mağra (see /magad/) a psychotropic drug sometimes used by shamans to induce a trance/visions, bal gunzå mağra under the influence of...


ha particle-- (opt.) before a name, vocative; (oblig.) after a name or redup. form etc., indicates surprise; may be used as an interj. to call attention, "hey!"

/haduk/ harog harko to come; to arrive; irr. a:túk; no INCH., CAUS apharko bring in, import; /h-haduk/ xarko arrival (see /zaduk/)

hakon an edible fungus that grows on trees (living or dead), old compd /haŋi + hon/ 'tree + ear'

/halid/ haler halde festival; holiday, festival day; (dim.) halidzi a party (i.e. a smaller, more intimate function, e.g. llozde halidzi birthday party)

/haŋid/ haŋed hagre to branch off (e.g. of a road, river), irr. a:ŋír

haŋeri branch (on a tree, inalien., otherwise alien.)

/haŋi/ haŋe tree

has(a) breath; see also haśmat, /hasib/, nekhas

/hasib/ hasev, haśfe in inhale, breathe in

haśmat to exhale, breathe out, to emit by means of breath

/hasin/ hasin haśne skin (of humans/animals) inalien.

hat- prefix of the prospective aspect, see /hati/

/hati/ hate to be about to...; no INCH, no CAUS

(/haya/) haya (colloq. heya) (electric) light < Kash haya light

/hazag/ hazag hažga powerful, mighty, strong IRREAL a:ság; INCH inhažga, ina:ság; CAUS. aphažga pass. yäphažga; irreal. apa:ság pass. yäpa:ság; /hhazag/ hhažga ['xažga] strength; /gi-hazag/ g,azag ['džazag] a very strong man; (mythol.) giant, titan

he-he imit. of laughter, he-há a big laugh; see also hi-hi, /makik/

/heli/ heli ~hel to be--heli Yän lagza lüsi Yan is Lüsi's child; heli zek sando he's a shaman; irreal. ehli; INCH /inheli/ q.v.; CAUS apheli cause to be = create = bring into being (rare, usu. has magical connotations)

/henik/ henik heŋki height, stature (< irreg. redup of /enik/ *ehenik)

/henug/ henöğ heŋgö animal track/path in the forest

/hibit/ hibid hifti pan-pipes

/hida/ hide insect sp. sim. to bees; they produce a sweet nectar sim. to honey (see kurde)

hi-hi imit. of gigglng, see /mikik/

/hina/ hine to become, irr. i:ná; no INCH; CAUS aphine to make/form (irr. api:ná)--e.g. parne zetent o gale untu aphine garot they used the clay to make/form bricks; pass. garot yäphine nifro gale bricks were formed with the clay--near-syn. with /nigin/, but -hine implies a change in the material. mehinza sando he wants to become(=be) a shaman

/hoa/ hô ~å intensifying marker-- ...self, even..., ...own, usu. precedes the pronoun or name--e.g. hô kan, nignir ko I myself ~even I did it, nignir ko å kan I did it (by) myself; hô min la:te mizent you yourself ~even you saw them; also used to disambiguate 3d pers. pronouns when there are multiple referents, as semir u la:ter å zehen he(A) said he(A) saw him(B) or semir u la:ter zehen å zek he(A) said he(B) saw him(A)-- see further in Syntax

/hobin/ hovön, hovnö many/much, a lot...; combining form hov- hovnu... a lot of...; irr. o:fín; mahov too much, too many; INCH (vi) inhovnö [in'thovnö] increase, become more (in quantity), CAUS aphovnö to increase s.t., pass. yäphovnö; /h-hobin/ xovnö amount, quantity

/hodi/ hore river, pl. horet, horta

hodzi (dim.) stream, brook, creek (< /hodi/+tsi)

/hoiz/ höiz (pl. höiśta) a judge (legal); arbiter, mediator of disputes (traditional) see /hozik/

/hon(a)/ the ear (inalien.), pl. honta

/honam/ honåm homnå sole, single; o... the only...--iki ya, el o homnåk this is the only one I have, ~... my only one. See also /hoa/. hohonåm the only thing..., the only one...--nagar ko o hohonåm tuvün I did the only thing possible; hohonåm ya, la:ter hen kur the only thing ~all he saw was water; as vb. (be) alone, irr. o:nám, no INCH. CAUS aphomnå to isolate; (traditional) to ostracize, shun; /h-honam/ xomnå loneliness, isolation; ostracism

/honid/ honör hondö (vt) to hear; irreal. o:híd; hondör ko sane I heard singing; hondör kaz sane I heard him sing(ing); hondör kaz o zek diez sane I heard his singing; as vi, hondök u mekovom dio enze I hear(gather, understand) that you want to go to the city; /h-honid/ xondö hearing (sense, ability); gihonta [gi'jonta ~ džonta] hearers, audience

/hozik/ hozög hozgö to judge (legal); to mediate/arbitrate (disputes) (trad.); pass. h,özgö, irreal. o:sík pass. yö:sík

/hudi/ huri near, nearby, irreal. u:tí; INCH /inhudi/ inthuri, irreal. inu:tí become/get near(er), close(er); inthuri di... (vi) to approach; CAUS yaphuri, irreal. yapu:tí move/bring (s.t.,s.o.) near(er); come near to, approach s.t.; huhuri very close/near, irreal. uxu:tí

/hula/ hulo hand inalien. pl. hulot hulta

/hum(a)/ hum(a) (veg.) garden, pl. humat hupta

/hunak/ hunåk huŋkå to find, discover, come upon, irreal. u:nák; INCH?? CAUS to reveal ??

/hupa/ hupo- clan longhouse (inalien. with pl suffixes--hupon the longhouse (of our clan), hupośte the longhouse (of their clan); but alien. with singular possessor--tämni diez hupo Tämni's longhouse (where he lives)

huporitsi window (contract. < hupo diez itsi house POSS eye)

hus no, as a reply; huhús certainly not; huhús ha! [huhušá~xušá] no way! absolutely not!

/hutup/ hutub hutpu to catch s.t. in the hand; also, catch an animal or criminal; pass. h,ütpu, irr. uthúp pass. yüthúp


/iak/ eak- the leg, inalien. (NB correct eakka ['eakʔa] my leg, but usu. eaka); lageak two legged, biped(al), seeak [seʔeak] four-legged, quadriped(al); irreg. -äk in liśtäk (nazro) centipede (lit. 100-leg worm), ambäk (nazro) millipede (1000-leg worm), and hohoväk generic term for such insects (some can deliver a poisonous/painful bite but--processed--have medicinal uses)

/iba/ ive ~iv- prep., in, inside...; ivri into...

/ikak/ ikäg ik:ä (vt) to trample (on); pass. (y)i:k:ä; IRREAL i:kák, pass. /y-i:kák/ ži:kák

/iki/ this pl ikit, ikt(a)--NB /di iki.../ > d,ik(i)... to this...

/ikun/ ikün iknü the foot (hum., anim., inalien.)

/ili/ conj., or; ili...ili... either...or...; see uśli, and /tehus/

/ima/ ime gold (the metal); as adj., golden; NB CAUS apime to gild s.t., decorate with gold; as adj. (irreg.) pama gilded, decorated with gold, irr. abma; imapót gold-colored

/inheli/ inthél(i) (old inch. of /heli/ 'to be') to come to be, to happen; may take S complement, intheld u... it happened that...; irreal. /inehli/; no INCH.; CAUS. /apinheli/ apinthel(i) change s.t. into..., transform s.t.... (often used of the spirits) pass. yäpinthel be changed into..., transformed into...; see azlinthel

/inis/ inis itsi the eye (inalien.)

/ipid/ ipir ipri a pepper-like spice (poss. <==> Kash pirit), derived from seeds of a bushy plant, also called ipri; as vb. 'peppery', irreal. ip:ír, INCH inipri become/get peppery, CAUS apipri make s.t. peppery (often with modifiers 'too much/not enough', etc.)

(/ibar/) ivrä the 5th day of the 7-day week, < Kash imbar id.--sometimes ibar or imbar by those who have frequent contact with Kash people)

/itus/ always itsu+tense marker, (conj.) when: itsur when (in past), itsul when (in fut.); itsulá whenever (=every time), as itsulá naga ko ok, makke ot lakta whenever I do that, the children laugh; or, whatever time..., if ever..., as itsulá a:túksa, edla halidzin whenever he comes (irreal.), there'll be a party. See also /tuas/


/ka/ what, that which--introduces a clause, not an indirect question; when it is the object of its verb, correctly requires the passive--yakmek ka śe:mir neśké I know what he said (what was said by him)--but the rule is often ignored--yakmek ka semirza

/kaba/ kava a bittter black beverage made from the ground-up berries of a certain tree (see kafaŋ--same as Kash timbara; Lañ-lañ area was the original source of the berries)

/kabak/ kavag kafka bizarre, very strange, outlandish-- irreal. akfag; INCH iŋkafka becoming...

/kabit/ kaved kafte empty (vi,vt); pass. k,äfte, irreal. akvít CAUS.(formal) apkafte; noml. /k-kabit/ kkafte ['kƔafte] emptiness, void

/kadak/ karag, karka to hit, collide with s.t.; (slang, 'to run into [encounter] s.o. by chance'), pass. (only if anim. agent) k,ärka, irreal. akrák; noml. /k-karak/ kkarka ['kʔarka] collision

(/kadum/) karom, karmo a medical doctor (ult. < Kash kandumbra id.)

kafaŋ the kaba tree (compd. /kaba+haŋi/)

/kagap/ kagab kagba loud (of sound), irr. akháp; INCH iŋkagba, inakháp become loud(er), CAUS yapkagba, pass. yäpkagba, irreal. yapakháp make s.t. louder (e.g. turn up the volume of a radio)

/kagi/ kage short (in stature, length), irreal. ag:í; (as vt) to shorten, pass. k,äge; INCH iŋkage, CAUS (formal) apkage

/kahat/ kahad ka:ta (vi, vt) to catch/snag on s.t.; (vt esp.) to fish with a hook, catch (fish); pass. k,ä:ta [tšæ:ta]; irreal. akhát yä:khát; INCH. iŋka:ta become/get snagged/caught (on s.t.)

/kahu/ kaho same, equal, irreal. akhú; kaho men ~ka:mén... same as... e.g. enikza ka:mén agná/garo he is as tall as me/as Garo. OR el henikza ka:mén agná/o garoz his height is the same as mine/as Garo's

(/kaiŋ/) käiŋ the 3rd day of the 7-day week, < Kash kayiñ id.

/kakas/ kakas kaksa (vt) to shoot (with a weapon)--either the target or the weapon may be DO: kaksar zehen doge he shot a doge, kaksar zehen laktim he shot an arrow; pass. k,äksa [tšæksa], irreal; akkás pass. yäkkás [akʔás, jækʔás]

/kakud/ kakor kakro liquid, in genl.; as vb. INCHO /akkúd/ akkúr liquefy, melt (intrans), CAUS apkakro to liquefy ~melt s.t.

/kalap/ kalab kalpa a ceramic pot, for cooking/storage; noml. /k-kalpa/ kkalpa pots and pans, kitchen utensils

/kalim/ kalem kalme to throw, pass. k,älme, IRREAL aklím pass. yäklím

/kam/ adv. already; uśkám not yet (as a direct reply) ~(irreg.) uśkom not yet (as verbal modifier)--e.g. si kam tu zizem? have you already eaten? --uśkám Not yet. vs. uśkom tu harkośte they have not yet arrived/come

/kamuk/ kamog kapko good (morally), righteous, virtuous; irreal. akmúk; INCHO iŋkapko to be improving (as to morality etc.); CAUS apkapko to improve (s.o.); to educate; /k-k-/ kkapko goodness (of morals, character, etc.); righteousness, virtue

/kanik/ kaneg kaŋke long (of measure), irreal. akník, also as vt, to lengthen s.t.; noml. /k-kanik/ kkaŋke length

/kanug/ kanoğ kaŋgo dead, of animal/plant; irreal. aknúğ INCH iŋkaŋgo to die; CAUS apkaŋgo to kill (plant, animal)

kaŋalá (colloq. kaglá) whatever, anything at all (/kaŋ/ + la)

/kaŋ/ thing (unspecified) pl. kaŋat ~ (irreg.) kanta; kantól everything; kakaŋ something;

kapra paper (modern, manufactured) < Kash id.

/kapak/ kapag kapka to hit/beat (a person, with s.t.), fight with (perh. < Kash id.), pass. k,äpka. irreal. akpák, yäkpák; noml. /k-kapak/ kkapka a beating, a fight.(cf. /pak(a)/ the old word for fist)

/kapu/ kapo (vi) to sit, be seated, irreal. akpú; INCH iŋkapo to sit down, irreal. inakpú; CAUS apkapo to seat s.o.; noml. /k-kapu/ kkapo a chair or other seat

kåriŋ see (/kau/)

karon usu. karno "duke" < Kash karun id.; karno by ext. the national (Kash) govenment; karno kaftu the duke of Kavatu or his government, karno śomba (id.of Çombala), karno kolunda (id. of Holunda), karn orsoŋ (id. of Oroson) etc.

karośe a sailor, pl. usu. karośta (< Kash kandroçe id.)

/kas/ prep. through

kaś(a) pl. kaśta a more polite term for the Kash people/language (vs üśänta q.v.)

/kasad/ kasar kaśra sacred/holy; irreal. aksár; no INCHO use Caus-pass). Caus. apkasar yäpkaśra to bless, sanctify; pass. yäpkaśra become/be made holy/sacred; /kakasad/ kakaśra spiritual; noml. /k-k-/ kkaśra holiness, spirituality, sanctity

kaśék movie, moving picture; < Kash kaçeke id.; see puŋgaśék

/kasid/ kaser kaśre (vt) to cook (generic)--kaśred hen yotsu she cooked some yotus; without DO, kaśrel kan I'll cook; pass. k,äśre, irreal; aksír (vi) to cook, as tun aksír o yotsu the yotus has cooked, or aksír yotsu bal nôm nasa yotus cooks with (=in) 10 minutes

kao a domesticated food animal, < Kash kawu id.; mostly imported, rare and expensive, as it is not well-adapted to mountainous terrain; kåriŋ kao-meat (a luxury item)

/kaya/ kaya ~kä: ~käk what a...! how...!

/kedan/ kerän kernä (vt,vi) dull (not sharp, of tools); pass k,e:rnä, irreal. ekrán ye:krán, INCH iŋkernä, inekrán becoming dull; CAUS apkernä (formal)

kee ['keʔe] hesitation part. 'well...'; keya well..., well then...; sometimes used after a non-finite clause or fronted topic, see also /ya/

/kehan/ kehän ke:nä large container, barrel; see kurkän

/kenu/ keno each (individually)-- keno gile ~keŋgile each person; kenolti each of you(pl), kenon(ta) each of us etc.

/kesi/ kesi (n) joy, happiness; (as adj.) happy, joyful, irreal. eksí; INCHO iŋkesi ineksí (ut...) to rejoice, become happy (w.r.t....); CAUS apkesi pass. yäpkesi (irreal. apeksí, yäpeksí) to celebrate; to observe (e.g. an occasion, a holiday)

/ki/ k-+pronoun, ki+name--prep. that marks the dative (and directional with pronouns/names)--see also /di/

/kidi/ kiri to think (~guess) irreal. ikrí; its sentence complement is usu. in irrealis--kirk (u) okfá I think I'll go, uśkirdaz u alpağra min he didn't think you were hungry; (literary, formal) with same-subject and realis verb, it can mean 'to intend to... kirza kovo teo lalpa he intends to go on Lalap-day-- but colloq. the intentive aspect (' going to...') or a synonym is more commonly used. noml. /k-kidi/ kkiri thought, reason(ing) (ability); see also /kikidi/

/kikidi/ kikiri to ponder, think about (in this sense, usu. takes irrealis); (with realis) to consider, deem; (legal) to judge, adjudge; pass.(irreg.) k,ikri ['tškri], irr. ikkirí pass. yi:kkirí; e.g. kikirn u loroz we consider him (to be) stupid; kikirk (u) okfá di o enze I'm considering/thinking about going to the city; kikiri zente o bizgod u mur,üz the council judged him to be guilty; k,ikridza muyur he was judged (to be) guilty, he was found guilty; noml. (irreg.) kkikri consideration, judgment, opinion; (legal) verdict, ela kkikrinta u mur,üm it is our judgment/verdict that you are guilty

/kiga/ kige k.o. mortar--usu.the hollowed-out stump of a tree or large log, used for pounding certain grains to remove their hulls; see also /lasu/; can also refer to small mortars made of stone, used in the kitchen to grind seeds, spices etc.

kik in math., the decimal point (< Kash id.)

/kiki/ kiki to squeak, squeal; /kkiki/ [kʔiki] a squeak, squeal

/kilip/ kilib kilpi slippery, irr. iklíp, INCH iŋkilpi iniklíp become/get slippery; CAUS apkilpi make s.t. slippery

/kima/ kime heart (organ) inalien.; in some dialects, also liver

/kinad/ kindä the haprali, largest of the great cat species (unmetathesized *kinär does not occur)

/kiniz/) kinzi [kindzi] slave; noml. /k-kiniz/ kkinzi slavery (< Kash kinji 'slave'); as vb, only CAUS apkinzi 'to enslave' pass. yäpkinzi be enslaved (irreal. apikníz, yäpikníz)

kitsi to chuckle, giggle (< /makik/ laugh+dim.), irreal. (rare) iktís

/koba/ kovo to go, irreal. okfá, INCH iŋkovo inokfá to set out...; CAUS apkovo apokfá to send s.t. or s.o.; noml./k-koba/ kkovo departure

/kodab/ koråv korvå to run, irreal. okráv; lat korvå run away, flee; /kokodab/ kokorav kokorvå to run around (with no particular goal, as children might do), irreal. (irreg.) korokfá

/koin/ köin yard, i.e. the space in front/side of a house where the residents gather in good weather; see tagön

/kodum/ korum kormu sad, irreal. okrúm, INCH iŋkormu; CAUS apkormu to sadden; noml. /k-kodum/ kkormu sadness; redup. (irreg.) kokrum very sad; surprise kokrúm há really sad, a tragedy

kompin (flat+land) plain(s), flatland

/komu/ komu flat (surface); may be used as vt 'flatten'; kokomu very flat; INCH iŋkomu becoming flat; CAUS (formal) apkomu yäpkomu to flatten s.t.; see kompin

/kot(a)/ kod, kot the number eight; okta- in some compds.; aŋkot eighth

kotluri an eight-pointed star figure, important in native symbology

/koyad/ koyår kör,å (vt) to refuse, to reject (s.t.) pass. k,ör,å; irr. ok,är [o'tšær] pass. yök,är; also (vi) to refuse/be unwilling to...; to forbid.../disallow... (NB distinct from "not want to...")

krala a glass bottle < Kash id., kral nu... a bottle of...

krandam (n, vi) dance, dancing; to dance (in modern/non-traditional ways, mostly in towns or by "sophisticated" people) < Kash korandam id.; see also /nabun/

kretse train. railroad (< Kash (ña)krece, kreci id.) kekretse to go by/take train ~by train--there is no irreal. form, one uses /on/: on kekretse probably/may take the train

/kud(a)/ kur(a) water; see also kurkän and /pakud/

kudzi (dim. of /kud/) any liquid; sauce, broth; kudlotse a salty black sauce made from fermented lotse beans ( Kash susundamos which is also used/imported); see lotse, solotse)

/kugaz/ kugåz kuz:å pitch, tar (naturally occuring oil seepage, ~tar sands (oil+ooze)

/kugu/ kugu oil, petroleum; kug:än an oil barrel (kugu+kehan)

/kuhun/ kuhun ku:nu (vt) to hold (on to) s.t.; to keep; pass. k,u:nu [čü:nu]; irreal. ukhún, yükhún; INCHO (rare) iŋku:nu, pass /in+k,u:nu/ > [inčü:nu]; IMPER (irreg.) kuná (formal ku:nuʔá)

/kuni/ tasty, delicious; good (of taste), irreal. ukní (INCH and CAUS forms exist, but are rarely used)

kurde a sweetener sim. to honey (produced by the /hida/ insect)

kurkän water jug or large container (but smaller than a barrel)

/kusal/ kusål kuślå large hall, auditorium, village assembly hall, where communal functions are held

/kutan/ kutån kutnå ask for, request s.t., pass. k,ütnå, irreal. uktán yüktán; noml. /k-kutan/ kkutnå a request--ni kkutnå+POSS at (XXX's) request

kutó please... (preface to a request; < /kutan/ )

/kuyu/ pl. kuyut a riverine mollusc (~clam, mussel) that is eaten, but only at certain times of the year; out of season they will make one sick


-lá suffix 'far away', or more often to express indefiniteness (and slight pejoration), as kaŋŋalá 'whatever', gidlá someone, whoever; interrog. sigilá whoever? who on earth...? et al. With adjectives, 'kind of, sort of, -ish'; as stand-alone lalá e.g. si pator ohim? --keya, lalá did you like it? --Well, sort of...; see also /latan/

/labam/ lavam lavma old (of things), irreal. alvám; INCHO. /in-labam/ idlavma, CAUS aplavma to age/ripen (things)

labnaz pl. labnaśta stomach/intestinal worm(s) (compd. /lapud+nazud/ stomach+worm)

lağore (lit. two river(s) ) the native name for Rovori province (orig. referred only to the valley where the two rivers converge); see orvori

/lagu/ lago, usu. lağ the number two; ablağ second (ordinal), lalağ secondly, next (e.g. in describing a series of actions); odlağ both; laktus twice

/lahik/ laheg la:ke to steal, pass. l,äke; irr alhík, yählík, noml. /l-lahik/ lla:ke theft

/lahit/ lahed la:te to see, irr. alhít; pass. l,ä:te, yälhít; no INCH; CAUS yapla:te to show, exhibit, reveal; noml. /l-lahit/ lla:te vision (sense); (irreg. < passive) l-l,ä:te > lläte vision (s.t.seen, e.g. in a trance, or hallucination--often refers to shamanic visions); irreg. /gi+alhít/>/giálit/ [džalit] seer, prophet; medium

/lakat/ lakad lakta alive, living, irreal. alkát, INCHO /in-lakat/ idlakta coming to life ~reviving, CAUS aplakta bring to life ~revive; act/play the part of (in dance/play) ~work a puppet

/lakil/ lakel lakle (vi) to exist, irreal. alkíl, INCH (rare) /in-lakil/ idlakle come/coming into being/existence; CAUS (rare) aplakle (cause to exist/come into being) to create; see also laktel

laktar son inalien. (child+male) see also latsip

laktel existence, life, way of life (usu. inalien.--laktelna our... (compd. /lakat+el/); suśtu o laktelna our existence/way of life is difficult, vs. o suśtu laktelna our difficult way of life; el suśtu laktelza he had a difficult life

laktim pl. laktipta an arrow (in archery), old compd. /laŋa+titim/ 'child+bow'; also the name of a constellation

(/lalap/) > (teo) lalpa the 7th day of the 7-day week < Kash lalap id.

/lalapag/ lalapağ only as INCH /inlalapag/ idlalapha (vi) to starve, be starving (fig., lit.), CAUS aplalapha to starve s.o.; the irreal. stem is /al-lapag/ allapha [ad'lapha]; in compd with gerund nirüd, starve to death; noml. /l-lalapag/ llalappha famine; deriv. < /lapag/ q.v.

landin bank (fin.) (< Kash id.)

/lanit/ laned lante (vt) to skin, flay; pass. l,änte, irreal. alnít yälnít

lantel (ult < red+half) the "red" moiety, one of two fundamental divisions in Lañ-lañ society, see also gartel

/laŋ(a)/ child inalien. pl. laŋat ~lakta; dim. laŋatsi pl. laŋatsit little child (usu. up to 3-4 years; may be inalien.); note adjectival lalaŋaŋa childish (behavior, pej.)

laŋ-laŋ the native name for themselves, their tribes; pl. laʔlanta (fossilized pronunciation)

/laŋis/ lakse- blood (inalien.); see palkes

/lapag/ lapağ lapha hungry irr. alpáğ; INCH /in-lapag/ idlapha getting hungry; noml. /l-lapag/ llapha hunger; see also /lalapag/

/lapud/ lapor lapro the stomach (internal organ) inalien.

/lasu/ laso pestle, usu. a length of log, used with the /kiga/ to hull grains; or of stone for use in the kitchen; see also latsú

latsip daughter (inalien) (child+female) see also laktar

latsú (irreg. dim. of /lasu/) a vulgar word for the penis, see also /dimad/, /dibi/

lat see /latan/

/latan/ latan latna far, distant, irreal. altán; lalat far away, irreal. allát; INCH idlatna inaltán to become/go/move away/far (from), CAUS yaplatna move (s.t.) away, send (s.o.) away; lat (adv.)away, off, as in lat kovoz he went away; related to suffix -lá q.v.

/layad/ layar lä:r,a (watch)tower, fortress (prob. < Kash layar tower)

/layuk/ layog läk,o to attack; pass. l,äk,ö ['læčö; IRR. alyúk, pass. yäl,úk

lebrim the 1st day of the 7-day week, < Kash lembrim id.

/ledu/ lero (vt) to need, require, pass. l,e:ro; irr. eldú pass ye:ldú; no INCH, no CAUS; noml. /l-ledu/ lledro need, requirement; see also /leledu/

/leledu/ lelero (vi) necessary, irr. edlerú; INCH idlelero becoming necessary, no CAUS.

/lelud/ lelör, leldö (vt) to weave; PASS l,e:ldö; gileldö weaver

/lemat/ lemät leptä (vt) to mean, signify; to intend; pass. l,e:ptä, irr. elmát ye:lmát; the gerund lemät is used for 'meaning (of a word, inalien.); 'intention' alienable)-- siŋ:ä lemäts ok śemi? what's the meaning of that word? vs. rather formal siŋ:ä ye:lmát ni ok śemi? (irreal.pass.)'what is meant by that word = what does that word mean?; or uselda zek diez lemät u papka zehim he didn't mean (it wasn't his intention) to hit you

/liba/ live kind, sort, type (of..); livlá (as modifier) sort of..., kind of... ("sorta..., kinda...") e.g. loro livlá kind of stupid; odlífta all kinds of...; sündív another/different kind of...l see silív, nua

/libud/ livür livrü (dial. livir, livri) bundle of 10 (fish, tubers etc); lağlivrü nu yekta two 10-bundles of fish(pl)'

/likun/ likün liknü spicy-hot, pungent (of foods), irr. ilkún

/lilis/ lilis lilsi mashed cooked yotus, yotus-paste (a food, like poi)

/linu/ sky, pl. linut the heavens, the firmament

/lipak/ lipäk lipkä lightning; any sudden flash of light; as vi, to flash; (vt only) to fire a weapon (gun, cannon etc.), pass. l,i:pkä, irreal. ilpák (y)i:lpák; see päk, and sik (the more common onomat. term for lightning)

/lisit/ lisit liśti hundred(s) (in many other dialects/langs., /lisut/ lisüt liśtü); lisi-lisit hundreds of...; (arch.) nobliśti, liśliśti thousand(s), ten-thousand(s) (i.e. 10 ~100 hundreds), now replaced with forms of amba < Kash; see also oroŋgo, nobliśti

/loda/ loro stupid, unintelligent; as N, a stupid person; loloro really stupid; noml. /l-loda/ lloro stupidity; a stupid act

/logad/ logår loğrå achieve, be successful at, manage to...

(/lopi/) lope dugout canoe; lolope to go/travel by canoe, irreal. ollopí (uncertain whether a native word, or < Kash lopi id.)

lombap lómbap(ta) (personal) ancestor(s); irreg. pl. lombáta(n) (our) forefather(s), ancestor(s) in genl. (compd. lomuk+bapa) inalien.

/lomuk/ lomug lopku old (in years, of hum/anim.) ; irreal. olmúk, INCH /in-lomuk/ idlopku getting old, CAUS aplopku to age, make s.o. old (rare, as in e.g."that experience aged him by 10 years!!"); /lolomuk/ lolopku really old; ancient (fig. and lit.)

/lopa/ usu. lopo the lopa (domestic food animal); the pure Kash word lopa is also used. There are also native terms, mainly for the wild species

lotse a cultivated plant sp., yields useful beans (imported, < Kash coloçe id.) see solotse

/loza/ lozo (vt) to give birth to, pass. l,özo be born--l,özok... I was born...; sitsur l,özom when were you born?; lozor zehen she gave birth to him; dolo trelo lozor zehen a titiz she gave birth to (a,the,her) baby last week; CAUS aplozo give birth by Caeserean, but usu. in passive apl,özo be born by Caeserean; irreal. olzá yölzá; nom. /l-loza/ llozo birth, birthing process; llozde day of birth, birthday, sana llozde happy (bright) birthday; gilozo midwife

/luam/ loam throw out, discard, cast off; also in lobde have a bowel movement, and lombus urinate; pass. l,öam, irreal. /ullám/ udlám pass. yüdlám; see pelum

/lubun/ luvun luvnu small shed/barn for storing grain (communal,

/ludi/ luri star, pl lurit, lurta; see kotluri

/luga/ lugo adv. of time: later, later on; lugo mitsä later on (this) morning, lugo ik śurak later this month; with days/months/years it can mean 'next...': lugo teo lalpa 'next Lalap-day', lugo śurak 'next month'; also, logo lag teo 'two days from now' etc.

/lugub/ luguv luğvu (be) drunk, irr. ulgúv; INCH. idluğvu get drunk, CAUS apluğvu make s.o. drunk, pass. yäpluğvu be made drunk; /gilub/ gilvu drunkard

/lumit/ lumüd luptü place, site, location; lumilá everywhere

/luŋat/ luŋåt luktå late (in time), irr. ulŋát INCH idluktå getting late; (adv.) irreg. malúk too late

/luo/ loo ['loʔo] or (long o) [lou] rain--el loo it's raining, on loo [odloʔo] it may be raining; lo:tsi ['lou tsi] drizzle, light rain

/lusup/ lusub luśpu soft (to the touch, texture), irr. ulsúp, INCH. idluśpu, CAUS apluśpu to soften s.t.

/lutaŋ/ lutåŋ lutkå bone (may be inalien.); as vi, bony

/luzi/ snow; el luzi it's snowing, it's snowy


/m-/ prefix to form ordinal numbers; has the forms am-/__C, ma-/__CC,, m-/__V

/ma/ (adv.) too..., overly..., excessively..., usu. prefixed, e.g. malopku 'too old'; irreg. mahóv 'too much', malúk too late; NB mak- before a vowel

/mada/ mara a wound, serious injury; as vt, to wound, injure, pass. m,ära, irreal. abdá pass. yäbdá; INCH /in-mada/ > imnara irr. inabrá to become/get wounded; no CAUS; (formal) noml. /m-mada/ mmara a wound.

/madag/ marağ marğa (vi) angry, ...+dat. angry with...; (vt) to anger s.o., pass. m,ärğa, irreal. abráğ (pass. yäbráğ) INCH /in-madag/ > imnarğa irr. inabráğ get angry; CAUS abmarğa is formal; noml. /m-marag/ mmarğa anger (N.)

/madin/ maren marne to look at, watch, pass. m,ärne irreal. abdín; CAUS abmarne to show/exhibit s.t. to s.o.; /mamadin/ mamarne to observe, watch closely, pay attention to, pass. m,ämarne, irreal. ambarín pass. yämbarín

/magad/ magar mağra any of several plant spp., many of which are poisonous or at best irritating; parts of certain ones (seeds, leaves, roots) are used by shamans to induce trances/visions; see /gunaz/

/mahan/ mahan ma:na god, lord, pl ma:nta; (relig.) ma:n ti the God Ti; irreg. dim. manzi benign natural spirits, believed to be emanations of a god

/mahim/ mahem ma:me clan (division of society) pl. ma:met

/makik/ makek mak:e ['makʔe) to laugh, makke ki... to laugh at, mock; irr. apkík; see kitsi

/mala/ rope, cord, pl malat, malta; see also /pamal/

/malit/ maled malte the head (inalien.), pl. maltet (rare maletsa)

/mamul/ mamol mablo to imagine; fantasize; pass. m,äblo, irreal. ambúl yämbúl; noml. (irreg.) /mmamol/ mmamol imagination(ability)--el mmamol iśta he has imagination ~ is imaginative (related to /mola/); mamoló (interj.) just imagine!! imagine that!!

/man(a)/ part. 'than', in comparatives (manu if a S or clause follows)--...taftate man lüsi more beautiful than Lusi; NB if a pronoun follows, the met.form is agná, man iblí ...than me, than you; tuvmitsi hen tavnu pore manu tuvnü ko he can drink more wine than I can (see /manad/

/manad/ manar manda to exceed, surpass, be more than... irreal. amnár; see /man(a)/

/manuk/ manog maŋko (vi) broken, irreal. amnúk, INCH imnaŋko to break; become/get broken (intrans.); as vt, to break s.t., (pass. m,äŋko, yämnúk); CAUS (formal) abmaŋko to break s.t.

/masi/ mase right (side); R.hand maśúlo

/masit/ mased maśte right, correct; proper; INCHO imnaśte refers to growing up, becoming a proper adult; CAUS abmaśte to correct so/st ~ (reflex. with bak 'from') atone, make amends (for)

maśkur ice (naturally occurring)--it is the native word, lit., hard+water); as vb/adj. icy, irreg. irreal. amaśkúr, INCH imnaśkur, irr. inamaśkúr; see yami

/mat(a)/ adv/prep., outside (of)--usu. combined with one of the directional preps., ad dimát, imát, bamát resp. to/at/from outside; see /matan/

/matal/ matal matla raw, uncooked; irr. aptál

/matan/ matan, matna (be) outside; as adj. exterior, irr. aptán

/mayan/ mayan män,a tell (a story), narrate; pass. m,ä:n,a; irreal. am,än, pass. yäm,än; noml. /m-mayan/ mmayan story, narration, esp. traditional (legends); ot mbayant ud iśtá the stories about them; see also mayyur

mayyur ['mažur] to read (old compd. /mayan+yuri/ narrate+write), (irreg.) irreal. abzúr

/mazam/ mazam mazma hard (of material, texture) irr. abzám, INCH imnazma become hard, harden (intr.); CAUS abmazma to harden s.t. pass.yäbmazma

me- prefix of the desiderative aspect, 'want to...'--mekovo I want to go; see /mei/

/mei/ mee ['meʔe] to want--meek I want to, mee ko I want it; meek u korvåz I want him to run; pass. m,ee (irreg. ['mjeʔe]) irreal. emmí, pass. ye:mmí (irreal.conditional emmíśka... I'd like...--for a polite request, e.g. when ordering food), or emmíśka u kovom I would like you to go

/men/ prep./conj. like, similar to....: meník like this, menók like that; men + superlative 'as ... as possible' e.g. nəgá mo men nuśtaśpo do it as quickly as possible; mempun as if

/mena/ mene friend; pl. menta; dim. ménetsi dear friend, mentatsi(k) (my) good/dear friends

/menak/ menäg meŋkä (vi) (be) friendly, (vt) friends with, e.g. meŋ kaz garo I'm friends with Garo; irreal. emnák, INCH (vi only) /in-menak/ imneŋka becoming friendly; for 'becoming friendly with', one must use the prep. bal; no passive, no CAUS

/menug/ ménöğ meŋgö be like/look like, resemble; to seem, to appear, irr. emnúğ; nom. /m-menug/ mmeŋgö resemblance, likeness; meŋgö kaho to look alike (colloq. meŋkaho)

/metat/ metsä a flat stone on which one grinds grain; metatsupaŋ metat and tupaŋ (q.v.)

/mezi/ mez(i) conj/prep. while, during; see /pamiz/

/midal/ miräl midlä to rub; to knead, massage, pass. m,idlä, irreal. ibrál yi:brál; noml. m-midal/ mmidlä a massage

/mihi/ [mi:] yes; mimí: yes indeed, for sure, certainly, clearly, obviously; surprise mimí há [mimi'ja, mim'ja] 'yay! hurrah!'

/mikik/ mikig mik:i to giggle

/milad/ milär mildä (vi) to suffer; milde pfuru/bal... suffer from (illness); irreal. iblár; noml. /m-milad/ mmildä suffering, affliction

/mina/ mine moon--smaller Lalap is minağva (/mina+gaba/), large Vuruna minaśnar (...+sanad); see namnin

/minis/ minis mitsi to drink pass. m,i:tsi, irreal. imnís, pass. yi:mnís; noml. /m-minis/ mmitsi a beverage, mmitsi nu... a drink of...; dim. minitsi a little drink/a sip of...

/minut/: minüt a stately, formal dance performed by M/F together; as vi, mintü to do that dance; no INCH, no CAUS

/mitas/ mitsä morning mimitsä early in the morning

/modi/ more (n.) price, cost; very common when asking/stating prices, e.g. siŋä o diez more? lit. what its price? = what does it cost?, or el o diez more (ya), ultå truni equiv. to "as for its price, 5 truni" = it costs 5 truni. As a vb. to cost, irreal. obrí, almost always in the formal, fig. sense "it cost him great effort to..." in which case one would say: mored ozo (it-S + it-O) [great effort-Subj.] keśké u... [to him-dat.]

/mola/ as vb. inherently irreal. oblá--oblák u... I suppose/guess that...; as intro. to a clause, molo-molo suppose that..., supposing that... (with irreal.); si molo...+irreal. what if...?; noml. /m-mola/ mmolo supposition, assumption

/mona/ mono to ask/to question, inquire; ...ut... ask about/after; can use compd.pronoun monor kame/kaz sitsul okfasan I asked you/him when we would go; monor kaz ut o halde I asked him about the festival; with reflexive pron., to wonder: mono kaŋka sitsul okfalza I wonder when he'll go

/mosad/ mosår mośrå (vi) to leak--mośrå ik lope this canoe leaks, mośråd o lo: kas o daksa the rain leaked through the roof; irr. opsár; INCH imnośrå becoming leaky, CAUS abmośrå (rare) to cause s.t. to leak

/moyan/ moyån mon,å (vi) to gather, assemble; pass. m,öyån, m,ön,å

/muhu/ usu. [mu:] very, precedes vb/adj

/muaŋ/ moaŋ the mouth, inalien; pl. moakta

/muka/ muko good, (adv.) well; irreal. upkó, INCH /in-muka/ imnuko (rare); CAUS abmuko to make s.t. good, to repair, correct s.t.; mumuk very good; very well; (colloq.) muki OK, muki ok that's OK

/muliŋ/ mulüŋ mulgü dry (vi, vt), pass. m,ülgü; irreal. ublúŋ pass. yüblúŋ, INCH /in-muliŋ/ imnuliŋ become dry, dried out; CAUS (formal) abmuliŋ to dry s.t., dry out s.t.; muldiŋ dried meat, "jerky" redupl. mumulgü very dry, arid INCH inmumulgü CAUS abmumulgü; noml. /m-mumuliŋ/ > irreg; mmublüŋ [(ə)'mbubluŋ] drought

/musus/ muś(u) urine; lobmus to urinate /luam+.../; muśi-muśi (baby-talk) wee-wee, pee-pee; slang mumu ~muśi pee, piss--té(a)ŋka mumu/muśi I have to pee

/muyud/ muyur mür,u guilty, culpable; irr. um,ür

/muzuŋ/ muzuŋ muzŋu to drone, hum, buzz (implied: low pitch) see sabuz


/nabiŋ/ naveŋ navge (vi) to turn/revolve/spin on an axis, irreal. anvíŋ; no INCH; CAUS abnavge to turn/spin s.t.; noml. /n-nabiŋ/ nnavge native term for 'year'--somewhat obs., see pehan

/nabun/ navon navno (vi) to dance (in traditional ways)

/nadim/ narem, narme (vi) to work (at a job or other task)--narme su... to work for (someone), narme i... to work on (s.t.), narmez di o tampig he works in the town,; irreal. andím; with an inanim. subject, means 'be effective, work/function'--uśnarmed o vunzå the fish-poison didn't work, uśnarme kan diek näki my car doesn't work (i.e. run); noml. /n-nadim/ nnarme job, employment (implies for payment/salary or other emolument)--el zek diez nnarme bal karno he has a job with the government; see also /timi/

/nadu/ naro name (inalien.); sigi naroz? what's his name?, (el) narok, garo my name is Garo; as vt, naro zente tämni 'they call him Tamni'; pass. n,äro be named/called--n,aroz tämni he's called/named Tämni; irreal. andú yändu; no INCH., CAUS abnaro to name s.o., give a name to (formal term)--abnarod zek a titiz lüsi the named their baby Lüsi

nag- prefix of the progressive aspect (ongoing activity), ''--nağnaga be doing, nağzize be eating, nağz,i:ze is being eaten

/naga/ naga (vt) do, act, pass. n,äga, irreal. aŋgá; noml. /n-naga/ nnaga action, deed

näki car, automobile (< Kash ñaki) nänäki (vi) go by car, has pass. n,änäki be taken by car, irreg. irreal. andäki yändäki

näkräk bus (< Kash ñakrak), nänäkräk go by bus, take a bus, irreg. irreal. andänäkräk (pass. n,änäkräk andänäkräk exist but are seldom used

/nam(a)/ nam the number one; amnam first (ordinal); namnam first(ly), first of all (e.g.describing a series of actions); naptus once, one time; namyaner ~namyande one another, each other (most often as DO, IO or obj. of prep.)

/namad/ namar nabra (vt,vi) to hurt, pass. n,äbra; irreal. amnár yämnár--usu.refers to minor aches and pains, minor injuries: nabra hulok my hand hurts, nabrad ko hulok I hurt my hand; INCH indabra irreal. inamnár to become/get hurt/injured--inamnadlam pun aŋgá mo ok you'll (probably) get hurt if you do that; noml. /n-namad/ nnabra an ache, pain, sore place; an injury; see /mad(a)/

/nami/ name (n.) the taste (of s.t.) inalien.; (Vi) to taste of... ; (vt) to taste s.t., pass. n,äme, irreal. amní yämní; no INCH no CAUS; el namez ipri it tastes of pepper, el zala namez it tastes bad, has a bad taste, usel duŋ namez it has no taste, usel namez duglá it has no taste at all; namel ko ok pore I'll taste that wine

namnin moonrise (old compd. /nanik+mina/)

nandas the number nine (old compd. one+less), amnandas ninth

/nanik/ nanek naŋke (vi) to appear, come into view; to rise, of heavenly bodies; irreal. andík; nanyan sunrise; east (old compd., /nanik+yan/)

/napit/ naped, napte some, a few, several (indef.number), usu. napnu some of...; e.g. naŋgalvar napnu lakta some (of the) children were playing (= unstressed 'some in Engl., 'unos/as' in Span.); for contrastive stressed 'some...(others...)' one uses naped with the, and repeats, if necessary--nağmayyurd ot naped lakta, (naksanir ot naped (lakta)) sóme children were reading, (others were singing).

/nasa/ nasa minute (of time) < Kash. id.

/nasul/ nasol naślo (physically) weak--also used of beverages or bland (isufficiently spiced) food; inch. atsúl to weaken, get weak(er) (intr.); CAUS abnaślo, pass. yäbnaślo to weaken (s.t.); dilute a beverage; nanaślo very weak; /nnasul/ [ndasul] weakness; ginaślo a weakling (physically weak person), but often pejor.

nayá (often [n(i)'ja]) tomorrow; anyalá someday (indef., in the future, usu. +irreal.)

/nayad/ nayär när,a a water sprite or spirit that dwells in lakes and rivers-- of someone who has drowned, one says t,üpirza ni när,a he was caught (taken) by a nayad.

/nazu/ nazo unpleasant, nasty, disgusting irreal. anzú, INCH indazo, inanzú, CAUS abnazo to disgust, pass. yäbnazo (caus.irreal. apanzú, yäpanzú)

nazgul a myth.beast, demon

/nazud/ nazor nazro (N) worm pl. nazrot (some are edible); (as vi, adj.) wormy, worm-eaten; irreal. anzúr, INCH indazro inanzúr becoming wormy

/nean/ nên mother (inalien., pronounced [næən, næ:n] but usu. [næn] nän when another syl. is added) pl. nänta-; näntan(ta) our mothers, näŋka my...; affect.address nena mama, mommy

/nedik/ nerig, nerki to have, to own, pass. n,e:rki, irreal. endik ye:ndik; may be used as vi with dative for 'to belong to'; thus (vt) nerki hen tämni ok näki Tämni owns that car, or vi nerkiz kitämni it belongs to Tämni; noml. /n-nedik/ nnerki possession, ownership; irreg. /ginad/ giner ginde owner

nehe ~ne: ([nei] irreg.) narrative part.-- and so, and then...

/nek(a)/ (n.) end; neká interj. all done!, all gone!, that's it! it's over!--colloq., simple neka/z or neksa may be used for declarative 'it's over/finished/all done', but see also /yanik/

nekhas (vb.) to be out of breath; IRREAL enkhás; INCH. indekhas,

/nepa/ nepe wind, pl. nepta, nepet; NB inalien. in nepez ma:nta wind of the gods (a powerful wind storm); as vb. windy, irreal. empá, INCH indepe becoming windy

/nes(a)/ (adv. of degree) so..., may combine, with sandhi, with the modified word--neśapta so sick, neśnutmå so dark; if used separately (without sandhi) implies more emphasis-- nesa sapta so (very) sick, nes afte 'so tight' etc. Also may occur as adj/adv. neśóv 'so..., so much...'; see nesu

/nesu/ nesu conj. (so) that..., introduces result clause especially when there is preceding /nes/ e.g. el nes epí o haŋe nesu uśtuvla:te ko it's so high up in the tree that I can't see it. Also: nagal ko nes uśteadla mo I'll do it so (that) you won't have to. (Somewhat formal, otherwise, can be near-syn. with /untu/ in order to/that...)

/niap/ neab (vi) sharp (of tools), (vt) to sharpen pass. n,e:ab, irr. in:áp (pass. (y)i:n:áp), INCH indeab, CAUS (formal) abneab yäbneab)

/niba/ nive (man-made) path in the village, or between villages; pl. nifta, nivet

/nidak/ niräg, nirgä to cover, hide; pass. n,i:rgä, ....NB in the sense 'covered with...', the agent uses ni in certain cases (natural phenomena e.g. 'covered with snow/ice/water'etc./ otherwise nifar, e.g. 'covered with paint/a blanket' etc.; IRREAL indák, pass. (y)i:ndák; INCHO. indirgä, pass. (y)i:ndirgä

/nidut/ nirüd nirtü (vi) to die (old irreg. incho. < /adut/ dead) INCHO. indirtü be dying, moribund; CAUS abnirtü let s.o. die (e.g. from neglect, not = kill, which is /padut/ (see /adut/)

/nigin/ nigin nigni make, create, build, pass, n,i:gni, irreal. iŋgín pass yi:ŋgín; noml. /n-nigin/ nnigin creation, as nnigin pinen creation of the world

/nikat/ nikäd niktä (vi, vt) to ascend, go up, climb, pass. n,i:ktä, irreal. iŋkát pass. yi:ŋkát

/nilam/ niläm nilmä to buy (bi ~trivalent) pass. n,i:lmä, irreal. idlám pass. yi:dlám

/nimis/ nipsi to suck, sip; of a baby, to suckle (vi, vt-- "baby" or "mother" may be subj.); (dim.) nidzi nu... a (little) sip of..., nidzipi (nu...) just a sip

/nimu/ iron/metal cooking pot (< Kash id.) see also /kalap/

/ninik/ ninig, niŋki top (surface), peak; preps. diník to the top of..., iník at the top of..., oznik on (the) top of, baník from the top of...

/nipap/ nipfä- tooth (inalien.) (often colloq. nifä) pl. nipfät (nifät)

/nisaŋ/ nisäŋ nižgä to burn (vi), be on fire (old INCH.) no INCH, no CAUS (see pasaŋ)

/nitamuk/ (irreg. INCHO ult. < tabuk 'better') nitapko to progress; advance, move forward. irreg.noml. /n-nitam/ nnitmä progress

/nitaŋ/ (irreg. INCHO < taŋa 'big') nitkä to grow, get bigger; irreg. noml. /n-nitaŋ/ nnitkä growth

/noam/ nôm the number ten; comb. form nom-

nobliśti (arch.) thousand(s) (i.e. 10 hundreds), now replaced by forms with amba < Kash

/noin/ nöin to look for, search for, pass. n,öin, irreal. on:ín pass. yön:ín; noml. /n-noin/ nnöin a quest; see /panin/

/nokot/ nokod nokto night; nokod is sometimes used for 'at night, by night'

nom- prefix of the inceptive aspect, 'beginning to...'--nobvafpa o titiz the/her baby is beginning to babble; nobvilirza nifar pervil kaś he began to speak by means of (=in) Kash language

/nomi/ nome (vi, Vt) to begin, pass. n,ömi, irreal. omní yömní; NO INCH, CAUS (formal, arch.) abnome e.g. abnome hen ma:n ti o pinen Lord Ti caused the world to begin

nozlağ a double handful (the quantity that can be held in the two hands cupped together) (< /nozu+lagu/)

/nozu/ (vi) full; (vt) to fill, pass. n,özu, irreal. onzú yönzú; INCH. indozu become full, fill up (Vi), CAUS (formal) abnozu to fill s.t. (rarely used of humans, see /sesuk/)

nožul a handful (the quantity that can be held in one cupped hand, < /nozu+hula/) see also nozlağ

nu particle for the partitive: yal(a) nu kur a glass of water

nualá (+N) a kind of..., some sort of... see also /liba/

/nuba/ nuvo adv. recently, lately; nuvopo just recently (near past)-- for "just" (immediate past) see nuntu to have just...

/nuban/ nuvån nuvnå new, irreal. unván no INCH, CAUS abnuvnå make new, repair, rehab etc.

/nubi/ nuvi cloud pl. nuvit, nufta; nunuvi very cloudy; as vb. el/on nuvi it's cloudy; INCH. induvi inunví become..., CAUS abnuvi to obscure s.t.; darken (with clouds)--abnuvir zento nufta a yan clouds obscured the sun

/nuk(a)/ nug about, around, approximately--inheldo nug aro lağ it happened around 2 o'clock

/num(a)/ plant, in genl., pl numat, nupta; redup. /nunum/ numnu(t) (edible) vegetable(s); see /tunum/

numuk (invar.) irreg. superlative of /muka/: best; o numuk (nu...) the best (of...)

nuntu (part.) to have just..., just now...--nuntu zizek 'I have just eaten', nuntu semi mek ha! NOW you tell me!

/nunus/ nutsu adv. mostly, in large part, for the most part; nunutsu most of all... (see /nusu/)

/nusu/ (adv.) most--prefix nus- forms the superlative of adjectives (irreg. nu- in a few cases): o nuśtate the most beautiful (one, thing); requires /el~on/-- el/on lüsi o nuśtate (oltazet) Lüsi is/may be the most beautiful (of all [of them]); nuśnu... most of..., (nuśno most of it); o nusu the most, as zizer hen garo nuśno garo ate most of it; nerki zetent yagnat o nusu lopot the Yagans (clan) have(own, possess) the most lopas

/nutam/ nutåm nutmå dark; irreal. untám; INCH.indutmå inuntám becoming dark, CAUS abnutmå darken s.t.; nunutmå very dark, irreal. (irreg.) nununtá INCH indunutmå indununtám; noml. /n-nutam/ nnutmå darkness


/ŋadu/ ŋaro to try/ attempt (to...), irreal. agdú; noml. /ŋ-ŋadu/ ŋŋaro effort; attempt

/ŋai/ ŋae a long time; ŋae-ŋae a very long time; maŋae too long (a time), surpirse mamaŋaí há! way too long! (time)

/ŋalab/ ŋalav ŋalva to play (vi, vt) irreal. agláv (pass. real. ŋ,älva, irreal. yägláv-- rare); nagŋalva zet di köin they are playing in the yard; nagŋalva zetento o tumbi they are playing tag

/ŋanak/ ŋanag ŋaŋka (vi) hot (of temperature) irreal. agnák; (vt) to heat, warm s.t. up, pass. ŋ,äŋka, INCH /iŋnaŋka/ ignaŋa irr. inagnák; CAUS (formal) abŋaŋka to heat, warm s.t., pass. yäbŋaŋka

/ŋauŋ/ ŋåuŋ the kusimi (small cat-like animal); /ŋau-ŋau/ ŋaoŋao imit. of its cry, sometimes simply /ŋau/ ŋao (vi) to "meow"

/ŋilut/ ŋilüd, ŋiltü (vi) to float, be buoyant, irreal. iglút; rare INCH /in-ŋilut/ iŋniltü to come to the surface and float (e.g. of something normally underwater, or a dead fish); CAUS abŋiltü to float s.t. (rather arch., referred to sending products downstream by raft; nowadays motor-craft are used)

ŋo (ŋok before V) conj. but; older /ŋua/ ŋoa is no longer used.

/ŋoak/ ŋôk [ŋɔək] or redup. ŋôk-ŋôk to bellow

/ŋumas/ ŋumås, ŋupså to caress, pet; pass. ŋ,üpså


o, pl. ot definite art. 'the...'; also serves as 3d pers.inanim. pronoun, it/them (ult < /oku that); NB di o, dio [d,io] to the...

/oal(a)/ ôlə l] (combining form ol) all (sometimes 'every', though /neku/ is more common) ; N +ôl whole/entire N; pl. olta; kantól everything contrast ôl gile every person (singly) vs. giltól everyone (en masse), all people, o giltól all the people

oam the 2nd day of the 7-day week, < Kash uwam id.

/odi/ or(e) relative pronoun, who, which, that

/oku/ oku, ok demonstrative pron/adj., pl. okut okta, that, those

/on(a)/ (suppletive irrealis of /el/ there is/are) there may be ~probably is/are...

oroŋgo hundred(s) < Kash rongo id., often used in lieu of native /lisit/ liśti (the initial o- may elide)

orośe sea, ocean < Kash roçe id. (the initial o- may elide); see also /tagud/ see also kadroś

orvori native pronunciation of Kash rovori two rivers, name of the province) see lağore

/otap/ otåb otpå food plant spp., sim. to cucurbita (?<==> Kash otap id.); many varieties, some native, others imported)

/oz/ oz ~os prep. on; usu.combined with location nouns; may combine with > zo pl. zot, ~so, sot


/paban/ pavan, pavna be alert/watchful, irreal. av:án INCH impavna (inav:an) ut... be careful of, watch out for...; CAUS /ap-paban/ apfavna ut... to warn s.o. of/about..., see avá

pará adv. usually < /papad/

/p-padi/ pfare manner, method (of doing s.t.); custom, habit (irreg. < /padin/, see /papad/, nifar)

/padik/ pareg parke to kick , pass. p,ärke; IRREAL aprík pass. yäprík; /p-padik/ pparke (n.) a kick

/padin/ paden parne to use, pass. p,ärne; irreal. aprín pass. yäprín, see /papad//

/padut/ parot parto to kill (a human, by violence or mishap), pass. p,ärto; irreal. aprút (special CAUS of /adut/ no INCH/CAUS

päk (may be repeated) onomat. for the sound of gunfire, "bang!" < /lipak/

/paka/ fist (inalien.), pl. pakat, pakta

/pakas/ pakas paksa to penetrate, go into/through, pass. p,äksa, irreal. apkás yäpkás, see akas, kas

/pakud/ pakor pakro (vt) to water, sprinkle (plants, paths to lay dust etc.)--an old causative; pass. p,äkro, irreal. apkúr pass. yäpkúr; pəkurá numta! water the plants! si tu p,äkrod nifta? have the paths been watered/sprinkled?

/palak/ palag palka ~ -plak the number seven; maplak seventh

palkes (vi) bloody; irreal. (irreg.) plakís; INCH /in-palkes/ impalkes to bleed, be bleeding; CAUS /ap-palkes/ apfalkes to bleed s.o. (old medical practice)

/pali/ pale to do marketing/shopping; kofpale to go marketing/shopping (compd. /koba + pali/)-- see pfale

/palu/ palo (vt) to bother, concern--impersonal e.g. palo ozak u... it bothers me that..., I'm concerned that...; irreal. aplú; IMPER is not impersonal: daśpalo mek! don't bother me!; INCH impalu inaplú--not impers. tun impaluk ut... I've become concerned about...; NO CAUS. Colloq. idioms uśpalo never mind, uśpalók I don't care/mind, papalóz of course he cares/minds...; NB with -lá suffix > palolá, papalá, and the pronoun must be full form: uśpapalá kan of course I don't care at all, don't mind at all

/pama/ pama (adj.) gilded; decorated with gold; may be trans., to gild pass. p,äma; irreal. abmá pass. yäbma (an irreg. form, see /ima/)

/pamal/ pamal pabla to tie, tie up; pass. p,äbla; irreal. abmál yäbmál

/pamiz/ pamez pabze to last, endure; irreal. abmíz INCH?? CAUS /ap-pamiz/ apfamze make s.t. last, to preserve, see /mezi/

/panam/ panam, pamna (~pnam) the number six, mapnam sixth

/panim/ panem pamne (vi, adj) (be) married (with...); (vt) to marry pass. p,ämne irreal. afním yäfním; INCH. impamne, inapním to get married (with...); CAUS apfamne yäpfamne (irreal. apapním, yäpapním) to marry off (one's son/daughter) (with...(person), into...(clan) )

/panin/ panen pande (vt,vi) to hunt (spec. game)--nayá kovolna panen tomorrow we'll go hunting; pass. p,ände, irreal. afnín yäfnin, no INCH no CAUS; noml. /p-panin/ pfande a hunt; /gi-panin/ gipande hunter

/paŋu/ paŋo a fern-like plant (wild)-- the young sprouts are edible.

/papad/ papar papra customary, common, usual, irreal. apfár; INCH impapra (ut...), irreal. inapfár, be/beccome accustomed (to...); uśpapra unusual, not common, irreal. usapfár; see also /padá/

/papak/ papag papka (vt) to hit (with the hand/fist), to fight, pass. p,äpka, irreal. apfák yäpfák; also as vi, papka bal... to fight with...; noml. /p-papak/ pfapka a fight, fist-fight, naga pfapka to have a fight, as nagar yän pfapka bal tämni Yän had a fight with Tämni; note INCH indaga pfapka to get into a fight...

/papid/ paper papre (vt) to lick, pass. p,äpre; irreal. apfír yäpfír

/papik/ papeg papke to bite, pass. p,äpke; irreal. apfík yäpfík; noml. /p-papik/ pfapeg a bite (wound)

/papil/ papel paple eccentric, quirky, zany (usu. amusing)

/papit/ paped papte to yield, to produce (usu. of crops) pass. p,äpte, irreal. apfít pass. yäpfít; as vi/adj. productive, high-yielding (usu. of fields of crops but could refer to a person or workshop)-- modern usage also refers to interest gained from a loan or savings, Noml. /p-papit/ pfapte (n.) yield; interest rate (related to /peat/)

/pasaŋ/ pasaŋ pažga (vt, vi) to burn pass. p,äžga, irreal. apsáŋ yäpsáŋ; INCH impažga become burnt, charred; CAUS apfažga set s.t. on fire; see nisaŋ

/pasup/ pasob paśpo (vt) to drop (st.), usu.accidentally; pass. p,äśpo, irreal. apsúp, yäpsúp; no INCH., no CAUS (special CAUS of /supit/)

/patis/ pates patse white irreal. aptís; (rare) INCH impatse become white, CAUS. apfatse, pass. yäpfatse to whiten, make s.t. white

/patu/ pato (vt) to like/enjoy (non-anim.object); pass. p,äto be pleased; irreal. aptú. pato ko 'I like it'; with complement, may be intrans.--pato zek (u) krandam he likes to dance; may be used impersonally--pato ozak u... it pleases me that....; pass. p,äto is not impers.--p,ätorka (ni.., pfuru...) I was pleased (by..., because of...); INCH CAUS exist but are rarely used; noml. /p-patu/ pfato pleasure, enjoyment; intens. papato really like, enjoy s.t.--its the pass. can mean '(be) enjoyable' e.g. p,äpator o halde (lit. was-enjoyed the festival) the festival was (very)) enjoyable, irreal. irreg. apfaptú

/payas/ payas, päśa to chop down, to fell (e.g. a tree), pass. p,äś:a, irreal. ap,äs yäp,äs; no INCH; NO CAUS (see also /ayas/, /yayas/

/paziz/ pazez padze to feed s.o, pass. p,ädze, irreal. abzíz yäbzíz (special CAUS of /ziza/e, whose regular CAUS abzize 'to feed' also exists, formal)

/peat/ pêd pl. pätsa fruit in genl.; mulpäd (pl. mulpätsa) dried fruit

/peda/ pere per the tongue, inalien., pl. peret, perta, see /papid/

pehan (usu. pronounced [pean], sometimes [pe:na]) calendrical year (< Kash pehan ['pexan]) id.)

/pekas/ pekäs peksä to stab (with knife/weapon) pass. p,e:ksä, irreal. epkás ye:pkás

/pelum/ pelöm pelmö (vi, vt) to shed, to molt (skin, fur etc;); of leaves, to drop/fall; irreal. eplúm

petoe ~petó wealthy, rich (< Kash petoye id.) irreal. eptó, irreg. INCH impetó, CAUS apfetó; el uśtuvnü mapetoe one can't be too rich! ; see toe

pfale a market(place) (< Kash fale). Technically /ppali/, from which /pali/ q.v. has been back-formed.

/piak/ peag small knife, pl. peakta (inalien. if given/inherited, alien. if purchased), see tambeg

/pigal/ pigäl piğlä (native) village, usu. consisting of several long-houses grouped around a central plaza/common area; see tampig

/pilip/ pilbi pilpi cheek(s) of the face; pl. pilpit

/pina/ pine land, piece/plot of land (territory); as pinen (inalien.) our land; the world, see also tambin

/pinik/ pinik piŋki light/yellowish green, irreal. ipník

pirpin highland(s); a high plateau

/popa/ popo a semi-domesitcated lizard sp. raised for food, (Holundan Kash has borrowed this, the sp. was native to Yanatros. Similar edible sp. existed on the other continents but had different names; popo are now widespread over the whole temperate world (exported frozen to northern Gwr lands, since they are difficult to raise there, requiring (impractical and expensive) warm shelters in a cold climate--being cold-blooded, they have no body heat).

pore rarer poren, wine, pl. poret (< Kash poren id.)

/pot(a)/ pod color, pl. potat (can be inalien.); -pot in compds.; ~potsa its color, e.g. siŋ:ä potsa what color is it?; o potsa mulgü donta the color of dry leaves prevli ~pervil language (usu. inalien.) pl. prevlit, pervilta (</peda+bili/ tongue+to speak)--NB prevli refers only to language(s) of the Lañ-lañ; outsiders' langs. are called pervil .... e.g. pervil kaftu kash of Kavatu; pervil kolunda Holundan Kash etc.

/-pu/ ~ -p+echo vowel, suffix part, limiting.: only, just (no stress shift), e.g. názropu názropo just a worm; kəvápu, kəvápa just go! (NB not 'just' in the sense 'just now'); use of -pu or the echo-form is a matter of personal taste

/pudum/ purum purmu to cause, bring about, pass. p,ürmu irreal. uprúm yüprúm; nom. /p-pudum/ pfurmu cause, origin; pfur(u) because, because of; pfurók therefore (because [of] that)--no INCH/CAUS

/pun/ if, whether (usu. takes irrealis); mempun as if (see /men/); NB si molo... what if (see /mola/

/punag/ punåğ puŋgå a theatre, auditorium (rare in native areas) back-form ult. < Kash, see puŋgaśék

puŋgaśék a movie theatre < Kash. pungaçeke (only in towns, cities; if movies are shown at all in the native villages, they are shown outdoors or in the assembly hall)

purán(a) restaurant, eating place (mostly in towns) (old borr < Kash pundahan id.)


/sabuz/ savuz savzu (vt, vi) to chant, intone (relig., ceremonial) pass. śävzu, irreal. ažvúz pass. yäžvúz; no INCH., CAUS apsavzu is formal; (archaic) giᅾvúz shaman (chanter)

/sadat/ sarad sarta (vi) separate (adj.), (vt) to separate; divorce, pass. śärat separated, divorced; irreal. aśrát; INCH itsarta come apart, become separate, become/get divorced; CAUS apsarta caus. to separate s.t.; śärtad lüsi (ni tämni) Lüsi was divorced (by Tämni); sarta zikmäzet they live apart (are separated, not divorced)

/sai/ sae ~saʔe the number four; comb. form se-; apse fourth

śakon a myth. dragon (putative base /s-sakun/, but more likely < Kash açakon id.)

/sakim/ sakem sakme heart (fig.), inmost being, inalien.; as adj/vi, private, personal; no INCHO, PASS afsakme pass yäfsakme to conceal/hide/repress (one's motives, feelings)

/sakis/ sakes, sakse mind, consciousness; soul (can be inalien.); sasakse (adj.) spiritual

/saku/ sako liver (inalien. with ref. to human or specific animal, alien. as food)

/sakum/ sakom sakmo a leafy plant (cultivated, orig. wild, native to the mountains) whose leaves are often eaten, and the cooking liquid drunk as a tea; this is the "sour-leaf" (Kash ekaceyak) from which (dried) the Kash brew a tea. Kash rarely eat the leaves, as they wilt quickly and become unpalatable, thus are not easily exportable

/sanad/ sanar as n., daytime; as vi, sanda light, bright; to glow; irreal. aśnar; INCH itsanda becoming light, bright; dawning; CAUS apsanda to shine a light on/illuminate s.t.; noml. /s-sanad/ śanda light, brightness, glow. sanda is used to mean 'happy' in a few idioms, e.g. sanda llozde happy birthday et al.

/sani/ sane to sing (vi,vt), pass. śäne, irreal. aśní yäśní; imper. śniá colloq. śneá [šni'ʔa, šne'ʔa]; noml. /s-sane/ śane song; gerund sani singing, to sing; gisane singer

/sanit/ saned sante (vi, vt) to feel, sense (not feel=touch) pass. s,änte, irreal. aśnít; INCHO. itsante, (rare pass. its,änte) to get a feeling of/that...; sasante (vi) emotional, irreal. saśnít; CAUS apsasante yäpsasante to move (emotionally). /s-s-/ śante feeling, sense, sensation; śasante emotion

santar (compd. fire+bake) to fire pottery/bricks etc. (modern--in a kiln) tech.term; pass. śäntar

/sanud/ sanor sando shaman, native priest ~curer

/saŋa/ fire, see /pasaŋ/

/sapat/ sapad sapta sick; irreal. aśpát, INCH. itsapta get(ting) sick; CAUS. apsapta make s.o. sick; noml. /s-sapat/ śapta sickness, illness; disease

/sasat/ sasad saśta (vi) torn, ; irreal. aśát; INCHO itsaśta; CAUS afsaśta to tear s.t.; redup. /sasasat/ sasasad, sasaśta torn apart/into pieces, shredded etc. CAUS apsasaśta to tear s.t. apart

/sasu/ saso peace; calm; as vb. peaceful, calm, irreal. aśú; INCH itsaso, inaśú becoming peaceful, calm; itsaso bal... make peace with; CAUS apsaso, apaśú to calm, soothe, pacify s.o./s.t.

satsere smile (n.) (bright+face) colloq. the final -e is often dropped; as vb. INCHO /in+satser/ [it'satser] to smile, IRREAL (irreg.) inaśtér; CAUS apsatser to amuse, to elate; pass. yäpsatse;r; IRREAL apaśtér, yäpaśtér

/sayak/ sayag säg,a ['sædža] to mount, ride, get on, get in (car) ; to travel/go by (vehicle); IRREAL aśág

/sayup/ sayub säb,u spirit(s) of nature etc.; pl. säb,ut

/seda/ sere face (inalien.), front (as 'side, surface', usu.inalien; preps. disér to the front of, in front of..., isér at the front of..., basér from the front of..., zosér on the front of... etc., e.g. el yara zosermi there's a spot/stain on your face; el yara zoserz ik tengi there's a spot/stain on the front of this book

seli(k) electric(al) (adj.); (n.) electricity (< Kash celi(ka)); sel- in compds.

/selim/ selim selmi (vi) to sink, go down; descend/set (of heavenly bodies) see selyan; irreal. eślím; INCH (rare) itselmi lit. become sunk, sometimes used in the perfect tenses--tun itselmi yan the sun has set, tun itselmi o lope the canoe has sunk; CAUS apselmi to sink s.t., cause s.t. to sink, pass. yäpselmi

selkas television < Kash

selsit telephone < Kash

seluri telegraph < Kash

selyan sunset; west

/semi/ semi to say; (as 'talk to' may take compd.pron--: semir kaz I said to him..., (for semirka keśké u I said to him that...); pass. śe:mi śe:mi u... [šeimyu]+irreal. it is said that...= semzet... they say...; irr. eśmí; CAUS apsemi to recite s.t., pass. yäpsemi; /semi/ can also be used to state an indirect order (tell s.o. to...)--semir kame u kovom I told you to go (see further in the Syntax); noml. /s-semi/ śemi word; śemitol vocabulary (words+all); sesemi to chat, talk idly, irreal. eś:emi

/senit/ senid senti corner, angle

/seŋud/ seŋör segrö knock down, knock over, pass. śe:grö, irreal. ežgur ye:žgur

/sesuk/ sesög seśkö full, sated (usu. of humans), irreal. eś:úk; INCH itseśkö getting full CAUS apseśkö to sate/satisfy s.o., with reflex.pron. 'stuff/gorge o.s.', pass. yäpseśkö (ni...) be sated/stuffed/ gorged (with...)

si/ question particle--both yes-no, and as the first syl. of Q-words (all come first in sentence)

/sibi/ sivi interrog. which? (of anim.), sivo which? (of neut.); pl. sifta, sivot

sifar(e) interrog. how (in what manner?) (ult. < /padin/ 'use')

/sigi/ interrog. who? pl sigit ~sikta (rare);

/sik(a)/ sik lightning; pl. (rare) sikta usu.means 'lightning flashes'; el sik there's/it's lightning...; noml. /s-sik(a)/ śik lightning bolt

/sikaŋ/ sikäŋ siŋ:ä (common colloq. siŋä) interrog. what?

sikél interrog. how? (in what condition, state) (ult. < el 'there is')

/silim/ interrog. where?-- but almost always with directional suffix: silmí (at) where?, sildí (to) where?, silbá (from) where?

/silib/ siliv silvi interrog. what kind/sort of...? ~ what's X like?

sindu (~sindü) (formal, tech.)the planet, Cindu (< Kash)-- native pinen the/our world (see /pina/) is more common

/sinig/ siniğ siŋgi (vt) to visit, drop in on, call on; pass. śi:ŋgi, irreal. isxníğ pass. yi:śníğ; sisiŋgi to do so unexpectedly, irreal. iś:iŋgi; no INCH, CAUS (rare) apsiŋgi to have s.o.(DO) visit s.o.(IO)

sinzura ~sinzuro the unnumbered (15th) mid-month day of the standard calendar, < Kash cinjurak id. (native toråśteo 'middle day' is sometimes used by purists)

/sipa/ sipe woman; female (human), pl. sipet, sipta; latsip daughter (inalien.)

sipin computer < Kash cipin id.

/sipud/ sipür siprü interrog. why?

/sis(a)/ any tea/infusion (beverage), e.g. sakmo sis sour-leaf tea; pl. sisat, siśta

siti (nu...) interrog. how much/how many? (ult. < /tia/ quantity, amount)

sitsur radio < Kash

/situs/ sitsu interrog. when?-- always with tense sfx: sitsur when? (past), sitsul when? (fut.)

so ~pl. sot variant of zo ~zot, < oz + o... 'on the...'

/solad/ solår, soldå to summon, call for; (magic) summon up [a spirit]; pass. s,öldå; IRREAL oślár, pass. yöślár

solotse a salty sauce for flavoring, made from lotse beans (made locally, not quite the same as Kash susumbara); also called kudzolotse see kudzi

/somud/ somur sobdu the stomach, abdomen (external, belly; inalien.) see also /lapud/

/sotud/ sotur sotru (vt) to save, keep aside/in reserve; to store, pass. śötru, irreal. osxtúr yöśtúr; noml. /s-sotud/ śotru reserve(s), (fin.) savings

/su/ benefactive prep. for, for the benefit of/on behalf of..., takes oblique pronoun, e.g. sugná for me

/subus/ suvus sufsu (n.) steam

/sudu/ suru to spoon out, serve up, pass. /s,udu/ śüru is served up; noml. /s-sudu/ śuru ladle, large serving spoon, sudzi a small spoon for eating

/sukud/ sukur sukru wet (deriv. of water), irreal. uśkúr, INCHO itsukru become wet CAUS apsukru to make wet, moisten

/sumib/ sumüv sumbü left (side), L.hand suphúl(o)

/sumut/ sumud suptu clumsy, awkward; improper, irreal. uśmút

süŋgil someone else, another person (/suyan+gila/)

/supit/ supüd suptü to fall, irreal. uśpít, INCH itsuptü totter, reel, CAUS apsuptü to drop s.t. (but /pasup/ is more common)

śurak the 29-day month of the standard calendar < Kash açurak id.; the months are called śurak +nam, lağ, etc., with numbers one through sixteen, a calque on Kash usage (a relatively old borrowing; some speakers have vowel harmony-- śuråk; and a back-form. base /sudak/ is also seen in susurg(a,å) monthly, every month

/susut/ susud suśtu difficult, irreal. uśút, noml. /s-susut/ śuśtu difficulty, problem, NB common contraction (el) śudza ya... (its=)the difficulty/problem is....

/suyan/ suyån as n., something else; as vi/adj., sün,å other, another, different; irreal. uśän-- NB uśän(ta) the Lañ-lañ term for outsider(s), esp. the Kash (and Gwr, of whom they have little knowledge); INCH itsün,å become other/different = to change (vi); CAUS apsün,å to change/alter s.t., pass. yäpsün,å; sün,å man... different from/different than...; combining form in a few expressions: sün-, e.g. süŋgil someone else (other+person)


/tabad/ tavar tavra (vt) to add, irreal. atvár; INCH intavra (vi) increase, CAUS aptavra to increase s.t. (NB correct IMPER təvará, but colloq. often təvrá ~tavrá)

/tabu/ tavo more, usu. tavnu+N, as, si el tavnu pore is there [any] more wine? and tavno more (of it) as, si el tavno is there (any) more [of it]?, uson tavno there (probably) isn't any more (of it); us el duntavn(o) u śe:mi there's nothing more to say (lit. be said); as prefix, tav- forms comparative of adjectives--taftate more beautiful, tavlopku older; tavurase ~dasi-tavu more or less /tabu+dasi/

/tabuk/ tavog tafko better (irreg. ult < /tabu+muka/); irreal. atfúk; INCH intafko become better, improve (vi); CAUS aptafko to repair; to improve; irreal. apatfúk pass. yäptafko, yäpatfúk; NB colloq. tavo(gk)+poss +ya...+irr. ...had better, as tavogmi ya, izzem you'd better eat--replacing 'ought' or formal conditional atfuksa u...: atfuksa u (~pun) izzem it would be better that (~if) you eat; surpirse tatavok há! or slang (el) tavokhá interj. (that's) much better! lots better!

/tadiŋ/ tareŋ tarŋe (vt) to bake, roast in oven, pass. t,ärŋe, irreal. atríŋ yätríŋ; see santar

/tadit/ tared tarte (vi) get loose, escape; irreal. atrít; no INCH, CAUS aptarte set free, release

/tadu/ taro man; male of human; dim. tadzi guy, fellow (slightly pejorative);

taftuğ to prefer, pass. t,äftuğ, irreg. irreal. /attuk/ atsúk, yätsúk (compd. /tavu+tuhi/)

tagön the large central plaza/common area in a village (big+/koin/)

(/tagud/) only as tagor sea, ocean (met. *taGro does not occur); see also orośe (irreg. compd big+water)

/tahun/ tahon ta:no to stand, be stading/upright; IRREAL. athún; INCH inta:no, irreal. inathún to rise, get up (from sitting/lying position); CAUS apta:no, apathún to set upright, to make (s.t.) stand, PASS yäpta:no, yäpathún

/talin/ talen talne animal; talenduma flora and fauna

tambeg (lit. < big knife) a machete or bolo-knife (NB the -g does not lenit)

tambin (big+land) country, nation; tambinza laklanta land/country of the Lañ-lañ (also tambinta our...; other countries/nations are alienable e.g. kaftu diez tambin nation of Kavatu, also as colloq. tambin kaftu)

tampig a town, pl. tampikta--spec. where there is mixed Kash/native population, Kash government; there are only a few such in Rovori prov. (< big+village)

tantet adze, large chopping/shaping tool, pl. tantetsa (big+/teta/ chisel)

/taŋ(a)/ big, irreal. adgá INCH intaŋ(a) get/become big(ger), CAUS aptaŋ(a) make s.t. big(ger)

/taŋu/ taŋo (... u...) (vi) (be) afraid (that...); (vt) to fear, be afraid of...; irreal. adgú; pass. t,äŋo ireal.pass. yä:dgú; INCH intaŋo (vi) become afraid; CAUS aptaŋo to frighten s.o.; noml. /t-taŋu/ tsaŋo fear

/tasup/ tasob taśpo fast, quick; irreal. atsúp; INCH. intaśpo to hurry, hasten; to get/become fast(er); CAUS aptaśpo to speed s.t. up, pass. yäp-; IMPER. təsupá hurry up! be quick! (colloq. tsupá); noml. /t-tasup/ tsaśpo speed, quickness

/tati/ tate beautiful, pretty, irreal. atsí,CAUS aptate beautify, adorn; noml. /t-tati/ tsate beauty

/te/ ~t ~et conj., and (in addition, unordered); see yate

/tea/ tê...excrement/faeces; shit; lobde have a bowel movement (/luam+)/) tete poop, teaŋka tete I have to poop (these are acceptable terms); impolite interj. tete há [tethá] oh shit!

/teb(a)/ tev(a) male (animal)

/tedim/ terim termi (vt) to receive, get, obtain, pass. t,e:rmi, irreal. etrím ye:trím; ... (toe etc.) earn/make (money, a salary etc.), NB idiom ...untu terim toe in order to make money

/tedu/ tero adv., down, downwards

tehus (preposed) ~teśú (postposed) conj., (and) neither..., not....either: uśmekovor yän, tehus kan Yän didn't go, (and) neither did I' ~...., kan teśu ....(and) I didn't either

/telag/ teläğ telğä (vt) to divide, split (into two parts, implied; if more, must be specified); (as adj.) telğä nu... half, half of...; naptel one-half; also in compds laktel, gartel q.v.-- the two moieties of Lañ-lañ society; pass. t,e:lğä, irreal. etláğ ye:tláğ; INCH intelğä (vi) to split CAUS (rare) aptelğä cause s.t. to split/divide (usu. by non-human means)

ten- prefix of the obligative aspect, e.g. teŋkovo have to/must go, tenzize have to/must eat, < /tian/

/tena/ tene female (animal) (note: el tene ok lopo that lopa is a female; on tene it's probably a female)

/tenad/ tenär tendä to order (s.o. to do s.t.) pass. t,e:ndä, irreal. etnár ye:tnár NO INCH NO CAUS; noml. /t-tenad/ tsendä an order

teŋgi book (of the usual sort, bound between covers) < Kash etengi id.

/tepik/ tepig tepki (vt) to cut, slice (implied: with a knife); to slaughter (usu. of food animals); pass. t,e:pki, irreal. etpík ye:tpík; gitep butcher ~one who slaughters animals

/teta/ tete a chisel pl. tetsa

/tetak/ tetäk tetkä (vt, vi) to chisel, carve (artistic); gitét carver, sculptor

/teu/ teo day (unit of time) pl. teot; teteo every day, daily; ikteo today; lugo/dolo ikteo later/earlier today

/ti/ usu. ma:n ti Lord Ti, the chief deity of the Lañ-lañ pantheon

/tian/ tean to have to, must (requirement); irreal. (rare) /it:án/ itsán; noml. /t-tian/ tsean duty, obligation, requirement--el tseamni u... you are obligated to...

/timi/ job (not usu.for payment), task, chore, pl. timit, tipti; el zek diez timi u nozu ok kurkän your job is to fill that water-jar; si el zek diez timi? does he have a job (something to do, is he working?); see also /nadim/

/timig/ timig, tibgi railing, baluster; bannister of a staircase

/tin(a)/ tin the number three; antin third); tintin thirdly (in stating a sequence of actions); oltín all three, e.g. (o) kant oltín all three of us, the three of us; tintus thrice, three times

/titi/ newborn, baby (not yet walking; inalien.); titsi; tidzi little child, toddler (to about 1 ~l-1/2 yrs., after that, one is a child /laŋ(a)/)

/titum/ titüm titmü (dial. titmi is more common) archer's bow (see also laktim); tim-laktim bow and arrow; irreg. gitim archer, also the name of a constellation

/tobit/ tovöd toftö (vi) public, common, irreal. otfít; CAUS aptoftö make public, make known, reveal; irreg. noml. /t-tovmúk/ tsovmúk common good=community

/todas/ torås torså middle, central point; NB inalien in certain cases: i torsåz aratu in the middle of the road, torsåz teo middle of the day; torteo midday, noon (approx.); torså gåup+POSS ~torså+POSS the waist (mostly of hum.)

toe money (cash) < Kash toye id.; (/t-toi/) tsoe wealth; see petoe

/todik/ torög, torgö striped (of fur, cloth/pattern); irreal. otrík; /t-todik/ tsorgö a stripe

/todim/ toröm, tormö to know (person), irreal. otrím, INCH intormö get acquainted (with...), CAUS aptormö to introduce s.o.

/tokip/ toköb tokpö large (and probably dangerous) beast in genl., esp., the saurians of Cindu

trelo the 7-day week (< Kash id.), tetrelo every week, weekly

truna ~ truni the local currency (< Kash taruna, colloq. truni)

/tu/ (~tun before V), part. to indicate the perfect tenses--tu zizek I have eaten, tu zizerka I had eaten, tun okfáz he may have gone ~has probably gone etc.

/tuas/ toas pl tośta time, period, moment; /t-tuas/ tsoas (pl. tsośta) season of the year; comb.form -tus: tuślá sometime(s), naptus once, laktus twice, tintus thrice; oltus at all times, always; see also itsu, /tusi/

/tubin/ tuvün tuvnü to be able, can; possible; no pass., irreal. utfín, INCH. intuvnü become possible, CAUS aptuvnü make possible, enable...; /tubin/ properly takes compound pron. as stand-alone--tuvnü ko, uśtuvnür hen I can (do it), he couldn't (do it), but "intrans." tuvnük, uśtuvnürza are common in everyday speech

tufél part., perhaps, could be, maybe; it's possible...-- usually stands alone as an indefinite reply, since the sense is present in irreal. forms; ult. < /tuv+heli/

/tuhi/ to like, have affection for (a person), pass. t,ühi, irreal. uthi yüthí; noml. /t-tuhi/ tsuhi affection; tutuhi really like; cf. /patu/ to like [things]

/tula/ tulo ever, at any time; uśtulo never, at no time (likely older < tus = toas 'time' + lá)

tumbi the children's game of tag, ult. irreg. < tupi+mek catch you-me

/tunum/ tunum tumnu to plant, pass. t,ümnu; irreal. utnúm yütnúm, no INCH, CAUS aptumnu to raise/grow (crops), to cultivate (a crop); /t-tunum/ tsunum a field for crops or grazing; see /num(a)/

/tupaŋ/ tupåŋ tupkå round stone roller used with the /metat/ to grind grain; as vb. to grind (grain) with a tupaŋ, pass. t,üpkå, irreal. utpáŋ yütpáŋ

/tupi/ tupi to catch, capture, apprehend; pass t,üpi, irreal. utpí yütpí; ; noml. /t-tupi/ tsupi catch (of...), i.e. in hunting/fishing-- el muko tsupi yekta there was/it was a good catch of fish(pl); see tumbi

turtå the 6th day of the 7-day week (non-native turat is also used) < Kash turat id.

/tusi/ now, at this time; tutusi ~ tutsí right now

/tusu/ ~tuso then, at that time; tutusu ~tutsú just then

tuv- (with sandhi tub-) prefix of the potential aspect, 'can..., is able to...'--tufkovoz he can go, uśtuvaŋgá ko ok I can't do that, etc. (< /tubin/)

/tuyu/ to love (a person), pass. t,üyu, irreal. ut,ü yüt,ü, INCH intuyu (come to love=) fall/falling in love; no CAUS; noml. /t-tuyu/ tsuyu love (n.)


/u/ introduces subord. clause "that...", e.g. kirik u tu kovoz I think (that) he has gone; see further in the Syntax

/ulat/ ulåd ultå the number five; multå fifth

(/uma/) umo cooking fat/oil (imported, < Kash uma id.); frying in fat/oil was unknown to the Lañ-lañ until contact with the Kash-- there were no native plants from which oil could easily be derived; foods were cooked either directly on the fire, baked, or boiled--lopa fat has a bad taste; see /umaŋ/

/umaŋ/ umåŋ ubgå to fry, (as adj. fried); pass. yübgå; irreal. um:áŋ pass. yüm:áŋ (back-form. < umo)

/unut/ usu. untu part., introduces purpose clause, in order to... for...(to); unmet. unut is used for euphony, but is rare

/us(u)/ vbl. negative, not--uśkorvå does not run; uśtulo never, colloq. uśkan not me ~I don't; usús (invar.) really not, not at all, in no way..!; usúśtúhi kaz I don't like him/her at all

uśli...uśli neither...nor...; (as noun) ot uśli neither one, not...either one--uśmeek ot uśli I don't want either one; 'PRON+ot uśli neither one of PRON.--uś:emir zento ot uśli dugla neither one of them said anything; uśkovor kant ot uśli dio halidzi neither one of us went to the party

/ut/ ut~ud with respect to...., about..., concerning... semir kant ut... we talked about...

užvíl (NB the -i- does not harmonize) (be, keep) silent (not speak; soundless, < /us+bili/; irreal. (as if /h-užvil/) u:žvíl; INCH inužvil to become/fall silent; irreg.redup. noml. hužvil silence, absence of speaking or noise; IMPER užvilá (NB neither u nor i reduce to schwa) be quiet! (rude-- užvilá há [užvi'l̥a] 'shut up!')

/utat/ utåd utså the brain (inalien.), pl. utsåt


ya hesitation part. 'er..., um...', also marks topic/fronted constituents

/yaba/ yava easy (impers. yava +gerund--yavar koråv it was easy to run; with finite verb (often pass.) yava p,ätoz it is easy to please him, lit. 'he is easily pleased'; irreal. ävá; INCH inyava become easy/easier, CAUS apyava to make s.t. easy/easier, to facilitate, pass. yäpyava; NB irreg. comparative tayava easier, superl. /nus+yaba/ > nuśava easiest

/yada/ yara a spot, stain; as vi/vt to spatter, stain, pass. žära, irreal. ärá pass. yärá

/yadaŋ/ yaraŋ yarŋa spotted (of fur, pattern etc.); irreal. äráŋ

/yagan/ yagan name of a clan/tribe; yağna adj/pl.stem; lanyagan pl lanyağnat Yagans of the Red Moiety, gadyagan pl gadyağnat Yagans of the Black Moiety

/yaki/ yake young (of people), irreal. äkí; noml. /y-yake/ žake youth (i.e. period of life), yaktár young man, yaksíp young woman (in both cases, at or just past puberty but unmarried)

/yakim/ yakem yakme to know (something), know how to...; pass. žäkme, irreal. äkím pass. yäkím; el yakem ot ikit one knows these things; el uśtulo yakem one never knows...; uśyakmer ko ok I didn't know that, yakmez nag o he knows how to do it, INCH inyakme u... to learn, become aware of, find out (not learn by studying); CAUS apyakme cause-to-know= to inform, tell s.o. s.t.; redup /yayakim/ yayakme well-known; famous, irreal. irreg. ažakím; INCH inyayakme become..., CAUS apyayakme cause s.o. to become well known, zalyakme notorious, infamous, INCH inzalyakme, CAUS abzalyakme; noml. /y-yakim/ žakme knowledge; /gi-yakim/ > irreg. giakem ['džakem] scholar, learned person (in native culture, refers to those well-versed in traditional lore/knowledge)

/yala/ a drinking glass (< Kash id.), yala nu ~yalnu... a glass of...

yami ~yame ice (machine-made-- blocks, cubes) < colloq. Kash yami id.

yän personal name (M) (perhaps rel. to /yana/ 'sun')

/yana/ the sun; nanyan sunrise; east (rise+sun); selyan sunset; west (sink+yan)

(/y-yasit/) žaśte the native bagpipes (presumed base /yasit/ unattested--likely < /asi/ bladder)

yate and then/next... (of events in sequence)

/yayas/ yayas yaśä (vt) to chop up, pass. žäśä; irreal. äžäs yäžäs, no INCH, no CAUS. (see /ayas/, /payas/)

/yaziz/ yazez yadze food, in genl.

/yek(a)/ yeg (~yeka) fish, pl. yekta

/yema/ yeme (light) sky-blue color; irreal. e:má, INCH. inyeme turn blue, get blue, CAUS apyeme make blue, pass. yäpyeme be made blue, made to turn blue

/yoda/ yoro a myth. figure (friendly spirit??)

/yotus/ yotsu a tuberous food plant ~taro, and the food derived from it

(/yudi/) yuri to write; pass. žüri, irreal. ürí yürí; noml. /y-yuri/ žuri something written; script (handwriting, printing) (< Kash yuri letter)

yuk,ämi [ju'čæmi] (sweet+ice) a popular drink, crushed ice blended with fruit (Kash yamicami id.)

/yukil/ yukül yuklü sweet, irreal. ükíl, INCH (rare) inyuklü, CAUS apyuklü to sweeten s.t.

yuklis a k.o. sweet, (compd. sweet + /lilis/, yotus paste)

/yumag/ yumåğ yubgå (vi) to be in oestrus period (human, animal); irreal. ümáğ; incho. inyubgå, CAUS. (recent coinage, the technology to induce it was lacking) apyubgå; noml. /y-yumag/ žubgå oestrus period (inalien.)

/yumul/ yumul yublu forest (deep), jungle


/zaduk/ zarog zadko a guest (poss. < old /gi-haduk/ [džarok] 'one who comes')

/zala/ bad, irreal. azlá, zazala very bad, evil, irreal. azazlá, INCH inzala inazlá becoming bad, to worsen, be worsening, CAUS. abzala to damage; irreg. /gi-zaz/ gidzä evil spirit, ghost (common irreg. pronunciation gidze); noml. /z-zala/ dzala evil, wrongdoing

/zanak/ zanag zaŋka proud; irreal. aznák; INCH inzaŋka, inaznák; CAUS abzaŋka, apaznák

zek 3d sing. animate pronoun, he/she

/zekis/ always zeksi 3d sing. feminine pronoun, used only when it is necessary to specify gender

/zet(a)/ zet 3d pl. pronoun, they (anim/inanim., though ot is more often used for inanim.)

/zetit/ always zetsi (innovative) 3d pl. feminine pronoun, used only when necessary to specify gender

/zikam/ zikäm zikmä (vi) dwell (live in/at...), inhabit, irreal. izgám, INCHO inzikmä (iv...) to settle (in an area), CAUS pass.only, yäbzikmä (of an area) be settled, lived in by... zikmá+reflex. to settle; noml. /z-zikam/ dzikmä dwelling place, residence, home. /gizik/ gizki(t) settler(s); population, e.g. siti min diem piğlä gizkit? how much (=what) is the population of your village? (In the sense 'inhabit' there may be passive forms ži:kmä (y)i:zgám--zikmä zento hovnö gilgät o ik pinen many peoples inhabit our world)

/zili/ least; o zili (nu...) the least (of...); prefix zil- forms negative superlative--zilmuko least good, worst; zilafte least tight, etc. /zizil/ zizli at (the) least

/ziza/ zize to eat, IRREAL izzá [id'za], PASS z,i:ze [ži:ze] PASS irreal. /i-idzá/ (y)i:dzá [i:d'za ~ži:d'za]; no INCH; CAUS (formal) abzize to feed--/paziz/ is preferred

zo pl. zot variant of /oz/ + o 'on the...'

/zodun/ zorun zornu (vi) to (make a) journey, trek; (of pl.) to migrate, irreal. ozrún; no INCH, no CAUS; </gi-zodun/ gizornu(t) migrant(s); see also /amid/

Return to main page