The order of the Kash alphabet is followed, but for initial sounds only; within each letter-listing, English order-- it has proven to be beyond my ability to alphabetize everything à la Kash. (Use your browser's "find" feature for English-Kash.)


New words are constantly being discovered; look also in the Supplement. In April 2003, Nov. 2004, and April 2005 I incorporated all items in the Supplement into this document, and began a new Supplement.

H (The first letter of the Kash alphabet (hakanga), called ha, phonetically a voiceless velar or, optionally, uvular fricative [x] or [X].)

-ha suffix of the familiar imperative (sing.; plural -hi; neither is much used in current speech)

ha the number four; when final in compds/derivs., it bears the stress, as kuhá, folahá, açukrá, çuprohá

hacangar a rocky beach (<hacu+cangar)

hacikro a pebbly beach (<hacu+ikro)

hacip a little bite of food; a nibble of...; hacici (colloq.) "a little bite, a light snack; just a bit"; hakacip ~hacikacip to nibble at one's food, to not eat much; cakacip fastidious/picky about one's food (fig., about other matters); vele...hacip to bribe or pay off s.o. (usu. refers to a small amount, e.g. to a building inspector, traffic officer); see also kiciki

hacu beach, spec. a sandy beach

hafa lightweight wall- or ceiling-panels (usu.interior), woven of fronds, or thinly split wood (usu. in traditional rural houses); see also haprak

hakas common var. of ehakas very strange, weird, outlandish (ult. <ehas)

hakuk (vt) to place, set down

hakuli the brain

halap pure; unblemished, unsullied; virgin (lit. and fig.); akalap ~ halapni purity; virginity; epikalap (math.) prime number

halo sarong; palo ... in the right order, correctly done; ... palo backwards, topsy-turvy

hamatip personality, character (of a person) (< hañu+vatip)

hambar crosswise, lying across; akambar a grid, lattice; hambakrambar~cakambar in a disorderly heap or pile (usu. of straight or rigid things like logs, lumber, tools, books)

hambiya a piece of s.t., lump; (gram.) particle (i.e. words that are neither nouns, verbs nor numbers); hambimici (colloq. hambici flake(s); hambriyak a large chunk or block of s.t.; hambikasi, hambilús, hambiyonde (gram.) resp.., prefix, suffix, infix

hambok right (hand, side)(ult. <kambo)

hambos (vt) combine; mix, blend; (math.) to add; hambo-kambos to add up, total up (e.g. a bill, or series of numbers); (math. slang) hap plus (addition), as, ro hap nim ya(le) sor two plus five is seven

handa (marit.) to load cargo; ...-makanda to load and unload cargo; akanda the capacity of a container or vessel; also, a load, cargo, freight, though colloq. kanda has mostly replaced that form; kehanda a stevedore, dock-worker; cakanda overloaded, too heavy (of a vessel or vehicle); yukranda (colloq. kranda dock, pier; rata krandan to dock

handato (hum.subj.) intoxicated, from any substance (but usu. not alcohol), "high"; (inanim.subj. [drug/plant/liquor]) intoxicating; capable of making one "high" çukandato to become so; cakandato id. but unpleasantly so, "stoned"; a "bad trip"; rukandato to make s.o. ...; akandato intoxication, state of being "high, stoned"; (<hañu+lato; see also pepu(k) which refers spec. to alcoholic intoxication)

handi (vt) to sweep; ehandi broom, see also hanji

handrep (n, vi) retreat, to retreat, withdraw; cakandrep (vi) id., but disorderly, to be routed. Usu. refers to military situations; or more generally, to retreat/get away/run away from any unpleasant situation. (Cf. trep, harep)

handringas (mil.) patrol; of police, rounds, beat; mepu... to go on patrol, make one's rounds (< haran+tingas)

hanekam leafy vegetables, edible greens; often for vegetables in genl. (ult. < andahan+ekam)

hanga (vt) to pay, pay for; akanga payment; hangani a bill for payment, an invoice; hanga toye to pay cash, hanga tovacan pay on credit, to charge; hanga kunjo pay in part, in installments

hange wood, wooden-- a colloq. form that, along with ñange, has replaced hañange in all but the most formal contexts

haniyu (usu. hañu in compds. and colloq.) the soul, spirit; consciousness, mind; conscience; hañuwavan sad at heart, grieving; hañuraka big- or good-hearted, generous; hañucami of good disposition, pleasant, nice, simpatico; hañuvendel of noble character/ bearing etc (but not of status); hañuminda having a jolly or good-humored disposition; hañumimik ~hañumbik mean-spirited; thoughtless, inconsiderate; hañuçangi sick at heart, disappointed; hañukengut faithless; untrustworthy; hañurecek undependable, irresponsible; hañumbu bored, listless; hañuçeyak ~hañumbara mean, nasty, ill-tempered; hañukrét bitter, resentful; hañukrenja envious, jealous; hañukorok corrupt, immoral; hañufatap hard-hearted, cruelly indifferent; hañuvirap determined; hañuvowas kind-hearted, compassionate; hañuwembek narrow-minded; hañopor delirious; hañusasar (psych., med.) psychotic, completely out of touch with reality-- usu. implies an incurable condition; akañusasar psychosis (NB these compds take their subject in the dative, as karune hañuraka the karun is generous, ine hañuçangi he/she is disappointed); trahaniyu mindless, soulless, incoherent; can refer to Chaos, time before Creation

hanji (colloq.) a broom, see also ehandi

hanjik a bite (of food), a mouthful; as vb., to bite into; hakanjik ~kanjikanjik to eat ravenously, to "wolf down" one's food; cakanjik gluttonous; also said of one who will eat anything (fig., gullible)

hanjomim the largest continent of Cindu (< Gwr hang tsong (du) 'birth hearth (land)' + Kash -mim 'our')

hañange wood, wooden (hañu+ange soul of the tree)-- this form is considered archaic and formal, mostly replaced by colloq. ñange or hange

hañon sheath, scabbard of a sword or knife

hañorap shadow (< hañu+oramba)

hañukonga crazy, insane (colloq. hañukók, koko); NB subj. usu. in nom./person pfx. (unlike other compds. with hañu)-- iye hañukonga (~hañukók) ~yahañukonga she is insane; see also kok

hañuçit (vi) to speak telepathically (compd. hañu+çindi)

hañuços to receive/"hear"telepathically (compd. hañu +irreg.contr. sosir)

hañuyap to yell/scream telepathically: may be used to give an alarm, or perhaps reply to trikañu, but otherwise rude, as if one assumes the recipient cannot "hear" a normal tone of "voice"

hapit a short sarong or skirt-like garment (to about mid-thigh), usu. worn for work; often used as syn. of ceromik

haprak panels of woven split wood, for rough exterior walls/fences (heavier duty than hafa)

hapralandra the name of a constellation-- Cindu's "North Star" is the eye of the animal (<haprali+andra).

haprali the largest of the Cousin spp., .-- generic as well as male, the female is spec. hapralena; usu. haprat- in compds. (female hapret-); haprakange forest-haprali (tropical/temperate); haprat karundifa haprali "lord of the snow" (northern, prized for its white winter coat). It is illegal to hunt them (though the Gwr still do); the fur should be obtained only from naturally dead animals. Articles of the fur are worn only by Kash royalty on ceremonial occasions; some wealthy Gwr have overcoats made from the skins-- highly offensive to the Kash

hara container, in genl. (any size/material)

haram ready, prepared; çukaram to get ready; rukaram to prepare s.t., make s.t. ready; akaram preparation; in cookery, recipe; rukaram laca prepare (decorate) a table, as for a formal dinner

haran (vi) to walk; harakaran go for a walk, walk around; çukaran (~kasi haran) of a child, beginning to walk; akaran the ability to walk, gait; traharan (of a child) not yet walking; poharan able to walk to, within walking distance; trapoharan unable to walk to, not within walking distance.

harep (vt) to remove, withdraw, take away; çukarep (psych.) withdrawn, becoming withdrawn; akarep withdrawl; removal

haça (vi) to sigh; ...+ poss. ~akaça (n) sigh

hat pron. of 2nd pers. sing., you

have family; hakave ancestor(s)

haveçiñ groups of islands, archipelago

haya light, brightness; trahaya darkness; çukaya to light up, become light/bright; rukaya to illuminate (lit., fig.); cakaya blinded by a bright light/flash; hahaya brightly/well lit

hayaros dawn, daybreak (compd. haya+aros); sunrise; see also pehaya

hayi (pron. hai) yes; nakayi more emphatic, yes indeed

hayin a distant planet (LeGuin's Hain) with an ancient culture, important member of the Galactic Unity; kehayin a person from that planet

hayohan sunset (see yohan); irreg. in tukrayo(k) the "sunset bird"

hece iron (the metal, Fe); hecefal steel (hece + Gwr.dial. fal strong); see also nekrece

hecik noisy; hecikecik ~cakecik very noisy, raucous, out of order; see also kecik

hemet (edible) beans ~bean-like seeds in genl.-- many varieties

hendekan college, edu.inst. between high school/university; ... landru university, graduate-level inst.

hendiñ the neck

hendip to connect; akendip connection, relationship

hendo the skin

hendro leather (the tanned skins of various animal spp.)

hendurin the "wings" of those lizard and mammal spp. capable of flight or gliding-- they are not feathered (there are no feathered animals on Cindu), but flaps of skin/membrane attached to the front legs and body (typical of gliders); on some mammals they more resemble a bat's wings, and enable relatively more controlled flight

hengut (vi) to lie; cakengut lying, mendacious; akengut a lie, falsehood; kakengut liar (colloq. kangut); hengú (interj.) that's a lie! Liar! (see also kundri)

hero ~heroci the skin/rind e.g. of fruits/vegetables; membrane; herokuni layer/coat of paint; painted surface in genl.; herowange tree-bark; see also kero

hici tooth; hicika(le) dental, pertaining to the teeth (see also hirundet, hilica, hiraka)

hiki, hiki-hiki ~hikiki to giggle; cakiki overcome with giggling

hila pron. of 2nd pers. plur., you

hilica incisor tooth

himaçema to pray to/ call upon the spirits; (irreg.) kimaçema a prayer to the spirits (ult. < uhima+çehama)

hinda the earth, the world; hindaka(le) pertaining to the earth, terrestrial; trahinda unearthly, not of this world, now usu. in keyopor... alien, extra-terrestrial (person)

hinjar (vt) to pour/pour out (spec. from a container); akinjar (relig.) a libation, offering to the Spirits; kakinjar a wine-steward, sommelier (in a restaurant or noble/wealthy house); cakinjar to pour out in quantity (accidentally)--e.g. vinja cakamatra, poreñi cakinjar yuñurun the barrel got broken and the wine poured out all over; (hum., dat) to get drenched, thorougly soaked (usu. because of rain), e.g. ne cakinjar (ripayi) he got drenched (by the rain); see also kicara

hirak the ground; soil, earth

hiraka molar tooth

hiri-hiri onomat., whirring sound; as vb., to make such a sound (implies high pitch, see also huru-huru

hirundet canine tooth; fang(s) of an animal

hiçip (vi) to whisper; hiçikiçip to plot, conspire; akikiçip a plot, conspiracy, scheme

hivus skillful, adept; çukivus liri... becoming (more) skilled (at), getting better at...; akivus ~kivus (q.v.) skill, ability; takrivus inept, clumsy. (see kakivus, trivus)

hoca (vt) to break up/apart; to undo; to unpack; ...cetre (yam...) to separate, divorce; rukoca to break s.t. into its component parts, disassemble; to unpack s.t; cakoca in pieces, falling apart; in a shambles; hokoca separate, distinct, discrete; akoca part, component; akokinda (sci., chem.) element; añakoca (cetre) a divorce (see also honja and compds. with koca-)

hok choke, gag; cakahók id.

hombra dead (see kombra)

honda (vt) to challenge, dare, defy; akonda ~hondani a challenge, dare; añakonda defiance; kakonda challenger

hondekrañu a telepathic attack-- very aggressive, very rude; it may be a prelude to trokañu, lipakañu, or çuñakañu; (honder+hañu)

honder attack (n.); mepu ... to attack

hondo stupid; cakondo id. but more emphatic/pejorative, willfully or hopelessly stupid

honga (vt.) to lose (see konga)

honja (vt) to analyze; (gram.) to parse; akonja analysis

horak diligent, hardworking; çukorak liri... to apply oneself (to a task e.g.), takes pains over s.t., work hard at s.t.

horem (vi) to die; çukorem be dying, moribund; rukorem to extinguish; to kill (syn. pakran); cakorem to get killed, usu. accidentally; trahorem undying, immortal; horekorem to die out (e.g. of species); horem tanak to be ~to run out of fuel; prakorem (vi) (be) recently deceased-- but used more often in the phrase ...re pakorem (the) late..., (often written as one word; note that the -r- of pra- deletes due to preceding re)-- e.g. amami re pakorem my late father, lumi toloti re... the late Mrs. Toloti; with titles-- esp. of the nobility-- one uses e... as, e karun re..., e mesa re..., e kandumbra N re..., the late karun, the late mesa, the late Dr. N.; cinga cakorem stoned to death, killed by stoning (an ancient punishment)

horok bent, crooked; çukorok bending, becoming bent; horoci a small bow of respect; mepu... to make such a bow rukorok to bend s.t.; cakorok badly bent, deformed; (of a person) dishonest, untrustworthy; akorok a bend (e.g. in a road, river); horokorok winding, meandering (of a road, river); hañukorok corrupt, immoral; see also cahorok

huci ~kuci spark(s) given off by fire or by flint/steel; çukuci (usu. of fire) to give off sparks

hucomba countryside, country area

huhuk ~cakuhuk to wheeze (breathe with difficulty, noisily)

hukombiçi ~hungiçi~miçi to urinate (hukop+miçi)

hukop (vt) to throw away, discard; akukop garbage; añakukop bodily wastes, excreta

hukopaful ~hukaful (vi) to have a bowel movement; (~colloq, somewhat coarse pafut; nursery pafufi)

huluñ fast, quick; çukuluñ to go faster, increase in speed; rukuluñ make s.t. go faster; akuluñ ~ huluñi quickness, speed; cakuluñ excessively or dangerously fast; cf. also tikuluñ

hundap clever, quick-witted; akundap cleverness; guile; cakundap too clever by half, too smart for one's own good (esp. of the Gwr)

hundenje political division/section of a city or large town, ward, precinct; colloq. hundek also neighborhood, "our part of town"

hundri true (see also kundri)

hungu (of food) tasteless, bland; also describes the "taste"of water.

hunjañ to shine, glow (give off steady light, perhaps heat-- like the sun, a fire, a lamp); akunjañ ~hunjañi the shine/glow of s.t.

hura (vt) to mock, laugh at, make fun of; cakura id., ~to be mocked, made fun of, maliciously; akura mockery; see also kunda

huru-huru onomat., whirring sound, as vb., to make such a sound (implies low pitch, see also hiri-hiri

hurum (vi) to argue; state a position, propose; ...liri to argue (amicably) about..; akurum an argument-- both lit. and in the sense 'position/proposal'; (acad.) a scholarly paper/article; hurukurum discuss the pros and cons, argue amicably, debate; akurukurum a (formal) debate; cakurum (nom.) to have/get into an argument with; (dat.) argumentative

huça fire; çukuça to catch fire, ignite; rukuça ignite s.t.; fire (a weapon); cakuça (nom.) go up in flames, be destroyed by fire; (dat.) get caught in, suffer a fire; see also kuça

hutun a part, part of; (geog.) region, district, area, e.g. hutun ures the western area/region; hutundu a desert (hot, dry) < hutun tawu hutunga(le) regional; hutukutun (~ñi) partly, partially, in part; (see also hutuñ, lemba)

hutuñ (obs.) an area/region dominated by a tribe or ethnic group-- in modern usage, a province; hutungi... province of... (in names etc., to avoid confusion with hutun); hutungiya(le) provincial, pertaining to a province (an old var. of hutun )

See also the Supplement

K (Second letter of hakanga, called ka; a voiceless to semi-voiced, unaspirated, velar stop IPA [k])

1. -ka suffix used in yes-no questions (see also aka)

2. -ka suffix that marks the imperative (sing.; the plural--little used-- is -ki); this was formerly the polite form, but is now used in all but the most intimate circumstances

kacaran (colloq.) identity

kacepoci a paper cloth, tissue (usu. colloq. cepoci)

kacinda surface of the earth, "terra firma"

kacit the mouth

kaconji a disguise; as vt., to disguise, < kati+onji face+pretend

kacupuna the exterior shutters of a house, either decorative or solid/closeable for protection against heavy weather (ult. < ekam+çupuna)

kaham cloud(s); (vi) cloudy; çukaham getting cloudy, clouding over; cakaham very cloudy, overcast; kahambatu haze or hanging smoke

kahuna the offspring of the kawu, from birth to approx. 10 months, when they are weaned; before that (6-10 mos.) their meat is very delicate, but after weaning the meat changes in character and they must mature another ±year before it becomes usable again

kakarun king/queen, supreme ruler of a region or country; angakarun kingdom; kakarunga(le) royal

kaket linked/joined together (either mechanically or logically); interconnected; rungaket to link/join things in such a way; angaket a series; (chem.) a compound; kake-lusok one after the other, in a series or chain of events; cakaket of a device or situation, very complex, difficult to puzzle out because of many interconnections; see also sub kota

kakici dentifrice, tooth-powder

kakivus craftsman, an expert (colloq. kivus)(<hivus)

kakreñ chain (for pulling, binding etc.); ana ... link(s) of a chain

kaku ~kraku (vt) to annoy, bother; kakraku to pester, wheedle; cakraku (dat.) very annoyed; (nom.) very annoying

kakutuñ (archaic) chieftain, tribal leader; see also pakrakutuñ (< /kaN+ hutuñ/, var. of hutun)

kala (vi) to offend, commit a sin (see also ongala)

kalar pregnant (of humans-- the med. and correct tech. term.); çukalar to get/become pregnant; rungalar to impregnate; angalar pregnancy; see also yamana, trakalat

kalaracu (adj., n.) pejorative, pejorative term (ult. < kar- pejor. + aran+çu; see also cingaracu

-ka(le) (~ -a(le) after cons.except nasals and r) sfx. that forms adjectives from nouns, usu. in formal/technical usage; -le may be deleted

kales (vt) to insult, speak ill of; (as vi.) cakales insulted; angales an insult; kales luhu to insult or behave/speak improperly (deliberately or not) to royalty or a member of the nobility, lèse majesté

kali wide passageway (often covered) between buildings, or within a building, lined with small shops, cafes etc.-- a gallery, arcade

kalok a fruit sim. to the banana; angalok the kalok tree

kambahan lung; kambahanga(le) (tech., med.) pulmonary; (<pahan

kambakrala (colloq. pakrali) can- or bottle-opener

kambam(i) toy(s), child's plaything(s); see also pambi

kamban (vt, vi) to brake (a vehicle), apply the brakes; cakamban brake hard/suddenly, make a ?panic stop?; see also epanan

kambilak any large vehicle for carrying loads-- a wagon, motor-truck etc. (irreg. <filan carry)

kambirum (colloq. kambri, kambrit ordinary cardboard, paperboard; kambri temboñ (colloq. pritemboñ) corrugated cardboard (< Gwr inventor/trade name tæng pong)

kambo right, correct; polite; angambo politeness; (pl.) good manners; etiquette; trakambo impolite; (as n., the opposite of angambo); kakambo proper, fitting; cakakambo formal (of behavior, usage etc.); cakambo overly polite, deferential; obsequious; snooty, acting superior; snobbish, a snob

kambra friend; angambra friendship; kakambra friendly; see also karam, prakambi

kambrate papier-maché

kambrit how? by what means?

kambun (conj.) although, even if (<kami+pun)

kami (emph.) even; kambun even if..., although

kamirik handsome, good-looking (irreg. <akan q.v. + virik); cf. kandeñ

kamon to be born--e.g. makamon(sa) I was born...; çukamon gestate, develop (of foetus); añukamon gestation; gestation period (approx. 280-90 days for humans); rungamon to give birth to (may also be used intrans.); kamoñi ~angamon birth; kangamon midwife; cakamon (nom., of a woman) to mis-carry; (dat., of a child) be still-born; kamonga(le) (med.) pertaining to birth, natal; añahar kamonga(le) labor, labor-pains (colloq. ahar kamon)

kamombor a child born to an unmarried woman-- a matter of some concern in noble/wealthy families especially if the father is unknown, or considered unsuitable (< kamon opor; the contracted form kambor is also used and is slightly pejorative). Out-of-wedlock births are of little concern amongst common people, as many ways exist to provide for such a child-- generally it will be taken in by relatives if the mother is incapable or unwilling to raise it. As a very last resort the child can be given up for adoption (nobles/wealthy are reluctant to do this).

kana (somewhat archaic) (vt) to stand by/with s.o. (to assist in some task); (mil.) ...yavu to stand (on) guard; (vi) ...vara to stand ready to..., be prepared to...; kanapo stand by, hold on, wait a bit (because there's been a delay, or s.t. is not ready); (obs.) an ally (in battle/war); see also kekana, patrekana

kanak a claw; claw-like thing; the nails of the fingers/toes; kanaci thorn

kanakinda a small peninsula or cape, point, headland (<kanak +hinda; see also ñokinda)

kanawu ~kanó (tech.) sentient being, higher-intelligence life form (from the Galactic language knau)-- mostly replaces pengañu, the old Kash term that distinguished humans/cousins from other animals

kanda cargo, freight; a load of s.t. (see also handa)

kandan the mouth (humorous, see also kacit, cimas)

kandakrivus a clumsy, incompetent person/ workman, a "klutz" (<takrivus)

kandenar an honorary title awarded for special achievements or service to the nation, equiv. to a knighthood

kandeñ well-formed, well-built both of things and humans (usu. males); cf. kamirik (irreg. <akan q.v. + leñ)

kandengi librarian (see etengi)

kandi front, front side of s.t.; ri kandi(ni) in front of, before (prep./of position); kakandi beforehand, earlier; angandi façade; the look or appearance of s.t.; kandi-mulet back and forth (motion); (see also kati, kandiñ)

kandim see kaninim

kandimuk (colloq.) an idler, do-nothing; one who just sits around when he should be helping with the work. (contr. <timuhok)

kandiñ (re) (conj./prep. of time, events) before, e.g. kandiñ cindero before noon; kandikre yakukasa... before he sat down...

kandip the latching mechanism of a door

kandola the nose (<tola)

kandrak customer, client

kandri what? (neut.); kandripun what if...?, what about...?, how about...?'kani-kandri (angry or emphatic) what on earth...?, what the hell...?

kandrok the second-largest island of Cindu; called kadrok in other dials.

kandroçik sailor; ordinary seaman (naval rank)

kandrucit ~kerucit interpreter, translator (ult. < çindi)

kanducangi (tech., med.) virus, non-bacterial disease-causing organism (rare agent noml. < rucangi, caus. of çangi

kandukeñ stun-gun (see lukeñ)

kandumbra a medical doctor; formerly (and sometimes still locally) a traditional healer (< tumbra); colloq. often kandur or kandum; as direct address, kandú

kanget to decide; ...liri decide on..., make up one's mind to...; anganget decision; kakanget decisive (of one's actions); trakanget indecisive, wavering; catrakanget said of a person who can't make up his mind; dithering; see also pinduça

kangi ~tekangi professor (colloq., for tekangaya, see kaya)

kangun (n) hinge (ult. rel. to kulap)

kangur (colloq. kangu) a writing-pen (ink) (ult. < kanak+uri)

kangut colloq., liar (irreg., <hengut)

kanin floor; kaningure ground floor of a bldg.; kanimaka the basement (underground) of a bldg., usu.of concrete block walls, gravel or concrete floor; kanimbés 1st floor (the floor above the ground floor); the elegant piano nobile of old-style townhouses; kamita (upper) floor/story of a bldg.-- kamita nim 5th floor; nekan re nim kamitani a 5-story building; kaninji mezzanine, entresol-- either (1) built as a balcony in a high-ceilinged room, as in a large store, or (2) an intermediate, usu.low-ceilinged, story between the kaningure and kanimbés of an old-style townhouse, intended for the servants, offices, utility or storage rooms; kanindile crude basement of older houses (no longer permitted in most towns), usu.with stone/rubble walls and dirt floor, often barely a crawl-space

kaninim a tracker; (police) detective; kandim (official title) Detective... (irreg. < inim)

kanjat (vt) to weigh s.t.; ekanjat a scale, weighing device; see also kicat

kanjetre spouse, male or female (irreg. compd. kaç+cetre)

kanjim any (adhesive) tape, or material used for binding (but not string or rope); (as vb.) to tape

kanjun any device for grinding; grinding wheel (but not millstone); see cun

kañale how/in what condition...-- to inquire after someone's health. (dat. + kañale how is..., what's ....'s condition, e.g. ereke kañale how is Erek?); (nom.+...) how, what is ... like? (e.g. kañale laluni how was the party? how did the party go? kañale erek what's Erek like? what sort of person is Erek?); angaña situation, condition, state of affairs; (colloq.) kaña-kaña ~kangaña +poss.? How's it going? How are you doing?

kañap (colloq.) a waiter, in a restaurant (see ambal)

kañuti (colloq.) the police, the cops (see yavu)

kañuwañ pendulum or other device that swings with regular motion (irreg. <yuyañ)

kapa a coarse, paper-like cloth made from beaten tree-bark; still used in a few traditional societies (kapra is an ancient deriv.)

kapak (vt.) to hit, strike; ...nilus hit with the hand, slap; ...epak hit with the fist (see also kepak); kakapak to fight; cakapak (nom.)get in a fight; (dat.) to get hit (by an object)

kaparan identity-card or document(s) (kapra+aran); ...çeva passport; ...ambu any document of permission, spec. visa for travel; ...tovacan (coml.) letter of credit

kapi (colloq.) paper money; money; see tokapra, kapiçet

kapiki see nikapiki

kapiçet playing cards; (as vb) to play a card game (<kapi+kaçet)

kapra paper; see also tokapra

kapralun somehow, in some way

kaprekan see tungaprehan, prekan

kaprikan (commercially made) sandpaper (see also fikan, fikanga)

kar (sent.conj, inv.) what, that which; (pl.inv.) karaç those things which

kar- ~kra- pejorative prefix

karak to kick; karaci a little kick; (impolite) slight push with the foot; cakarak to get kicked

karala (colloq. krala) a bottle (usu. glass)

karam (~karanji, karande) term of affection used by both men and women to describe a very close or special friend (karande, ult. <karam leñ, esp. implies that there is a sexual relationship)

karat (vt) to saw (wood or similar material); (vt) kakarat to saw away at (implied: inaccurately); make sawing motions; cakarat poorly/inaccurately sawn; ekarat (n) a saw (colloq. karat is also common); karacur a large power-driven, circular saw, e.g. as used in a sawmill; karacim a band-saw

karem (vt) to give a prize, to reward; engarem prize, reward

karendiya elsewhere, somewhere/someplace else-- near syn. of karinena but more indefinite

karenja (colloq. krenja) see renja

kari (interrog.pron.) who? karikarike (formal, legal) whoever, whosoever (declinable); see also ekari

karikayena (colloq.) who knows where? (indef. e.g. iya ... who knows where he is [he could be anywhere]; yacosa ... who knows where he's gone? or, he went Lord knows where [could be anywhere])

karike (indef.pron.) someone; with neg., anyone; karikarike (formal, legal) whoever, whosoever (see also ekari

karimak (vi) to have a cold in the nose (with congestion only) (see also uçakik)

karinena somewhere, someplace (invar., unlike interrog. riyena etc.-- whether to/at/from depends on context); see also karendiya

kariyanju (at) sometime, sometime or other

kariyari (slang) what's-his-name (usu.disrespectful); NB irreg.forms gen. kariyarí, dat. kariyaré, no pl.)

karo ~ kakaro a set of (more than two) matching items, e.g. dishes, silverware, books; to match; ...+NUM a set of (num.) things, e.g. kakaro ha set of four, a quartet; see also andoro s.v. ro

karona holy, blessed; rungarona to bless, sanctify; (irreg.) akarona blessing

karun duke, lord; the ruler of a subsidiary region; angarun dukedom; karunga(le) (adj.) pertaining to such a ruler or region, ducal; ale/yukar ... to be/become karun; rungarun to appoint/name s.o. as karun; karumbi (karun+mi lit., my lord)used as formal 2nd pers. pronoun when addressing a karun. (NB now monomorphemic; cases are karumbiyi, karumbiye, karumbin; plural would be karumbila, seldom needed; takes 3d pers. verb)

kasi (vi) to begin; rungasi (vt) to begin s.t.; angasi beginning; first (ordinal); kasi-kasini first of all..., to begin with...; kasi-casi aboriginal, ab ovo, from the beginning

kaç person; man; someone; by ext., the Kaç people (NB irreg. acc. kaçin); (adj.) kaç, kaça(le) of the people, popular; ethnic; plur. kaçila people, e ... spec., the Kaç people. (An old irreg. deriv. ult. <kayi alive, living; combining form usu. ke-)

kaçama husband (kaç+ama); (slang) çama

kaçar soldier, in genl.; kaçambrut common soldier, enlisted man (<kaç+samar)

kaçeke movie, moving picture; pungaçeke a movie theatre

kaçepombro X-ray (more similar to MRI); (< kaçet+pombro

kaçet a picture; see ukraçet

kaçinde wife (kaç+inde); (slang) çinde

kaçó (slang) guy, fellow, chap-- it is acceptable in very informal speech, but some consider it impolite; may also refer to women, though suçó (q.v.) is more common; cf. also kayó, suyó

kaçuma woman; it is preferred over kaç luma (of which it is an irreg. compd.)

kaçut man (preferred over kaç sinut, of which it is an irreg.compd.; note irreg. acc. kaçun)

kati the face (spec. of humans and animals); ñera ... front wall ~façade of a building (syn. angandi < kandi)

katóç the clone of a human being (from the Galactic language ktosh; the cloning of humans has not yet been attempted on Cindu); see also andrangayi

katrayi attractive (of people); kundak ... unattractive, not very attractive (more polite than trakatrayi); see also trayi

katrelo someday (considered a little less vague than kariyanju)

katrip a covered/colonnaded sidewalk, esp. in hot areas, for protection against sun and rain

kavan health; (vi) healthy, in good health; good for the health; (irreg.) kravan poor health; in poor health; (syn. kavan lurup); cakravan sickly; trakavan unhealthy, not good for one's health; çukavan becoming healthy, recovering; çukravan (of one's health) to be declining

kavas (liri) be cautious; be careful of..., take care to..., watch out for... ; cakavas overly cautious, extremely shy in one's dealings; avas(ti)! interj. watch out! be careful!

kawu (pron. kau) a domesticated animal sp., produces a meat similar to beef (but little milk); as food, inanim.

kaya (vt) to know (s.t.); çukaya to learn, become aware of; may also be used as vt., to figure (s.t.) out (a rare case of such usage); rungaya to make s.t. known, to reveal s.t.; inform/tell s.o. s.t.; kakaya famous, well-known; trakaya unknown; angaya knowledge; kangaya scholar, intellectual; akangaya (acad.) the highest academic degree awarded, equiv. Ph.D; (te)kangaya civar (colloq. ~(te)kangi) professor; kakangaya the intelligentsia

kayañu wise (< kaya+hañu); angayañu wisdom

kayap hood (usu. part of a payo)

kayi (vi, pron. kai) to live; alive, living; çukayi to come to life; rungayi turn on, ignite; bring to life; angayi life; añangayi way of life, life-style; kayi-kayi lively, active; cakayi-kayi overly excited, hyperactive; (gram.) (aran) kayi animate (noun)-- abbrev. ki; trakayi lifeless, inert; (gram.) inanimate, neuter-- abbrev. trk (but NB arandakayi (the class of) inanim. nouns

kayi-ko (tukrim...) another name (< Gwr) for tukrimbara

kayiñ (pron. kaing) the 3rd day of the 7-day week

kayó (slang) guy, fellow (irreg. neut. pl. kayoç)-- disrespectful and impolite; it implies that the speaker considers himself superior, or is deliberately ignoring one's status. As direct address, it might be considered equiv. to "hey, mac!" or "hey, you!". See also kaço, suyó, suçó.

kayu something; with neg., anything; kakrayu whatever

ke- a non-productive pfx. forming agent nouns (ult. <kaç)

keca (vt) to break; kekeca fragile, breakable; see also matra

kece rusty (see nekece)

kecik noise, commotion, disturbance (irreg. < hecik)

kecupor a sewer worker; see eçupor

kefin (colloq.) a porter, bearer (see filan)

kehomak pyramid-- ult. < a Gwr language, as they were the principal builders of them in ancient times. They were generally royal tombs; in some areas, temples. Some early Kash built them too-- always as tombs-- but their structures were usually smaller and less finely built.

kekana attendant to a candidates at a marriage ceremony (esp. a religious one), equiv. to "best man" and/or "maid of honor" (< kana)

kekañ charcoal (< Gwr kay gang)

kekañu (~older/formal kangañu) a telepath

kekevu insect spp. similar to bees; they fertilize plants/flowers; see also sukekevu

keleken a "lizard" sp., approx. 24-36in in length; its bite is poisonous, and can be fatal to small children though usually not so to adult humans

keli the number six; short form (irreg.) ket, which bears the stress in compds/derivs. e.g. folakét

kelun any mesh- or web-like thing; net; kelumbaki spider-web; kelungkelucu cobwebs; kelun celici (lit. electronic web) ~kelukinda (lit. world web) the Cindu version of the Internet, abbrev. kcc

kematromer (colloq.tromer) a criminal (lit., law breaker), < matra+omer

kemboli slang term to describe a Kash female of "average" (1.6 li) height p>

kembrit a small amphibian, several spp., sim. to frog/toad

kena to affect (emotionally or physically); be afflicted with; to experience s.t., to suffer s.t.; angena (physical or emotional) affect; kenahañu to move (emotionally)

kenda (vt) to defeat, conquer; cakenda badly/utterly beaten/defeated, trounced (in battle or, now more commonly, in a game)

kendekimu ~kendeki (colloq.) dishwasher (servant or restaurant employee) irreg. < tenge

kendi marker of a conditional or contrary to fact sentence

kendra (relig.) to worship (the obj. is in the genitive); cakendra (dat.) to idolize, worship s.o.; (nom.) worshipful

kendula a small gold chain, worn on the wrist or around the neck-- the sign of a religious marriage/partnership

keñaki driver, chauffeur; coachman (formerly, the men who pulled the royal platform; < ñaki)

kepak to hit with the fist; see also kapak, epak

kepecuci (colloq., humor.) a silly, eccentric, ?crazy?-- but amusing and likeable-- person, a nut, a kook; (as vb.) to be/act that way (ult. < peçukas)

kepele a vigorous circle-dance, most popular in the countryside (sim. to hora, sardana)

keper a stringed/bowed instrument (in various sizes) sim.to the violin family

kepranat the metal zinc (Zn); see also prangi

keret any metal; ... lero gold; ... tandi silver; ... luhu copper; ...sawu mercury (the -t is often dropped in compds.); kerekoram lead

kerinda musician; see rinda

kero (vt) to peel, remove the skin/rind e.g. of fruits/vegetables, remove the bark from a tree; remove/strip paint from a surface; çukero ~kekero (vi) peeling, peeling away, e.g. paint from a surface; having such an appearance, as the bark of certain trees; cakero (of buildings or objects that are usu. painted) shabby, in need of paint; fig., can refer to a person who pays little or no attention to his/her appearance or hygiene (prob. ult. < *rukero, caus.vb. < hero)

kesamar the common people; see samar

keçaprós lock-tender-- person(s) in charge of a lock in a canal

ketaren (mil.) officer, in genl., the officer class; ketarenji (tarenji ~trenji) the lowest officer rank (ensign, 2nd Lieut.), ketarembut (tarembut ~trembut) full (1st) lieut.; ketarendak (tarendak ~trendak) captain (ult. < saren)

keti condition, proviso; rumale keti(ç) to create/impose condition(s) on...; yangeti (re...) on condition of/(that)..., provided that...; ketika(le) provisional, conditional

ketrafun an artist (<trafun)

ketuci (slang) deliveryman, esp. mail-carrier (see nunje)

kevasir heir; see vasir

kicara the spout of a container; cakicara to squirt out/on (usu.from a small opening, or of small quantities, contrast casunecu s.v. sunecu; ult. < hinjar)

kicat heavy (in weight); çukicat becoming heavy/heavier; rungicat increase the weight of; angicat ~kicat+poss the weight of s.t. e.g. kicatni ... it/he weighs..., fiyan kicatti what do you weigh?; see also kanjat

kici (vt.) to bite; kici-kici to nibble; (colloq. vb/n. (to) snack); cakici bite accidentally (as, one's tongue or cheek-- the thing bitten is the subject); get bitten (e.g. by an animal); angici a bite (wound)

kiciki a bribe (implies a substantial amount); angiciki bribery; vele ... kiciki to bribe s.o., give a bribe; cakiciki (but more often colloq. cikiciki corrupt, open to bribery, bribeable; see also hacip (ult. <kici)

kik (math.) decimal point (see kiki)

kikayoka (NB neut.plur.) ruffian, tough guy, gangster, canaille, no-goodnik; note colloq. kiyoka, fast speech kyoka ['kjokə]; (cf. kayo)

kiket a parasite, similar to lice or fleas, easily transferred by contact, but easily killed by ordinary bathing; onici ... its eggs; ikri ... its irritating excrement/dead bodies that adhere to the fur/skin; see ikriti

kiki dot, point, speck; cakiki dotted (pattern, design), polka-dots

kila (obs., poet.) pron. of the 1st pers. dual, you and I (its forms are: kili,kile,kin; pfx. ki-, poss. -kim)

kimiyeta(k) ~kimenda(k) (interj.) Congratulations! Well done! Hurrah! Good for you! (of obscure origin)

kinda (arch., anim. fem.) anciently, the feminine Spirit of the Earth

kingo a crest or plume (usu. of animals); kingowekut id., spec. of hair; kingendiñ animal's mane (like either a horse's or a lion's); see also angingo

kinja (vi) to be lying (on...); kikinja heavy, oppressive; runginja to place s.t. on; cakinja weighted down; oppressed by; oppressive, repressive (e.g. a regime)

kinji a slave; kikinji slavery; runginji to enslave

kinjum (of colors, surfaces) dull, matte

kirik ~kiri-kirik onomat. for creaking noises; as vb. to creak, make creaking noises (also mepu...)

kiro (vt) to praise; angiro (n.) praise; kiro-kiro ~cakiro to flatter; angiro-kiro flattery

kivus ability, skill; kivu- combining form. referring to certain crafts, e.g. kivunula the craft of goldsmithing, (irreg.) kakivunula a goldsmith; see also akandula; kivusefi the craft of silversmithing; (irreg.) kakivusefi a smilversmith; see also akanefi kivuçece the craft of iron-working, smithing; (irreg.) kakivuçece a smith (< kivus+hece); see also yukriçece, akangece; (backform. <akivus, see hivus)

koca- comb. form of akoca (< hoca) part, component

kocakat (sci.) matter

kocakota (gram.) syllable

kocaluk (med.) blood corpuscle

kocamar a cliche; formulaic expression; < kota+samar

kocanik (sci.) cell

kocañ (vi) to converse, talk, chat; ...liri to converse etc. about...; angocañ conversation; discussion; çukocañ to get into a conversation, to "get talking"; rungocañ to discuss; kocangocañ (overly) talkative; cakoca-kocañ (dat.) to be "talked to death"; unable to get a word in edgewise-- e.g. sambat yacakaçindi, me cakoca-kocañ he nattered on so, that I couldn't get a word in edgewise; pokocañ (colloq.) negotiable; see also yayañ, yañañ, procañ

koceham an incantation, spell, charm (ult. <kota+çehama)

koceñ to bind, have power over (myth., by magical means)

koci (colloq. for takoci) a drinking-cup; koci lalap (Lalap's cup) a constellation, in the shape of an inverted U; see also tangole

kofa a mildly alcoholic beverage similar to beer

kok colloq. variant of koko crazy; cakók crazy, mainly as interj.

kokaya (vt) to advise, to counsel; angokaya advice, counsel; kangokaya advisor, counselor; mentor (ult. <kota+kaya)

koko (colloq.) crazy; cakoko ~cakók crazy, to go crazy

kokop (often with -pi barely) (vi) to get by, manage; to cope; ...nowin scrape by, eke out a living

kombos (vi, vt) to roll; rungombos to roll s.t. (implied: heavy); ekombos a roller (e.g. logs, a wheeled platform placed under a heavy object); cakombos to roll around/away accidentally, out of control; kombo-kombos with rolling motion, rolling around; (of a boat in rough seas) pitching and tossing; sailors are also said to haran ... walk with a rolling motion

kombra death (ult. < horem); rungombra to kill (see also pakran); cakombra killed, wiped out, massacred

komer (vi) legal; rungomer to make legal, legalize; (irreg.) cacakomer legalistic (following too much the letter, not the spirit, of the law); trakomer illegal; rundakomer to make illegal, to ban; see omer

kondar (vt) to borrow; kokondar to "borrow" without permission or for an excessive length of time (but intending-- someday-- to return the item)

kondrop to be obtuse, dense, refuse to understand, to not "get it"; cakondrop id., but emph/pejor.

koneyu Carbon monoxide (CO)(< Gwr deadly air)

konga lost; cakonga to get lost (of things); misplaced, mislaid (see also honga)

kono to agree (to), be in accord; (mus.) to harmonize, be in harmony; angono agreement; pact, treaty; (mus.) harmony çukono (liri) come to/reach an agreement; rungono (liri) to convince s.o. (of/to...); (mus.) to tune (an instrument)

kopak a storage box or chest for e.g. clothing, blankets etc.; a trunk; kopacarek strong-box, safe

koprat yesterday; kopramés the day before yesterday

kopronek (modern) refrigerator; (older) an ice-chest; colloq. koprok

koram (vi) move, be in motion; çukoram get under way; rungoram to move s.t.; to drive (e.g. a car), to handle, manage; cakoram out of control (of a car); pokoram (vt, hum. subj.) be able/ know how to drive a car; (vi, neut subj.) moveable, mobile; trakoram immobile; stalled (of cars, traffic); angoram movement, motion

korandam to dance (koram+tam)

korengo (neut.pl, korengoç) evil spirit of the dead (who were evil in life); (as adj., also ~cakorengo, cakrengo) ghoulish, extremely perverse or nasty, of behavior, thoughts or words. Anciently, korengoç were believed to eat the flesh of corpses, hence the custom of cremation. Nowadays, they occur mainly as a literary device in horror stories

kos ~ kosi 100 pem (about 5oz.)-- an old term from a pre-metric system, adapted for convenience.

koça (of a machine or other device) to work, to run, function; rungoça to turn on/start up (a machine); of a clock, to reset; see kroca

kota word; to say (colloq.~ kotani); rungota to put into words, to express; angota statement; (gram.) sentence; (math.) formula; angota kaket compound sentence; kotakaket (gram.) a compound word; kotaka(le) verbal; kota-kaca nonsense words, mumbo-jumbo; kota-lafota(ni) (slang) pointless or rambling talk, "blah-blah-blah, yada-yada" etc.

kotan a popular dance in 4/4 time

kotap (vi) separate, apart, distinct; rungotap to separate, keep/put apart; trakotap (gram.) elided or slurred, of vowels or other speech-sounds, ...+ni elision; see also owap

kotayi to deny (<kota+tayi)

kotreñ to compliment s.o.; as adj., complimentary (e.g. kotaç kotreñ complimentary words; angotreñ a compliment; kotreñ mulet to give a "back-handed" compliment; to "damn with faint praise":; cakotreñ (liri...) to compliment escessively,to flatter, to "butter up"; B>cakotreñ uncomplimentary, unkind (usu. of words)

kotrinju poem; poetry (kota+rinju)

kotroçe tide; kotrocalip low tide; kotronuro high tide (colloq., the initial syl. of these compds. is deleted)

kowana ghost, spectre, apparition (usu. of someone dead); kowakañu hallucination (...+hañu)

kra- ~ kar- pejorative prefix

kracal problem, difficulty; kracalni (coll.) the problem is...

krahake (~ama..., often with the name of the specific forest) the Spirit of Forests, generally considered malevolent

krahar to inflict pain deliberately, to torture (cf. ahar); akrahar torture; sadism; kakrahar torturer, sadist.

krak onomat., the sound of s.t. breaking

krala) see karala

krambo (myth.) a dwarf (< Gwr. ka lang bo, a name); kakrambo (myth.) dwarves, in genl., not highly regarded

krañoni (vt) to tempt, to test (kra- pej. +ñoni); akrañoni temptation, trial

krat (the) most, expresses the superlative degree; kratni most of..., the most; as adv., mostly, for the most part

kratonjep to perform boring or repetitious tasks; see sonjep (ult. <haran (ri) sonjep-- cf. Span. "dar vueltas a la noria")

kratup (onomat.) to fall on one's back; cakratup id.

kratupa (pej.) witch/witch-doctor, traditional healer but likely to employ unorthodox or sham treatments; an incompetent/unlicensed/sham medical doctor, a "quack"; (irreg.) angatupa sham or unorthodox medicines, of little or no proven effectiveness-- "quack" remedies, nostrums; (ironic) panacea, cure-all

kraya a lighthouse, in mariners' usage; see layakraya

krek (onomat.) the sound of crackly things; cakrék to crunch, crackle; chew noisily

kreki a cracker or crisp cookie; krekicam a sweet cookie; krekimat cracker (neutral or salty)

kreles ~kreleçu, kreçu weedy plants in genl.; cakreles weedy, overgrown with weeds (see also okam)

krende the small, very sour berry of a bushy plant, used in jams/jellies, or dried (sim. to currants)

krenja colloq. var. of karenja q.v.

krenji (colloq.) monorail (see also sakremes)

kret bitter (taste or mood) ; sukret bile; akret bitterness; note final stress in: rumakrét to make s.t. bitter; to embitter (mood); cakrét bitter, resentful (near syn. hañukrét

krici, krici-krici onomat. for squeaking noises; as vb., to make such noises (also mepu...

kriyoka a mischievous minor spirit/sprite who causes things to be mislaid ~go missing

kroca broken (not functioning but probably repairable); çukroca breaking down; rungoca to break s.t. (so that it no longer works); cakroca broken, kaput (i.e. beyond repair-- stronger than kroca)

kroki colloq. for kurok, 1/100 taruna, cent (monetary); kronjo, kroka, kropot coins of 50, 25, 10 cents resp.

krombi ~kromi a 1-cent coin, 1/100 truni (ult. < kroki meme baby coin; dial., same as prangi

kromonje quiet, taciturn; of the voice, soft

krongo onomat. grunt, as vb. to grunt (from effort, disdain, disinterest; also mepu...)

krulup ~hañukrulup a weak-willed person, a "wimp" (ult. <: kar+lurup)

kruñ ~kukruñ (onomat.) growl; mepu... to growl (see also ruñur)

ku- prefix to form ordinal numbers (<kunjo)

kucalom the color grey

kuci see huci

kuka (vi) to sit; runguka to seat s.o.; anguka seat, chair (colloq. also eku(k)); kanguka chairman, presiding official

kukruñ see kruñ

kukuca glowing coals, embers; (as adj.) red-hot

kulap (vi) to hang, hang down; be hanging; ... alo to depend on; çukulap to sag, be sagging; rungulap to hang s.t., hang s.t. up; cakulap caught, snagged; (obs.) hanged; angulap a pendant (jewelry); see also kundap

kulawu animal, in genl.; usu. kulu in compds. e.g. kuluka(le) (adj.) animal; ele-kulu flora and fauna; see also kulunaya

kulumbik puna domestic (farm) animals;

kulunaya species

kumba a plant sp., and the extract from its roots, used in rural and traditional areas to stun fish in rivers/streams; the word is more common on Hanjomim-- see also vunja

kumbe (vt) to embrace, hug; in genl., to wrap the arms around s.t., to hold it or to pick it up; (as n.) an embrace, hug

kumbor (~cakumbor) (vi) to collapse, cave in; çukumbor (of a building/machine etc.) in bad repair, tumble-down, likely to collapse/fail; rungumbor to raze a building, to demolish; angumbor (n) collapse; (fin.) business failure, collapse or depression in the stock-market

kumor silent; çukumor to grow silent; rungumor to silence s.o. or s.t.; cakumor speechless, struck dumb; angumor silence (absence of sound)

kumus a sweet cake; kumboren a wine-flavored cake, used in certain ceremonies

kunak (kuna preceding a cons.; aux, adv.) maybe..., might..., may...; kunangi about, around (see kunañ)

kunañ ~kuna(ni) about, around, approximately-- usu. of time, distance, size etc.-- kunañ usu. before a vowel (back-form. <kunangi < earlier kunak+ni)

kunda (vi) to laugh; ...minda chuckle, laugh a little; angunda ~...+ni laughter; see also hura

kundak not very... (a polite negative qualifier, cf. Ml. kurang) (< kunak +tak)

kundamakra (folk etym. 'laugh+marrow') a psychotropic ~hallucinatory drug, of Lañ-lañ origin which Kash have been known to experiment with-- it is a plant extract, difficult to obtain, used mainly by Lañ-lañ shamans (< Prevli gonsa-magra ['gonsa'maGra])

kundap (vi) to be dependent (...alo ...on); cakundap id. but pejor.; financially dependent on another; a "sponge", "free-loader", a "moocher"

kundapor a mythical dragon-like beast (orig.in Gwr myth. kung da pr)

kundele blue (colloq. tele)

kundi (vt) to injure, harm s.o.; angundi an injury; cakundi to get injured, be badly injured; trakundi harmless; rundakundi to render s.o/s.t. harmless; pokundi vulnerable; trapokundi invulnerable; rundapokundi to render s.o/s.t. invulnerable

kundri truth (e ... Truth, in the abstract); kundrini the truth is..., in fact..., actually; trakundri falsehood, a lie; kukundri really, truly; real, genuine (cf. also hundri, hengut)

kundroçe green, bluish-green (kuni+roçe), colloq. troçe

kundrus (arch.) an arch

kunduhu a shade of red (darker than çisu)

kungula throne (royal) (<kuka+anula)

kungoyor the color orange (see pangoyor)

kungur carbonated, fizzy; of some wines, pétillant; see sukuku

kuni color, in genl.; kandri kunini what color is it?

kunipat pied in color

kuniró/kunisít bi-/tri-colored; ecut kuniró the barely-visible striped pattern in the fur of some Kaç

kunjimas the palate of the mouth

kunjo divided; angunjo division, section; trakunjo undivided, whole; trapokunjo indivisible; çukunjo (vi) to divide; rungunjo (vt) divide s.t., split s.t. in two; cakunjo cracked, split (usu. of large objects-- wood, stone etc.); mesangunjo one-half; mekunjo a 50-kurok coin, 1/2 taruna; kunjo-kunjo(ni) by halves, half-and-half, 50/50; see also kut

kunjuki (visible) sprout of a seed or plant; kunjukange sprout of a tree, sapling (ult.< unjuk)

kuñat to taste of, taste like... (see uñat)

kupek to include; kupekni including...

kupo parallel; vorangupo (geom.) parallelogram (< Gwr kuq baw); in geog./navigation, a parallel, line of latitude (more formally, acingupo)

kure low; humble; çukure to "lose face", to lose status; rungure to debase, humiliate (s.o. or oneself); cakure made a fool of, humiliated; nayakure low status, socially inferior, (as n.) such a person

kuret (...liri) (vi) be ashamed (of...); çukuret becoming/feeling ashamed; runguret to shame s.o., to disgrace s.o.; cakuret (of actions) shameful, disgraceful; (of people) deeply ashamed, disgraced; anguret ~kuret+poss. (n) shame, disgrace; (as interj.) kure-kuret+poss. ~kukuret+poss. shame on....!

kuriñ rib-bone

kurip (vt) to hand over, pass along; angurip message; kangurip messenger; rungurip to transfer, to transmit; ekurip the token or baton in a relay race.

kurok 1/100 taruna, ~cent (monetary unit), colloq. kroki; kronjo a 50-cent coin; kroka a 25-cent coin; kropot a 10-cent coin; (ult. <ku+rongo hundredth)

kurolí .01 li, the Cindu "centimetre"

kusap froth, foam; a boat's wake; kukusap (adj.) frothy, foamy; (fig.) frivolous, trivial, silly, inane; not to be taken seriously; çukusap becoming foamy/frothy; to foam up; rungusap (cookery) to beat or whip into a froth; ca(ku)kusap (fig.) whipped up, excited or inflamed emotionally (negative connotations)

kusimi the smallest sp. of Cousin, can become semi-domesticated-- generic/male term; the female is kuçena

kuça (vi) of a fire, to be burning (usu. of small, controlled fires, as in a brazier or stove); yunguça a stove or other place for cooking; kuça-kuça a (cooking) fire reduced to glowing coals/embers, suitable for grilling; see huça, anguça

kuçena the female of the kusimi

kut (math.slang, < kunjo) divided by, as rofola kut nim ya(le) ha 20 divided by 5 is 4; yakút goes into..., as ha yakut rofola, ya(le) nim 4 goes into 20 five (times)

kutrap (vt, vi) to stretch (s.t.), e.g. like rubber; also fig., to extend from one point to another; pokutrap stretchable

kutrek (vi) be embarrassed, discomfitted; psychologically uncomfortable; çukutrek becoming/feeling so; rungutrek to embarrass s.o., cause discomfort; cakutrek (of actions) very embarrassing; (of people) deeply embarrassed; angutrek ~kutrek+poss. embarrassment

kuvus (vi) to be thankful; anguvus thankfulness, gratitude; note formulaic makuvus (I) thank you (reply: ta yale ~colloq. tale it's nothing-- lit. 'there is not')

kuwa (vi) (be) same, identical; (math.) equal; ... yam (be) the same as, identical to; kuwa-kuwani (conj.) all the same..., still..., nevertheless...; (Dat.) kuwa-kuwa(po) it's all the same ~it doesn't matter to (to me, you, him); or, depending on tone of voice, "it's the same old stuff, it's about what you'd expect" comparable to Engl. "same-old same-old" or Indonesian "sama-sama"

kuwacu simultaneous(ly), at the same time

kuyop stale, no longer fresh (usu. of foods); kukuyop stagnant (water); çukuyop getting stale, stagnating

See also the Supplement

Ç (Fourth letter of hakanga, called ça, a voiceless palatal fricative, IPA-SAMPA [S] or [š] s-hacek.)

çahu (vi) to stink, smell bad; caçahu id., more emph., to reek

çaka power, force, energy; peçaka powerful, mighty, forceful; capeçaka said of s.o. who pretends to more power than he actually has; traçaka powerless; çakrak a martial art similar to karate (not same as carengilus)

çakañu telepathy, the art/ability itself; lit., power (of) mind (older çakahañu, still used formally)

çako(ni) (pej., colloq.) gang, bunch of...

çakonji genl. term for the various spp. of saurians ("lizards") found on Cindu

çakrum (vt) to destroy; yuçacrum to deteriorate, degrade (colloq. çakrunji id.); caçakrum utterly destroyed, in ruins (e.g . by some catastrophe); yanjakrum (anim.) typhoon, hurricane (irreg. <yanga çakrum); acakrum destruction; e acakrum The Destruction (nuclear war of 2701 p.m.)

çalom grey; of the sky, overcast

çama (slang) husband (see kaçama)

çamaka (slang) the hard cartilaginous material of the penis; an erection, "hard-on, boner" (the -a is usually dropped in poss. forms-- çamakmi, çamakti)

çamasú the Spirit of (fresh) Water-- in rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, waterfalls, natural springs etc.-- capricious

çamat disgusting, nasty, sickening (usu. of tastes, odors, etc.); çuçamat (of food) to go bad, spoil; spoiled, bad (of food); rucamat to sicken, to disgust; cakaçamat overcome/sickened by s.t. disgusting

çambi interj. comparable to "oh god, good god, ye gods, good heavens!"; (colloq.) çambimi id., also "oh my goodness!, goodness me!" (<çehama+mi)

çambrocu (pej. of old men) old duffer, geezer; "dirty old man"; see sinambrok

çami (vt) to tolerate, to abide, usu. with neg.; (adj.) traçami intolerable

çande average, medium (size); çandek (math.) average

çandur spacious, roomy; rucandur to enlarge (a space), to add/build on to a house/building; acandur space, roominess, "elbow-room"; (math./geog.) area (esp. if large)

çangan (vi) to lie down, recline; rucangan put s.o. to bed; cakaçangan to collapse (lit. or fig.) from fatigue, be completely tired out; take to one's bed from fatigue or illness; eçangan a bed, cot, pallet, mat-- anything on which one may lie; yucangan in some cultures, the area of the house where one sleeps (on a mat)

çangayi alt. (older) form of çañuke q.v.

çangi sick; acangi sickness, disease; yuçangi getting sick; rucangi to sicken s.o.; çaçangi sickly, invalid; keçangi a sick person, an invalid; cakaçangi sickening, nauseating; to get sick suddenly

çanges a storm; as vb/adj. stormy; various compds. e.g.çangeripa rain storm, çangenifa snow storm; çuçanges becoming stormy; cakaçanges caught in a storm, overtaken by...

çangot horn (of an animal); as adj. horn-like in shape or texture; (med.) keratose

çañuk colloq. var. of çañuke q.v.; (as interj.) ~çañupo just imagine! imagine that!; sacañuk(mi) (I) suppose/guess/assume so; ta pole çañuk (I) can't imagine!

çañuke (...liri, vi) to imagine, suppose, hypothesize; to fantasize/daydream about; imaginary; hypothetical; çañu-çañuk (re...) supposing that...; acañuke s.t. imagined, an idealization, hypothesis; a fantasy, daydream; añacañuke imagination; kacañuke daydreamer; caçañuke imaginative; given to daydreaming/fantasizing. Note: colloq., the final -e is dropped in all forms. See also çangayi, çayu

çapalak headache (ult. < çangi falaka)

çapat surprised, amazed; rucapat to surprise, amaze s.o.; cakaçapat surprised, more emph.; shocked; acapat amazement, wonderment; çaçapat surprising, amazing

çapus puffed up, inflated; yuçapus to become so; colloq., to get fat; rucapus (vt) to expand, inflate, enlarge; cakaçapus conceited, self-important

çarahu low islands (usu. offshore) almost-- or completely-- covered at high tide

çaram military; martial; añaçaram army, armed forces

çarek strong (i.e. muscular or mechanical strength); yuçarek to get strong(er); rucarek to strengthen; cakaçarek said of s.o. who exerts more effort than is required, "doesn't know his own strength"; acarek strength; traçarek weak; a weakling (syn. lurup); la- ~caçarek stronger ~ strongest

çarok (vt) to bury, inter (a corpse-- not common amongst the Kash)

çaru reef or sandbar in the ocean; sandbar in a river; çaru çayal spec., a coral reef

çasa (vi) to try, attempt; yucasa (colloq. mepu çasa) to make an attempt, make a stab at; acasa an attempt; cakaçasa to try (hard) but fail (at s.t.)

çasi spoke(s) of a wheel; çaçiyur ~çaçuri radius (of a circle)

çaçak irreg. variant of ñaçak

çaçet a k.o. bagpipe (of the Lañ-lañ, < Prevli [ZaSte ~Zaset] = /y-yaset/)

çaçuña (vt) to reach for, reach out for

çat ash(es); visible sediment in water, wine etc.; çakombra the ashes of a cremated body

çayal coral (or the Cindu equiv.)

çayu to dream (while sleeping); (dat.)... to have a dream, to dream; acayu ~çayuni a dream; kacayu dreamer; cakaçayu (to have a) bad dream, nightmare; but also, dreamy, given to fantasizing, in a world of one's own; see also çañuke

çeci sober (not drunk); yuceci to sober up after drinking; aceci sobriety; irreg. cakaceci to give up alcohol, "go on the wagon"; NB the variant base ceci is also used.

çehama spirit-- generally, the spirits/forces that the Kash believe inhabit all objects in Nature; çehamala prahañurak the Greater Spirits-- Earth, Sea, Sky, Sun, Vuruna (moon), Wind/Storm, certain Cousins; çehamala prahañumik the Lesser Spirits-- Lalap (moon), trees/wood, metals, plants and animals, rocks etc.; usu. çeham- ~çem- in most compds.; ~çam- comb.form with names of Cousins, e.g. çakaprali, çangusimi; çehanga(le) pertaining to the spirits; magic, magical; see also çambi; çehama is sometimes used to describe non-Kash or alien deities;

çeka a tile; ruceka to tile (a surface)

çelum back, behind; çeluñi afterwards, then, next; ...ri after (conj.), tayanju ... from now on; añaçelum aftermath; çelucelum later on; çelumori mouth of a river

çemanifa the Snow Spirit, considered beautiful but capricious or dangerous, observed only in those areas where snow occurs

çemu (vi) to go/do shopping (not for food); (vt) to shop for s.t. specific; çemu-çemu ~çeçemu to window-shop; "just looking"

çendek strong-willed; determined; caçendek stubborn, fixed in one's ways, inflexible (cf. also fatap)

çender candidate for religious marriage (bride or groom, or same-sex partners)

çendet (relig.) to bind, in a religious marriage ceremony; acendet religious bond, binding; traçendet (of a relig. marriage) to be undone/divorced/annuled

çendiyas the Spirit of Knives and blades in genl.; benign when properly used, dangerous if not

çendralero the Spirit of the Night/Darkness, malevolent

çendup (vt) follow along behind s.o., trail s.o., tag along with; caçendup be followed by s.o. uninvited (or at least unwanted); (fig.) carry around an unwanted burden/responsibility, or (undeserved) reputation

çenge forest-spirit, sprite, "elf"

çenjik stoic, stolid; dignified; acenjik dignity; caçenjik impassive, indifferent

çeñ (mus.) cymbal(s); onomat. for their sound (usu. with lengthened vowel)

çeñamir the Ice Spirit, dangerous; observed only in those areas where ice can occur

çepo cloth, in genl.

çeçin earnest, serious

çeva (vi) to travel; çeva-çeva to travel around, to tour (no spec. destination); kaceva traveler; eçeva (q.v.) trip, journey

çeyak sour; (colloq. any pickled food); yuceyak to go sour, go bad (e.g. wine); kaceyak ~rupat... to preserve (food) by pickling (see suçeyak)

çicim thread; cicim ~rucicim to sew; çici-ñuçup needle and thread

çifes a herd (of animals); see cifes

çifi(ç) (imit.) sniffle, boo-hoo; (irreg.) cakacifi(-cifi) snivelling, whining, boo-hooing; kacipi ~kacíp such a person-- a whiner, complainer; the variants cifi(ç), cipi also occur, often with the pej. suffix -çu

çikana ripple(s) (in water, wind-blown sand etc.); ripply or wavy design/pattern; (as vb) to ripple; rucikana to cause ripples, make s.t. ripple

çiki (vi) to spatter (of small droplets, as oil when frying); çikraki to splash, make a big splash, (as s.t. thrown into water)

çikun (~ekacikun) the ear

çikundik to notch the ear; (n.) such a notch (nowadays of animals only; anciently, a punishment for criminals)

çim cord, string; rúcim to tie, to knot; irreg. cakacím tangled, all knotted up; çiñole a measuring tape; ácim a belt or sash; e acikinda (colloq.) the Equator; see also cicim, kanjim

çimbrak rope; rucimbrak tie up with rope

çimo (~çimo-çimo ~çimo-cimo) cheap, inexpensive; acimo (colloq. cimo) a good buy, a bargain

çindar (vt) to climb e.g. a tree, clamber up s.t.; see eçindar; cindarinda

çinde (slang) wife (see kaçinde)

çindi (vi) to speak; as vt only with language or words etc. as object; yuçindi (of an infant) beginning to speak; rucindi to interpret, translate; cakaçindi to babble, prattle, natter on; poçindi able to speak (of a child); the neg. is ta ...) trapoçindi mute, unable to speak (physical problem); çindika(le) oral (of speech); traçindi quiet (not speaking); unspoken, tacit, implicit; acindi speech (ability or oration); çindi + poss. speech (ability; e.g. his speech is slurred); see also acin-

çindiyon (colloq. ciñonde) armband, worn on the upper arm

çiñep a drawstring (esp. of hapit, ceromik); laces (of shoes and some garments); (med.) surgical sutures; meciñep to pull/tighten/tie a drawstring or laces; to lace up; (med.) to suture/sew up an incision or wound

çiñukat (colloq. ciñuki) bracelet, wrist-band

çires striped (of cloth, designs- not of fur)

çiru (vi) to sleep, go to sleep (see also çiçi); yuciru ~ çiçiru (getting) sleepy; ruciru to put to bed; cakaçiru (dat.) extremely sleepy, nodding off; (nom) fast asleep, dead to the world.

çisu the color red; çisombara the color violet; çisumik pink

çiçi (vi) to sleep, go to sleep; sleepy (nursery term)(< çiru)

çivar (vt) to teach; kacivar teacher, usu. in secondary schools, or the lowest univ. rank; in student's slang kacíp (somewhat disrespectful, not direct address) ~kacipi (less so, may be direct address); rucivar to lecture about s.t., (relig.) to preach; acivar lesson, lecture, sermon

çohan (colloq., very informal) sunset; cf. hayohan

çohi (vt) to hunt for (game - not for lost objects); kacohi hunter

çohok (n.) sob, sobbing; (vi) to sob; cakaçohok sobbing uncontrollably, wracked with sobbing

çoko the lap; rucoko seat/hold s.o./s.t. on the lap; çoko-çoko to sit on the lap, e.g. (correct usage) yaçoko-çoko ini she sat on his lap; yaçoko-çoko indeyini he sat on his mother's lap; colloq.usage avoids the genitive complement-- yaçoko-çokoni, yaçoko-çokoni inde; also usu., arati, çoko-çokomi come, sit on my lap.

çomba (NB anim.) land (as a physical thing that can be possessed, bought, sold)

çopur (vt) to harvest, gather; poçopur ripe, ready for harvest; acopur (n) harvest

çoçomu sulfur (çahu+çumo)

çoteru fog; foggy; yucoteru becoming foggy; rucoteru to confuse s.o./s.t., to obfuscate; caçoteru overtaken by fog, caught in fog (at sea); completely confused

-çu diminutive/pejorative suffix

çu- ~çuk- usual form of the inchoative vb. prefix; see also yu- ~yuk- (ult. irreg. <yukar)

çucuña (vt) grasp at, hold onto

çufat (vi) to behave, act; acufat ~ çufat+poss. behavior, way of acting (see also cupat)

çuhuñ the trachea, windpipe

çukramba (inch.) to get dark (< oramba)

çuku deaf; yuçuku growing/becoming deaf; acuku ~çuku+poss. deafness; çuku-çuku ~caçuku deafening, extremely loud; (anim.subj., dat.) temporarily deafened e.g. by noise or a hard blow

çulo corner; angle; ...tikar right angle, ...puño acute angle, ...voçil obtuse angle

çuma fat, thick; çucuma getting fat; rucuma to fatten s.t. or s.o.; make s.t. thicker; çunji plump; cakaçuma obese, grossly overweight

çumake the oar-lock(s) of a rowboat

çumbate in vele/mepu... to glare at, look at angrily (dat.obj. in normal position). NB the form is of colloq.origin; the original compd içumbate-- <içun+mate hard eye-- still occurs, but rarely, and is considered bookish/affected

çumbet a nut (fastener for a bolt, fetrak)

çumbuna (colloq. çupuna) window (ult. < içun puna)

çumet plastic, malleable

çumo the color yellow

çundir (vi) to push off, away (from); rucundir to push s.t./s.o. away; to reject

çunduçu lascivious, leering; vele/mepu... to leer at (dat.obj. in normal position). NB of colloq.origin; as noted s.v. çumbate, the original compd. içunduçu-- < içun+luçu promiscuous eye-- is still heard, but rare

çungak the esophagus

çungañu see çuñakañu

çungur (vi) confused; çuçungur confusing; yucungur becoming confused; rucungur to confuse s.o.; acungur confusion; cakaçungur thorougly confused, perplexed, at a loss

çunu different; yucunu (vi) to change; rucunu (vt) to change; acunu ~çununi difference; añacunu change, transition; çucunu various, diverse; rucucunu to diversify

çuña (vt) to grab, catch hold of; (legal) to arrest; çuña-lipat to kidnap (tense marker added to lipat (cf. çucuña, eçuña); acuña a handle (by which s.t. is picked up)

çuñakañu ~çungañu lit., grab the mind-- very aggressive, potentially harmful to the subject; legally reserved for emergency situations, such as averting a physical attack, e.g. an assassination attempt. A Kash may at best be able to control one or two attackers; some Aliens can control quite large groups, though the force weakens with distance; çuña-lipat to kidnap (tense suffixes added to lipat)

çupas (colloq. çupi) a tea, tisane, infusion

çupatu chimney

çupunduk (liri...) becoming opposed (to), to set in opposition to; see munduk

çura (vt) to honor, respect (see eçura); çuraka(le) honorable; teçurak an honored elderly person; as title, the honorable..

çusu (onomat.) rustling noise, as of some fabrics, leaves, etc.

çuçap wet, damp, moist; yucuçap (vi) becoming wet, moist; rucuçap (vt) to dampen, moisten s.t.; cakaçuçap soaking wet; çuçaros dew; see also cucap, çupas

çuwambrocu (pej. of old women) old crone, old bag, hag; see suwambrok

See also the Supplement

C (Fifth letter of hakanga, called ca, a voiceless to semi-voiced palatal affricate, IPA [tS] or [tš] )

ca- variant of caka- the accidental prefix (esp.with k- or a polysyllable); also, forms the superlative of some adjs.

cacarandak see tarandak

cacuk a larger version of the cicak "lizard" (50+ cm.), found around farms-- aggressive, their bite is septic

cahak (vt) to raise, increase (e.g. prices)

cahorok deformed; irregular in shape; runjahorok to deform s.t., bend s.t. out of shape

cak ~cik ~cek ~cuk ~cok (onomat., often redup.) the "barking" cries made by some "lizards"-- cak is generic; cik, cek apply to smaller spp., cuk, cok to larger; cacak ~cicik etc., to make that sound; see also cacuk, cicak, caracukrak

caka- prefix of the accidental form of vbs.; (~cak- before vowels or r, ca- before k, h, which >k, and bases of 3 or more syllables; sometimes irreg. before c, ç)

cakahar be in agony, be tortured (lit., fig.); agonize over, be tortured by (<ahar)

cakakar hurt (feelings); see ahakar

cakanahan eroded (of land); corroded (by oxidation, acid or harsh chemicals); irreg. anjanahan erosion; corrosion

cakaníp to slip; of vehicle, to skid (see nip)

cakatrom baseless, unfounded, without foundation (of an argument, belief, opinion etc.; ult < om)

caki (colloq.) late, not on time; yanda caki don't be late!; cakiti you're late!; cakacaki to dawdle, move/act deliberately slowly (< Gwr); see also fandat

cakokro see lokro

cakraka(le) (colloq. cakra[k]) rocky; like rock, stone (irreg.adj. <cangar)

cakrom the smith's anvil (ult. < cangar+om)

cakróp to fall forward, fall on one's face (see rop)

cakrús (~rus) moldy, musty, mildewed

caléñ best, the best

calin a single-reed wind instrument, with finger-holes/keys, sim. to the clarinet

calip shallow; yucalip (of water) becoming shallow; (of the tide) to ebb; anjalip a shallow place, a ford; kotrocalip low tide; calilip a small depression, dip e.g. in a road or the land

calupa a complete mess, total disorder/disarray; also redup.cacalupa id. but more intensive; of obscure origin-- perh. < ca- superlative(?) + lupa ...? (perhaps < Gwr)

cambrowa curbstones, curbing of any material (stone, concrete, brick) (< cangar+vora)

cami (n) sugar; (adj.) sweet to the taste; runjami to sweeten, add sugar to; cakacami overly sweet, cloying (fig. and lit.); tracami sour; see ecami

camúk colloq. for tramuko

candok decorated, ornate; (vt) to decorate; cacandok overly decorated, gaudy, flashy; cando-ningar jewelery in genl. ("body-ornament"); candinula id. of gold; canditrevas id. of precious stones

candri to face (of inanim., direction), as punani yacandri ures his house faces west; andri-manjandri facing each other; see also cati

candroñ leaning over, at an angle; yucandroñ beginning to lean, going off-plumb; runjandroñ cause s.t. to lean/tilt; cacandroñ leaning precariously/off-plumb

canduyu (tech.) radiation (from radioactive or other source), < Gwr dzay dwiw 'living atom'

canga (vi) to gather, assemble; runjanga (vt) to assemble a group, call a group together; anjanga an assembly, a group called together for some purpose; ensemble, set of things that go together; paranjanga (colloq. p(a)ranjak the Assembly (legislative body); see also ecak

cangar stone, rock; cangacun mill-stone, grinding-stone; cangakruça lava; the adj. form is cakraka(le) q.v.

cango a group of..., bunch of... (usu. of people)--pejor. çako is related

capup (inflatable) tire of a vehicle (cf. çapus)

caracukrak a very large "lizard" sp. (1.5+ m.), dangerous but mostly restricted to isolated/forested areas

caraka biggest, largest

carekañu courage (ult. < çarek+hañu); ca- ~ cakaçarekañu to find/summon up the courage (to do s.t.), to "screw up one's courage"

carengilus (colloq. carengi) a martial art, similar to karate (ult. < çarek+nilus) (not same as çakrak)

caruki (slang, n/vb/adj.) sexually exciting/stimulating, a "turn-on" (ult. < rungi)

casi source, origin; casingi originally; runjasi (vt) to originate s.t., to found/establish; pecasi alo... (colloq. ale casini alo... (vi) to originate from, have origin in..., to come/derive from...; see also kasi-casi s.v. kasi

casiyu a natural spring; a well (ult. <casi+su); casiyundu an oil-well (+yundu)

catawu (colloq., var. cakatawu) thirsty; see tawu

cati (vt) to face (of anim., fig/lit.), as yamaçan yacati minaye he turned to face Mina ~he turned and faced Mina; yaçenjik yacati akoreñi he faced his death with dignity/stoicism; cati-manjati (vt) to confront (implies at least some aggression or hostility); (vi) ...yam... go face to face with...(some hostility or aggression); be/stand face to face with...(neutral); cakacati (yam...) to confront s.o.(implies hostility/aggression), to mess with s.o., "get in s.o's face"; tracati alo... to avert one's face/gaze; to turn away from; catracati said of one who tends to ignore unpleasant facts/situations

catup (vi) to bounce (< tup)

cayi (pron. cai) (aux) have to, must

cecek a bolt of lightning (see cek)

ceci sober, not drunk (var. of çeci)

ceho (pol.) freedom, liberty (< Gwr?)

cek (imit., interj., ~cekeç) lightning; cecek a bolt of lightning; cakacék (inanim. nom., anim. dat.) struck by lightning; see cekur

ceka lame, crippled (as a permanent condition); cekaka id. temporarily

cekici (colloq. ceki-ceki) static electricity (of minimal sort, e.g. by rubbing the fur); the spark or small shock caused by it

cekur lightning; the flash of lightning; cekundrava distant or sheet lightning (i.e. without visible bolts, but the distant sky lights up)

cele (vt) to wait for, expect; cakacele be made to wait (implied: for an excessive length of time, or because someone did not show up as expected)

celi (colloq) see celiya

celici ~cilici electronic

celicur radio; umit... ~runjelicur to radio, use radio; colloq. cicur

celikaçet television; runjelikaçet to televise s.t.(colloq. runjikaçet); colloq. cika

celipin computer; colloq. cipin

celiçit telephone; umit... ~runjeliçit to telephone s.o. (~colloq. ciçit, see also yamecit)

celiya ~ciliya electricity; ruwi ... (electric) current; celiyaka(le) electric(al); (colloq.(n). celi, (adj.)celika); caceliya ~cakaceli to get a shock; cakorem... electrocuted (accid.)

celun window-screen (the metal or fibre mesh, but by ext. the entire item, with frame etc.); celunji sieve, strainer (kitchen utensil)

celuri telegraph; yasi... ~runjeluri to telegraph s.o. or s.t.; colloq. curi

cemar 1. a plaza, public square; 2. any large open area (non-agric.) used or constructed for some purpose; note compds. cembranip playing field, cematruwin airport, airfield; 3. cemar puna the large yard or other area around a large mansion; cemaci the small yard around a house of ordinary size

ceneyu Ozone (O3)(<Gwr sharp+air)

cenget a large electrical spark or arc (usu.dangerous); amu cenget a live wire, visibly sparking (e.g. because broken or dislodged by a storm); ult. < cek+necu

cenjiyur a circular plaza; traffic-circle or roundabout

cepoci (colloq.) a paper cloth, tissue; see kacepoci

cero (colloq.) long pants/leggings; <acero

ceromik short pants, usu. worn for work; hapit is often used as syn.

cetre (vi) to be married; ... yam be married to/with; yucetre to marry/get married, ... yam id. to s.o.; runjetre to marry off (a son or dau., implies an arranged marriage); kanjetre (colloq. usu. cetre+poss.) spouse (M or F); life partner; anjetre marriage-- ...umut civil, ...hañu religious

-ci suffix expressing diminutive or affection-- dear..., little..., cute... etc.

cicak ~cikicak a sp. of small "lizard" (±18cm.) often found in houses-- harmless, they eat insects

cici (colloq.) small bug, insect in genl.

cicim a knot (in string or rope); (as vb.) to knot, tie a knot; to sew (~rucicim)

cicur (colloq.) radio, see celicur

cifañ any low-class or disreputable establishment (for drinking, entertainment, etc.) (< Gwr chih mang dance hall)

cifes (vt) to herd (animals); kanjifes herder (see çifes)

cifi ~cipi see çifi(ç)

cika (colloq.) television; see celikaçet

cikendiñ choker, torc (solid metallic neckband)

ciki (colloq.) to fry; (ciki) ciki fanan to sauté (fry+slow); ciki lendup ~ciki-cingi to stir-fry (fry+stir; fry+toss); see naciki

cikur sphere; cikukra(le) spherical; kunjikur hemisphere

cili 1000 li, the Cindu "kilometer" (= 1.1172km or .694mi.); the "hybridized" pacili is common

cimaho quintillion (1018)

cimakoñ trillion (1012)

cimanji quadrillion (1015)

cimas the mouth

cimbris stairs, stairway

cimo see çimo

cindarinda the musical scale (ult.< çindar)

cindu Kash name for the planet on which they live (< Gwr tring du 'dry land'); cinduka(le) pertaining to Cindu; tracindu (lit. "not Cindu") in keyopor ... alien, extra-terrestrial (person)

cinek emissary, representative, go-between etc.; see also pracinek (< Gwr tsih neq sent person

cinga (var. of cingar in sevl.compds., mostly colloq.; a human obj. is in the acc.) cinga-canga(r) to throw stones at, pelt with stones; cinga-sucup to throw mud at, (fig.) to sling mud (i.e. utter insults, derogatory comments); cinga-trok (vulg.) to engage in a quick or spur-of-the-moment sexual act; cinga-toye to throw money at, throw money away on (e.g. a project); cinga cakorem ???; cinga-içun ~cingiçun look around (for s.o./s.t.); cacinga-içun look around anxiously, fearfully

cingar (vt) to throw- yacingar çenjiye piro he threw the ball to Shenji; ...ri vunuwe çenji ...toward Shenji; cinga-cingar throw s.t. at-- yacinga-cingar çenjiye piro he threw the ball at Shenji [intending to hit him]

cingaracu (vi) to use pejorative language, ...liri to speak ill of, to " bad-mouth"; cacingaracu id. but stronger, to use foul language (< cinga + contr. of kalaracu)

cini middle, mid-; cinini... the middle of...; anjini center (as a precise point); cindero midday, noon; cinondre midnight; cingunjo midway; (lero) cinjurak the unnumbered mid-month day; e cini ~ e cikinda the Equator

cindikar (colloq. cindik) the waist (spec. of the human body), ult. <.cini+eningar

ciñañol interstellar

ciñondi see çindiyon

ciñuki see çiñukat

ciñur round, of shape

cipem the Cindu "kilogram", 1000 pem (1.394kg., about 3 lbs.); cipembrak the "metric ton" (1000 cipem, 1394kg., 3067lbs.); see also pem, papem

cipetu the Cindu "litre", 1000 pem liquid (1.394 l., about 1-1/2 qt.); colloq. an old (pre-metric) Kash term tomos is also used; see also petu

cira hallway, passageway in a building

cis again, yet; cicis ~cisicis over and over

ciçit (colloq.) telephone; to phone; see also yamecit

civas (of fabrics, sheet-like materials) thin, sheer; transparent; yucivas (of clothing) becoming thin/worn (by age or wear); cakacivas (of fabrics, clothing) thin, worn or worn out in appearance

ciyaca herbivorous mammal sp. (various types/sizes) sim. to the kangaroo-- with long, stiff hair; moves mainly by hopping on its hind legs

ciyap (vt) to sting (of insects), bite (of some lizards); (fig., adj.) stinging ~sharp (of a pain/sensation); cakaciyap to get stung; anjiyap ~ciyap(ni) an insect sting or bite; ciyapi the stinger of insects, fang or other means by which a lizard stings; the proboscis of certain sucking insects

ciyombot to exit, go/come out; depart (of anim., from a place); anjiyombot exit, departure, e.g. anjiyombotni karun the departure of the karun (from a place, or from office); a very formal-term-- more commonly yombot q.v.

ciyon (vi) to seem, to appear; ciyonjiyon, ciyoñi, apparently, seemingly; anjiyon appearance; kraciyon give the (false) illusion of; deceive akraciyon (n) illusion, fantasy; delusion; runjiyon to pretend, feign; cakraciyon delusional; psychotic

ciyundet to enter, go/come in (of anim., into a place); anjiyundet entrance, arrival, e.g. anjiyundetni karun the entrance/arrival of the karun; a formal term-- more commonly yundet q.v.

ciyur a circle; ri ciyundri... (colloq. ri cundri...) (prep.) around; cakaciyur going around in circles, lost, aimless; ciyukra(le) circular; kunjiyur semicircle; enjiyur (q.v.) circumference; onjiyur (q.v.) pi (3.14159...); ciciyur to circle around s.t.; to be in or make a circle; anjiciyur (astr.) orbit, meciciyur (astr., tech.) vt., to orbit

coco onomat. for sucking at the breast; (nursery speech) to suckle--baby or mother may be subj. (syn. rupuso; (sexual slang) of a male, to give or receive oral sex

cocon (vi) to suspect-- ne icocon (liri añanguça) they suspect him (of arson); micocon re yananjul toyeni we suspect he stole the money; acocon suspicion; kecocon suspect (person suspected of...); common colloq. form of açocon q.v.)

cokañu var. of trokañu

colos tendon, sinew; fig., bow-string; string(s) of a musical instrument

coloçe useful plant sp., and the bean(s) thereof, sim. to soybean; see also sucoloç

condre (colloq. < tayondre) tonight

conek office, place of business

coneyu Nitrogen (N)(<Gwr)

congo reeds, in genl., many spp.; (mus.) the reed(s) used in various mus.instruments; conguri a reed pen, obs. but sometimes still used by artists and calligraphers

conihin to be/get on top of s.t./s.o.; in wrestling, to pin one's opponent; caconihin fallen/pinned by s.t./s.o. on top of one (< cosa+nihin)

copin (vt) to go in search of, to go and get/fetch (ult.< cosa filan); runjopin to send s.o. in search of/to fetch e.g marunjopin minaye etengi yu I sent Mina to look for/get the book; anjopin a quest, mission; (colloq.) (ana) copici ~copi ~coci an employee or servant whose job is to run minor errands, a "gofer" (copi often used as imper., "go get...~ bring ...." e.g. copi sawu(mi) get/bring (me) some water; it is rather peremptory and a little impolite-- can be softened by prefacing turo)

cosa (vi) to go; (adj.) ago, gone by, past; yucosa get underway, start out; runjosa send, export, dispatch; cakacós (irreg.) to scram, scoot, get out fast (e.g from a dangerous or embarassing situation); irreg. coç~coçá (interj.) go on! you're kidding! (mild disbelief)

cosingota (obs., literary) of course, "it goes without saying"--mostly replace by singoti(ni)

cosir (vt) to obey; runjosir to subject, to dominate; anjosir obedience; cakacosir be obsequious, a yes-man; kecosir a subject (s.o. subject to a superior), a subordinate; an employee (ult.related to sosir)

coyok complex, complicated; cakacoyok very complicated; be puzzled, perplexed, at a loss; coyoyok a riddle, puzzle, enigma; (añ)acon ... mixed feeling(s), of two minds (about...)

coyuk (<obs. coyungeyu) methane, natural gas (ult. <Gwr)

cucap (vi) soaked, wet; colloq. as vt syn. of caus.rucuçap; runjucap to soak s.t., to immerse; (cooking) to marinate

cucifici ~cuci ~fici a twit, a silly, useless person, often applied to the idle rich (< cuci ...? + (deformed) fitros 'paradise, ecstasy')

cucut the hairs that grow from the ears of Kash; cucitu (noticeable) tufts of hair on the tips of the ears of some Kash (rare, considered odd but not unattractive)

cukin simple, plain; tracukin complex, complicated

cukuwa as long as, up to (with ref. to time, e.g. yale anju, lalu anjetre kuna yasaño cukuwa(ni) sila lero sometimes, a wedding party may last as long as 3 days; maturo, unayoka cukuwa re melo(to) please, stay as long as you like (a colloq. form, but far more common than correct anjukuwa)

cumate (usu.colloq. cumat) (med.) pill, capsule; ult. <pacum+mate

cumet to move/change residence

cumicu shortly, soon, in a little while (see micu)

1. cun (temporal conj.) as..., while...

2. cun, cun-cun (imit.) grinding noise; anjun grist; kanjun grinder, grinding wheel (but not a millstone) yanjun ground-up grain; meal, flour (see also cangacun, enjun)

cundam rubber (latex); cundanji galoshes, rubber overshoes; (slang) condom

cuni-cunik mortar and pestle; to use...; see also eyunjun, ecunik

cunje a parka or anorak--worn in cold climates; usu. of Gwr manufacture (< Gwr chiwng-jey blanket-coat)

cunjun (vt) to grind up, pulverize

cupat obedient, correct in behavior; well-mannered, e.g. ana ... a "good" child; cupa-cupat ~cakacupat excessively so, "goody-goody", a "bleeding-heart"

cupi ~ cupu (builders' slang) freshly mixed or freshly poured concrete/ mortar/plaster; see sucup

cura to tell, narrate; cura-cura to tell a story; cakacura (in story-telling/narrative) to ramble on, go off the subject, digress; anjura storytelling, narration; runjura to recite, declaim; (gram.) to conjugate (verb), decline (noun); curani a story; cura-curani story, esp.those of traditional nature; kanjura narrator, storyteller; curaci generally harmless gossip, "little white lies", "old wives' tales"; curaçu harmful/malicious gossip (by implication, untrue)-- these last two often occur reduplicated: cura-curaci, cura-curaçu: yakota (cura-)curaçu lirimi she's spreading stories about me.

curata (n., adj.) future, the future (contr. < anju rata, which is also used formally); runjurata to postpone, to defer s.t. to a later time; see also titruwat

curi (colloq.) telegraph, telegram; see celuri

curungayi the Circle of Life (religio-philosophical concept); ult. < ciyur+angayi

cuta (vi,vt) to forget (obj. in gen. or dat/acc., different connotations); cucuta forgetful; cakacuta ~cakacút (dat.) absent-minded, very forgetful; (nom.) to slip one's mind; anjuta forgetfulness; hanjuta amnesia

See also the Supplement

Ñ (Seventh letter of hakanga, called ña, the palatal nasal, IPA [ɲ], X-SAMPA [J] or, as here, [ñ])

ñaka a railroad car, in genl.; (dial., a cart or wagon); ...numba (railroad) passenger car, ...nahan dining car; ...nuwar sleeping car; ...kanda freight car; ñakaçaka (railroad) locomotive, engine

ñakace (colloq.) the crotch, of humans; see also eniyak

ñakanga taxicab, public car (with driver) for hire (ñaki+hanga)

ñaki "car" (usu., a small, electric-powered vehicle seating 2-4 people); ñakirak large bus or tram (colloq. ñakrak ~ñakra); ñakrece ~kreci train, railroad; ñaki lato ~latongi a jitney cab/bus (no particular route, often unlicensed); see also keñaki

ñako flaccid, limp; slack (syn. tramirum)

ñakrece railroad, train (ult. < ñaki+sakrece)

ñakut (colloq.) in larger cities, public ñaki (without driver) available for short-term use; a rental car

ñamita the rise (height) of a stairstep, the riser (colloq. ñanda)

ñanak to scratch (an itch)

ñange wood; wooden (a colloq. form that, along with hange, has replaced hañange in all but the most formal contexts)

ñanik to comb/brush the fur; ñaniki ~eñanik a comb/brush for the fur; ñanikici (colloq. nikici toothbrush

ñanjam fruit jellies

ñañañ (vi) to chatter, to natter, run on

ñar (vi) to roar-- the Kaç do this at times of great emotion (bears the stress in derivs.)

ñaçak shaky/shaking, trembling; çuñaçak becoming so; ruñaçak to shake s.t., make s.t. tremble; cakañaçak overcome by shaking/trembling, nervous tics etc.; ñaçaçak loose, wobbly, i.e. not firm in its place, e.g. a tooth, a fastener, a garment, a ring; (irr.) yucacak getting/coming loose (but not yet fallen out/off); rucacak shake/wiggle s.t. so as to loosen it; ñaçakinda earthquake

ñaw(uo)ñ ~ñuñ (onomat.) the sound made by the kusimi and other small Cousins (equiv. to "meow")

ñelur (vt) to weave; (as adj.) woven; kañelur weaver; aprañelur loom; ñeñelur (vi) to take turns, to alternate

ñemba ally (in war, obs.), partner, co-worker; trañemba enemy (in war, obs.)

ñera wall (generally of a house or building) (see also hafa); ñeraka a (large) wall, for defense or to mark a boundary.

ñeva wrong, mistaken; mepu... ~yuñeva to make a mistake; ruñeva to falsify; cakañeva totally wrong, mistaken, "way off-base"

ñimu (colloq.) a drink, s.t. to drink (for añimu < imu); ñimbuhi (more common colloq. ñimbuwi) (alcoholic) liquor, in genl.

ñiñiñ (vi) to whine

ñokinda peninsula (ult. <niyon+hinda) (larger than kanakinda)

ñondroçe a bay, large inlet (ult. <niyon+roçe)

ñondru galaxy; ñondruka galactic; ciñondruka intergalactic (< Gwr nyr du star land/country)

ñoni (vt) to try, to test s.t.; to check for mistakes; cakañoni to nit-pick, quibble over details; ñonomer a legal trial; see also krañoni

ñoñat (vt) to taste, sample s.t. (ult. < ñoni+uñat)

ñoros to be/feel relieved (of one's worries); añoros medium">relief; cakañoros greatly relieved, to "breathe a sigh of relief"

ñowañ (vi) to moan, groan (from pain, effort, complaint)

ñukace (colloq.) the ankle; see lahu

ñukar to arrange, set up (e.g. a meeting, appointment); añukar an appoinment

ñukat the wrist (ult. <yukat)

ñumuñ to hum, drone (e.g. a motor, chanting, a swarm of insects)

ñungop see ñuña

ñuña sap/resin of trees or plants; ñuñasu spec., runny or liquid sap; ñuñangop ~ñungop spec., viscous or sticky sap/resin (thanks to Dirk Elzinga)

ñuñuñ (vi) to mutter, grumble

ñupit (vi, ...liri) accustomed (to), in the habit of; (as adj.) usual; customary, expected; ñupindi usually; (irreg.) çukupit (liri...) become/get accustomed to; ruñupit to tame; accustom s.o. to s.t.; añupit custom, habit, practice; añañupit customs (e.g. of a people); (as adj.) cultural; trañupit unusual, uncommon, unexpected, out of the ordinary; krañupit bad/harmful habit, addiction. See also upit

ñuprum see neyuprum

ñurun (vt) to put, to place; to locate (i.e. put s.t. in/at/on a place); (as vi) to be situated/located at/on...; añurun ~ñuruñi location; (colloq.) ..."where s.t. is" as ta makaya ñuruñi puluma I don't know where Puluna [a Gwr nation] is; in this sense, even more colloq. and somewhat substandard, yurundi ~nurundi as, aka nurundi? where's it at?

ñuçiyu weather, in genl.; (informal) climate, the genl. weather of a region; in compds. ñuçu- e.g. ñuçurakop (difficult=) bad weather/climate, ñuçutata (easy=) good weather/climate (< Gwr nyu shwi); see also yaval

ñuçuket (med.) hypodermic needle, and by ext., an injection; as vb., to inject, to give an injection (ult. <ñuçup+hendo)

ñuçup a needle

ñutu (math.) square root, e.g. ñutu ha yale ro the square root of 4 is 2; ñutu-sit/ha...etc., cube/fourth etc. root, e.g. ñutu-hani 256 yale 4 the fourth root of 256 is 4; see also matu

ñuwanji a swing (for children)

See also the Supplement

Y (Eighth letter of hakanga, called ya, a palatal approximant/semivowel, IPA [j])

yahan time (in the abstract sense)

yake any upright pole/post-- e.g. mast of a ship, flag-pole, main posts of a house

yakiñ fulcrum (of a lever); see also yayas, eyas (old Gwr yas king)

yala (colloq. for eyala) a drinking-glass (many speakers use eyala for the container, yala for a quantity, e.g. eyala poren wine-glass, yala poren a glass of wine); yalambik, yala-yala, yalaci, yalambici ~yalapici ~lalapici drinks (in genl.) as a social occasion; cocktails/drinks before dinner; (as vb., esp. yalaci) to have..., arami... let's have..., let's get together for...; ... lus after-dinner drinks (liqueurs etc.). NB yalambik is the most formal-- e.g. in a written invitation--, the others more common in speech

yalakat the windshielf (glass or plastic) of a vehicle (<. yala+kandi)

yalalap (~lalap) the smaller of Cindu's two moons (~tandulap < tandi+ulap)

yale there is/are; yes (see ale)

1. yam (prep., +acc.) comitative with; (math.) plus, in addition

2. yam a thin noodle usu. used in soups

yama (vi) to run; munuk... to race against, run a race; añama a race; kañama a runner, racer; cakayama (alo...) run away, flee, take to flight (from...), take to one's heels, "skedaddle"

yamakep to have sexual intercourse (polite, sci.term, see also vakep)

yamam a sofa, couch, divan; yamacangan daybed, chaise-longue (for reclining on)

yamana (colloq.) pregnant (of humans) see also kalar

yambit (prep., +acc.) by means of, with (instrumental) < yam+umit

yambren (vi) to shout, yell; yayambren (also colloq. yayap) to scream

yambu (... re) it is permitted to/that... (contr. <iyambu); see ambu

yamen (vi) to call, summon, call out to s.o.; yamecit to call/make a call on the telephone

yamét (slang) all gone! all done! that's all! (cf. mende)

yamir ~yami colloq. vars. of eyamir ice; yami cami a popular drink of blended fruit, ice, "milk"

yamun (vt,vi) to weed, pull weeds; fig., to weed out, remove unwanted things from a group; ruñamun to extirpate, wipe out, eliminate (obs. refers to the ancient practice of killing all family members of certain criminals, e.g. traitors); cakayamun extirpated, wiped out, totalled eliminated; by ext., completely free of-- e.g. a disease, or an unwanted relationship or obligation

yanatros the largest island of Cindu, where the Federated States, including Holunda Velu, are located

yanda the negative imperative, do not

yanga (n.anim.) wind; çuyanga becoming windy; yanjakrum typhoon, hurricane; cakayanga (naut.) blown off course; of a building/tree etc., blown over/down; yangaci a breeze, gentle wind; yangaraka strong wind, gale;

yanji (vi) to be burnt, charred (if of food, inedibly so); hayanji seared, browned, of food; rukayanji to sear or brown (food)

yanjum thick, viscous; çuyanjum become thick, coagulate, gel; ruñanjum to thicken s.t.

yanjun ground-up grain; meal, flour (< older eyanjun); see cun

yañañ ~cayañañ to gossip (see yayañ)

yara plant spp. similar to alium spp. (~onion/garlic etc.)

yaro a lake; yarombik a small lake, pond; yaropi a small pool/puddle (e.g. of rainwater, spilled liquid, etc.)

yasi (vt) to send, send out (e.g. a message or call); to emit

yaval (sci.) climate, see also ñuçiyu

yavu to guard, watch over; to be on guard; keyavu guard, sentinel; kañavumut (colloq. kañuti) police, "public guardians"; yavu-yavu to be alert, vigilant, on one's guard

yawundu ~yundu oil (petroleum) (ult. < Gwr)

yawungos (pron.[jaúNgos ~ jáwNgos]) a large ungulate/ruminant native to northern Nocaniki-- sim. to the moose, considered dull-witted and comical in appearance; the horns are used to make decorative objects, handles, etc. (< a Gwr lg. yalgəs, BD yaw gÿh)

yayañ (vi)(colloq.) to chat, converse informally; see also yañañ, kocañ

yayap to scream (see yambren) ~cakayayap ~cakayáp id.

yayas pry up/move with a lever (old Gwr yas); see yakiñ, eyas

yembek narrow, tight; conservative in one's social or political views

yembraput (colloq. yembrut) preserved fruits (candied, dried, or as jam)

yembuk counter-clockwise (ult. < compd. rotate+left)

yemo fruit, in general; yemowak id. (<...+ange)

yendren (vi) to rotate, spin (on an axis); ruñendren (vt) to rotate, spin; añendren rotation; cakayendren spinning wildly, out of control; see also vupin, eyet

yenekap clockwise (ult. < compd. rotate+right)

yeñe see eñe

yeñet ~cayeñet dizzy, to feel one's head spinning

yetaci ~yetro bicycle

yohan (vi) vanish, disappear; ruñohan to banish, eliminate; añohan disappearance; cakayohan to vanish, get lost inexplicably

yole (vt) to measure; (of clothing, shoes, etc.) size, e.g. yole sana size 9; añole ~yole + poss measurement, size; capacity; see eyole, çiñole (sub çim)

yoleci(k) (colloq.) a key; see olek

yombeci an edible fungus that grows on rotting wood, compost etc., after its resemblance to the penis (ult. <yoñ+penjeñ)

yombot (colloq. but much more common than correct ciyombot) to exit, go/come out of (of anim., from a place); (as n.) exit, departure (from a place); exit, way out; typically as a sign, "exit"; çuyombot to be on one's way out, heading out of a place-- maçuyombot(po) (colloq. maçombot(po)) I was just leaving ~just on my way out...; ruñombot to send s.o. out, to dismiss, expel from a place; cakayombot beat a hasty retreat, get out of somewhere fast; skip out, (mil.) go AWOL; yombo(ka) go, go away, you may go, you're dismissed

yomom the foundation of a building; (fig.) basis, foundation; (math.) base, e.g. yomopán base-8, yomondró base-2, binary; yomom vorasit base of a triangle; (yomom) yomongota (gram.) the base form of a noun or verb, e.g. kandri yomongotani kota ambakranaç? what is the base-form of the word ambakranaç?; (<older e+omom)

yoñ (n. anim.) the male's penis, the most genl. term, permissible though usu. avoided in polite speech; NB irreg.acc. yoñin, and yoñi- with poss. sfx.; generally avoided are: yoyoñ ~ yoñoñ id., ~yondrak id. esp. if larger than normal (boastful, perh. ironic, or insulting equiv. to "he's/you're a prick") (comp. yoñ+raka); ~yonji with dim. -ci (usu. a nursery term)

yosu a plant sp. native to Yanatros, both domestic and wild, whose tuber can be processed into an edible, starchy paste. It is a staple in some Lañ-lañ areas, but more often resorted to-- there as well as in isolated Kash areas-- in emergencies. Urbanized Kash regard it as a curiosity. (A rare loan < Prevli yotus ~yotsu)

yoteñ "mayor", chief official, usu. elected, of a town/city; añoteñ city hall; ...umut id., or any municipal building (sometimes dim., añotenji umut)

yu- ~yuk- form of the inchoative pfx used before initial c, ç, s, or if the base contains c, ç, and irreg. with a few forms (ult. <yukar and see also çu- ~çuk-)

yuka the liver

yukar (vi) to become; çuyukar (vi) to develop, turn out...; ruñukar (vt) to develop; cakayukar highly developed; civilized; añayukar civilization; (irreg.) acukar development; NB the inchoative prefixes çu- ~çu(k)- and yu- ~yuk- are ult.derived from this; yuka-yukar (vi) to happen, take place; ~yukandri it happens that, it so happens..; ta yukar (colloq.) didn't happen, didn't come off, fell through e.g. soroñi ... the sale fell through; sisisamim ... our (love) affair didn't work out.

yukat (vi) to turn over, roll over; ruñukat to turn s.t. over; see ñukat, eyukat

yukranda a dock, pier; colloq. kranda (ult. <handa)

yukriçece smithy, forge; see also kivuçece, akangece

yukruça fireplace, hearth (yurun+huça)

yula the heart (anat. and fig.)

yumbit tool(s), in genl.; in compds. usu. contracted to pi-; ult. < umit

yumbrandil a clearing in the forest (whether natural or created)

yumbris stair-step in genl.; specifically, the tread

yumbrolu factory (see volu)

yumbu empty; çukumbu emptying out, becoming empty; ruñumbu to empty s.t., to drain s.t.; ruñumbu laca to clear a table (after the meal); REFL+ruñumbu (of people) to remove o.s. from a place, depart, clear out (neutral connotations); nom.+ cakañumbu id., but implies speed or urgency, perhaps that the place/situation is unpleasant/dangerous in some way; añumbu drain, sewer; cakumbu (emotionally) empty, drained; (physically) drained, exhausted from great effort; also lit., to drain suddenly (implied: catastrophically), e.g. a container that has been punctured, the water behind a dam that has collapsed

yumburi hiding place; an animal's den/lair

yumelo (inch.) to agree to; yumelo-melo to volunteer (...liri ...for; ...re ...to (do...)); NB an irreg. formation <melo

yunda always; yunda-yunda (colloq.) (pre-vb.) always (emph.), forever; (post-vb., often somewhat pejor.) constantly; e.g. ; ...minimbur ini we will remember him forever; yanahan... he eats constantly

yundet (colloq. but much more common than ciyundet) to enter, go/come in (of anim., into a place); (as n.) entrance into ~arrival at (a place); entryway; typically as a sign "enter here"; çuyundet to be on one's way in..., head toward/into a place; ruñundet to send s.o. into (a place), tell s.o. to go/come in; to receive (a visitor); cakayundet (of a place) intruded upon, gotten into, e.g. punamim ... kusimiyi a kusimi got into our house ~our house was invaded by a kusimi; yunde(ka) come in!

yundombrut the lowest court of justice that handles minor, usu.local, civil infractions; the magistrate is licensed but need not be trained in law-- sim. to a US justice of the peace (contr. < priyundomer+umut)

yundrahan restaurant (see also pundahan-- in genl. usage, yundrahan connotes a less elegant place)

yundrami kitchen (yurun+nami)

yundran the mouth

yundu oil (common variant of yawundu)

yunek (vt) to save, rescue (syn. rundeyal <leyal)

yungat boil, seethe; (at a) rolling boil

yuni (properly iyuni) something, (neg.) anything

yunjaki a garage (where vehicles are kept) (ult. <. yurun+ñaki)

yunjun (n.) a mill where grain is ground; (adj/vi) milled, ground; ruñunjun (vt) to mill; keçunjun miller, owner or operator of such a mill

yunjupor a cess-pool or septic system (usu. for a single house or small community); yunjuporaka sewage-disposal plant/facility (in most towns); irreg. < eçupor

yuno (preposed) all, all of; (postposed) whole, entire; yuno-yuno completely, totally; yuno-yunoç all things, everything; (colloq.) yunoni all of it/them; everything, note also yunomim, yunohi all of us, all of you

yuñurun everywhere

yupracu the shoulder

yurana the womb (see also umal)

yuri a letter of the hakanga e.g. yurihá, yuriyamba, yuriyoni (< older e+uri, see uri)

yurun place, location (see also eyurun)

yurupun an egg-laying burrowing animal, sim.to a mole but larger-- 25-30cm.in length; their skin can be processed to a soft suede-like leather for small luxury items (purses, slippers, gloves)

yuçak to vomit; çuyuçak to be/feel about to vomit; añuçak (n.) vomit; (irreg.) cakuçak vomit suddenly, explosively

yuçom destiny, fate (< older e+uçom)

yutrama temple, place of relig.worship (ult. <yurun+olama); see also areyal

yutroci a small coin-purse or wallet, spec. for carrying money (more colloq., troci)

yutru a sink, wash-basin (ult. < yurun+su~sawu)

yuyañ to sway, swing from side to side; ruñuyañ cause s.t. to...; añuyañ swaying motion; see also ñuwanji, kañuwañ

See also the Supplement

S (Ninth letter of hakanga, called sa, a voiceless alveolar fricative, IPA [s])

sacal the elbow

sakrece (iron) rail, guide-rail, of a railway (ult. < saren+hece); sakremés monorail (colloq. krenji)

sakur (vt) to swallow; casakur swallow the wrong way, choke on s.t.; katakur the throat

samar common, ordinary; popular; kesamar the common people

sambat so much, so..; sam- in some compds.; (n.) atambat quantity; samba-sambat in great quantity; cakasambat to excess

samboli slang term for a male Kash of "average" (1.8 li) height (see also kemboli)

samos salt; katamos ~rupat ... to preserve (food) by salting; sasamos salty; samosa(le) (med.) saline; samosni ~atamos salinity; susamos salt-water, sea-water

sana (~ san) the number nine; the short form bears the stress, e.g. folasán

sanjañ (vi) to be aware of, to realize, understand (that....); see also tanjañ

sanje necessary; atanje necessity, requirement; ta... unnecessary (NB: trasanje also occurs in this sense, but is usu. avoided because of slang mepu... to masturbate); see also pita

sanjeli frequency e.g. of radio (< saña+celi

sanjuñ (vi) to go/do marketing, spec. for food; to forage for food (of animals; or humorous of people)

sañ thus, so, in this/that way; sandipo just so, exactly so; sasandipo anyway, in any case

saña mark, sign; indicator/indication of s.t.; (comml., syn. aran) brand, brand-name; logo; mepu... ri to make a mark on, to mark s.t.; cakasaña defaced by markings, graffiti etc.

saño (vi) to endure, to last

sapar morning (from sunrise to midday); sapa-sapar early in the morning; cf. sapat

sapat tomorrow; sapamés day after tomorrow (sapat+mesa)

saren (vt) to lead, guide; ataren guidance; añataren (guiding) principle; kataren leader, guide; çutaren (liri...) to take the lead, e.g. in a race, discussion, etc.; take command of, e.g. a disorganized situation; sarengaya to educate, to bring up (a child) properly; (as adj.) well-brought-up; (irreg.) atrengaya education, proper child-rearing; see also ketaren

sásakaç a semi-mythical, mysterious creature of humanoid form, larger than a Kash, believed to live in the far reaches of the forests/jungles; although the word appears to be a neuter plural, it is in fact animate and singular); they also figure prominently in Gwr mythology, where they are considered vicious (modern BD sah ka shi-- sah of uncertain mng); clearly a loanword, but whether Gwr > Kash or vice versa is uncertain; note the anomalous stress) It may derive from (obs.) sasar+kaç-- see sasar

sasar (arch., obs.) (vt, vi) abandoned/exposed in the forest (of an unwanted child); to so abandon a child; ana sasar ~...cakasasar an abandoned/exposed child; akrasasar child exposure, the ancient practice of...; these words are hardly used now, they have very negative connotations; sasar is sometimes popularly used for hañusasar, q.v.

sasawu (vt) to wash, rinse (the face or hands, esp. before/after eating) (< sawu); see also toçin, tenge

sata simple, easy (see also tata)

sawu water (in compds. su-); çusawu to become liquid, liquefy; rutawu to liquefy s.t.; cakasawu (vi) to drown; of a boat, to sink; (irreg.) runjasawu to drown s.o.; of a boat, to scuttle (sink deliberately); susamos salt (sea) water; susandrak brine, very salty water; suçeyak pickling liquid (brine, vinegar); suwañat a liquid marinade for food (see añat); sumahas fresh/potable water; compd. with names of fruits, juice (of)...; sawu kandipo! (idiom.) wash your hands first! (before doing s.t.; cf. sasawu); see also suvaka

selim the edge, rim of s.t.; the eaves of a house; selicu the gutter of a street; gutter(s) on the eaves of a house (properly selicu fundoñ); selimbroç (sea)coast

sema (vt) to rent, e.g. masema puna tayu alo sim tolotiyi I rent this house from Mr. Toloti; atema a lease; rutema to rent/lease out, e.g. sim toloti me yarutema puna tayu Mr. Toloti rents/leases this house to me; (to)sema (n.) rent (money); icisema, trokisema (vulg.) a prostitute

senda (inv. aux.) marks progressive or ongoing action, be...ing

sende language; sesende dialect; sendeka(le) pertaining to language, linguistic; andesende linguistics, philology

sesep (vt, vi) to chop (mainly of food); chopped, chopped up; etesep device for chopping food

sila (irreg. ~sit) the number three; the short form bears the stress, e.g. folasít

simbi general term of respectful address to a male, "sir" (esp. if the man is a stranger, as, a sales-clerk to a customer); sim + surname Mr...; (simbi for 'you' in direct address is very formal); simbi-lumbi "ladies and gentlemen..."

simbit a male servant, in genl.; see also lumbit

simon the taste of s.t., flavor

sina in proper names, third child-- properly used only by royal and aristocratic families, but often affected by the nouveaux-riches; ult. <sila (ana)

sinambrok an old man--somewhat disrespectful, but less so than çambrocu

singap archer's bow; atingap archery; katingap archer; also, the name of a constellation; see also tingap

singir to dun for money; katingir bill-collector; cakasingir (hum.) pursued by bill-collectors; (inanim.) repossessed; kacingi (colloq.) ?repo-man?, bill-collector

singoti(-ni) of course, naturally (common colloq. < cosingota q.v.)

sininji young man (generally, from puberty into young adulthood or marriage); siniñ term of address to such a young man (~sinji, more familiar)

sinis furtive; lurk, lie in wait for; sini-sinis to sneak/slink, move furtively; atinis ambush, sneak attack; mepu... to ambush; cakatinis (usu.mil.) caught in an ambush, taken by surprise

sinut male (of hum.); manly, masculine; (gram.) masculine (gender); see also kaçút

sipu concave, indented; atipu a dent; rutipu to dent s.t.; (irreg. base tipu) cakatipu badly dented (object); sunken (of parts of the human body, e.g. cheeks, stomach, chest); tipile a ditch, channel (man-made, <tipu+ile); tipile sawu a (small) irrigation canal or channel; ditch for drainage or other purposes; tipurak ravine, crevice (natural); crack in a natural object (e.g. a rock or tree); tipularak chasm, abyss, canyon

sisa (vt) to love; (n) lover; love; (adj.) loved, beloved; loving; e ... love (in the abstract); çusisa to fall in love; cakasisa to love obsessively, be smitten, besotted; katisa connoisseur, one who loves/appreciates s.t.; sisisa (love) affair; sisaci affectionate; casisaci overly (annoyingly) affectionate, fawning over; with object (...liri) to " be all over s.o." (dat.subj.) be the object of unwanted affection

sisit (vi,vt) scratched; to scratch (damage to an object), make scratch marks on s.t.; rutisit to engrave, to etch; cakasisit (of an object) to get scratched, damaged by scratches; uri-sisit ~urisit to write badly, illegibl; to scrawl

sit (onomat.) the sound of scratching; sit-sit ~mepu sit to make such a sound, e.g. kanguni yamepu sit-sit his pen went 'scratch-scratch'; yasit-sit ri çumbuna he scratched at the window

soket dense, thick (of the fur); (of wind, rain, snowfall etc.) hard, thick, intense; (fig.) intense, intensive(ly); çusoket becoming so/moreso (esp. of the fur in cold weather); casoket (esp. of the fur) overly dense to the point of discomfort-- this may occur during the wet season, due to humidity

solas (mus.) note, tone

sombrak a large machete, bolo-knife (cf. sovare, velas)

sondot ceremony or celebration of a non-relig. nature, party (more formal/organized than lalu), e.g. sondot puna; sondot lekramon (colloq. sondopuna, sondokramon house-warming; birthday party

sonjep treadmill; fig., any boring or repetitious task; the "rat-race", the "daily grind"; (obs.) a human- or animal-powered device for drawing water, milling grain, etc.; see kratonjep

sor (~sot) the number seven; the short form bears the stress, e.g. folasót

sorom (vt) to sell; rutorom put up for sale, offer for sale; atorom (n.) sale; katorom seller; soroñamen to auction; an auction sale; (irr.) kesoñamen auctioneer; trasorom (fin.) to sell short-- in trader's jargon trasó; (ka)pisorom (fin.) an option to sell, a put-option; katorom lato (colloq. trondato) traveling salesman (~katorom itre id. but somewhat pej.)

sosir (vt) to hear; atosir ~sosir+poss. (sense of) hearing; pososir audible; trapososir deaf (syn. çuku); (with inanim. subj.) inaudible; rutosir to order s.o.; trasosir to ignore, pay no attention to; catrasosir usu. said of s.o. who pays no attention to advice, goes his own (often wrong) way; disobedient, wrong-headed; see also sotin

sotin (vt, vi) to listen; listen to; sosotin listen carefully, pay attention (to s.t. one is hearing); rutotin to inform s.o., report s.t. (verbally); sotimbis(i) to eavesdrop (on); atotin a verbal statement, report, declaration; (legal) testimony; katotin a listener (more common in the irreg.colloq.plur. totila listeners, audience); cf. sosir

sotrelo the seven-day week; colloq. trelo (irreg. < sot+lero)

sotu a street-vendor, peddler (of food, small items, services etc.); syn. kenandu see nandu

sovare a sword; large blade, in genl.; sovandivek (arch.) longsword, an ancient battle weapon; see also sombrak

sovo coarse (texture); ...ni coarseness, roughness, of surface/texture; çusovo to chafe, be chafed; rutovo to abrade, roughen a surface

soyom fragrant; to smell good; atoyom ~soyoñi fragrance, (good) scent; susoyom perfume, cologne (see also suwaves)

suca (back-form <sucami 'sweet water) soft drinks, usu. fruit-flavored, non-carbonated

sucimas saliva (< sawu+cimas); see also sukran

suciyoñ (colloq. sucoñ) lotion (various types) sometimes used after bathing to make the fur soft and glossy

sucoloç a milk-like (food) product derived from coloçe beans

sucup mud; as vi, muddy; çusucup becoming muddy (e.g. roads in the rainy season, fields after a hard rain); casucup spattered/ fouled with mud; of children, to play in mud (cf. sunju); in the building trade, sucup ~cupi ~cupu freshly mixed or freshly poured concrete/mortar

sufa mute, unable to speak

sukekevu (colloq. sukevu) a nectar/honey-like product of the kekevu (insect)

sukran (n.) drool, saliva dripping from the mouth (of hum. or anim.); (vi) to drool; casukran (hum.) to drool, salivate, "water at the mouth" in anticipation of food or other pleasure

sukret bile (< sawu+kret)

sukuku (properly sukungur 'fizzy water') carbonated water or soft drinks

sukuni (n.) paint, in genl.; atukuni (colloq.tukuni) a painting (picture); (irreg.) runguni to paint s.t., in genl.(of buildings etc., not pictures); kenguni painter (of buildings etc.-- not pictures)

sul a small pond-- usu. man-made, decorative, such as one might have in a garden

sumbak a gesture of respectful greeting-- both hands crossed over the heart; sumbaci a less formal version, with the right hand only; see also supaka

sumbiçi urine (sawu+miçi)

sumbul to rise, ascend esp. of heavenly bodies or smoke; (of incense, prayers, the spirit- generally a religious term, rather archaic); ... kungula ascend to the throne; ... tandi/vuruna/lalap moonrise; esumbul sunrise;

sumik to crawl, of insects, or of infants/adults (on hands and knees); sumi-sumik (of insects) to crawl/swarm all over s.t./s.o.; cakasumik (dat.) experiencing such a feeling; (nom.) infested with crawling insects

sumuso breast-milk, mother's milk

sunecu a jet (forceful outflow of water, liquid); a (decorative) fountain; (as vb) of water, liquids, to jet out, to spurt/squirt out; casunecu id. but accidentally, or so as to create a mess

sunju earth, soil; supengop clay

sungar bed (i.e. frame and mattress); see also eçangan

sunono sperm, male seed

supaka a formal bow, obeisance (a curtsy-like motion or, (very formal) genuflection; the -a drops in the sing. case forms); mepu/vele... to do so; see also sumbak

supat(ni) too much, too many; e.g. yanahan supat(ni) he ate too much; supatni samos too much salt; supatni cici(ç) too many bugs

supengop clay, clay-ey soil (see also oro)

supit special; susupitni especially

supruna the (fem.) Spirit of the moon Vuruna, benign (< susa vuruna 'sister ...')

surañ mountain; susurañ mountain range; surakuça~sukruça volcano; surambik hill; sutrica cliff (ult.<surañ+lica); sutrivek escarpment (ult. <sutrica+livek); surambut mesa, butte; ana surañ foothills of a mountain range

susa (~susaci, susale) a term of affection used among women (implies a very close, [and esp. susale] perhaps sexual, relationship) (susale ult. <susa leñ)

susu sauce; susundamos a salty sauce for flavoring, sim.to soy sauce or nam pla; susumbara a black sauce used as both flavoring and food-coloring

susuri (colloq. suri) ink

suçeyak vinegar (sawu+çeyak)

suçó (slang) woman, gal-- acceptable in very informal speech, but considered impolite by many. See also suya, suyó and comments sub kaçó (Originally, suçó was the pejor., suyó the more acceptable, but the mngs. changed by analogy with kaçó ~kayó)

sut too..., excessively...; see supat

sutek (colloq. tutek) to suggest, hint; susutek to imply; suggestive; atutek suggestion; krasutek innuendo; kota... to say/make innuendos, imply s.t. negative about s.o.

sutumar drug(s) in genl. (< su- + var. tumbra)

sutuwi plain/clear broth (sawu+tuwi)

suvaka (vi, adj.) (be) underwater; çuvaka (vi) to submerge, go underwater; rutuvaka to submerge s.t.

suvondo (med.) a muscle relaxant drug, originally a plant derivative, now synthesized (vondo q.v.)

suvuk messy; (as n.) a mess, state of disorder; susuvuk cluttered; rutuvuk to botch/make a mess of s.t., to ruin s.t.; cakasuvuk in a total mess, complete disorder; katuvuk (colloq. tuvuki, pejor. tuvucuk ~vucuk (1) a messy person, a slob; (2) s.o. who can't do anything right, who tends to make a mess of things, botch everything

suwambrok an old woman (somewhat disrespectful but less so than çuwambrocu)

suwaves perfume, cologne (< sawu+aves); syn. susoyom

suwenik sweat; to sweat (ult. <sawu+eningar); (irreg.) suwendik sweaty (both damp with sweat and smelling of sweat); casuwendik extremely sweaty; to work up a sweat, to break out sweating

suya sister; also, a polite but friendly form of address (often suyá) to adult women whose status is unknown; suyama aunt (FaSi), suwinde aunt (MoSi); añasuya sisterhood-- both in the sense of an organization or close-knit group, and of "feminism"; see also susa, suçó, suyó

suyó (slang) a disrespectful term for "woman"-- "gal, broad, dame" (irreg. neut. pl. suyóç)-- see comments sub suçó, kayó; cf also suya

See also the Supplement

T (Tenth letter of hakanga, called ta, voiceless to semi-voiced denti-alveolar stop, IPA [t].)

ta (tak before vowels) not

tacañ (vi) to mean to, intend; andacañ ~tacañi meaning, interpretation; intention; plan; (lex.) definition; rundacañ to define, to interpret/analyze s.t.; tratacañ meaningless, pointless; colloq. catracañ 'it doesn't make any sense!'; see also sanjañ, tanjañ

taci (affect.) grandfather (see tanji, otama)

tafum (vi) to explode; rundafum to explode s.t., fire/set off (a gun)

tahan- common contraction of andahan with ref. to prepared dishes; tahanji a dish/preparation of food, e.g. tahanji lepes "lopa rilele" a dish called "lopa in the garden" tahambik (~tambik) appetizer(s), hors d'oeuvres; tahañom (~tañom) main course, main dish; tahanjami (~tanjami, also tahandus) dessert

taka-taka (colloq.) oh well; never mind (ult. <takanda)

takale (lit., not be) extinct, no longer in existence; çutakale near extinction, dying out, endangered (e.g. a species); rundakale to annihilate, destroy; catakale annihilated, obliterated, wiped out; andakale extinction

takan a rocket (as motive force); aposi katan rocket ship; from the Galactic language ktan

takanda (conj.) nevertheless, notwithstanding, regardless

takas (slang) the buttocks, butt, rear end, ass; takaraka (hum. or pej.) "big butt"

taken (vi) to point; kandaken the index finger; andaken a sign-board, traffic sign, pointer (cf. also tangen)

takiki (as a rather abrupt reply) "(I have) no idea"; also as ta (me, te, ne etc.) kiki I/you/he etc. have no idea, is completely unaware (may take tenses)

takoci (colloq. koci) a drinking-cup; see also tangole, koci

takomik (med.) cartilage; (of meats etc.) gristle

takrivus clumsy, inept (see hivus); kandakrivus a clumsy/inept person or workman; a klutz; see also trivus, orig.a colloq. var.

takrocit (vt) to translate (ult.irreg. < takron+çindi)

takron (vt) to change, alter s.t.

taku(k) awake; taku-takuk wide-awake, alert; "on the ball"; çutaku (vi) awaken, wake up; rundaku to awaken s.o.; catakuk suffer from insomnia; kandaku (nobility) a gentleman's personal sevant, valet

tala a small tack/nail, e.g. a carpet-tack, thumb-tack, brad

talap ~talambi (colloq.) no longer..., not...anymore (< ta lavi(ni) which is also common)

tale var. of ta yale there is not..., mostly colloq.

talorana unlike (<tar+orana, q.v.)

talunda never (<ta+lunda); ayi, talunda(po) 'well, I never!'; in certain cases, ever: e.g.'Have you ever heard anything so silly!?' or, 'I wonder if I'll ever see her again?' (negative ans. expected)

tam ~tamatám (onomat.) the sound of a drum; ~tum, tom id., but lower or louder; see also tandam, tatam

tama (fin.) equity; share (of stock); ult. <lama

tambes breakfast; as vb., either pfx+... or yale ...+poss. to have/eat breakfast

tambo in tambo... (i) eme... not only...but also...

tambok magnificent, impressive, imposing (< Gwr taw baw

tambro (mil., vi) to march; rundambro (vt) to march (e.g. troops); andambro (n.) a march (e.g. by troops); a musical composition in march-time

tambranipa a mythical, paradisical island; also, a real island in the archipelago NW of Yanatros

tamende not yet (colloq. often tamét ~tambende ~tambét; ult. < mende; see also yamét

tamit pungent, spicy-smelling (like clove or cinnamon); sutamit a spicy-smelling (not flowery) cologne or perfume; apis tamit a pungent root used in cooking, sim. to ginger

tamuruna (var. vuruna) the larger of Cindu's two moons (ult. < tandi+vuruna)

tanak petroleum-derived fuel(s), in genl.; tangumu diesel fuel; tanakaya ~ tanatambra kerosene (lit. fuel+light, fuel+lamp); horem tanak ~horendanak to be ~to run out of fuel; see also vendanak

tanda (math.) zero; colloq., nothing

tandam (vi) to drum, play a drum; make a drumming noise; tatandam a drum-roll

tandevas a feast, banquet; metandevas (vi) to have/make a feast; (vt) to feast on...

tandi moon, natural satellite of a planet; ... volu a man-made satellite

tando few

tandom ~tatom a spice sim. to cloves (dial. talatom also occurs)

tangaran (vt)...(liri...) to accuse (of) (old compd. taken+aran)

tangaya (colloq.) in the phrase alo tangaya out of nowhere (lit. ~'from I don't know')

tangen to indicate, point out; to mark; andangen a mark, indication

tangi a recording (on take, disk, etc.), e.g. tangi-cika TV recording, videotape--a colloq. term but generally used; ult. < undangayi

tangole a measuring-cup (200 pem/petu, approx. 9oz.); see also takoci

tanjañ (vt) to understand, grasp the meaning of (see also sanjañ); cakatanjañ to intuit, have an insight, "see the light"

tanji (affect. dim.) grandfather (see taci, otama)

tanju (colloq., see tayanju); tatanju right now, immediately; ~tatatanju ~ tanju-tanju id., emphatic; tanju krat tanju as soon as possible; caka-/ca-tanju suddenly

tanoret the evening meal, dinner; as vb., pfx+... or yale ...+poss. to have/eat dinner

tanot tenon (construction/woodworking term); metanot to cut/make a tenon; colek-tanot mortise and tenon (ult. < lanot)

tañ (imit.) sound of a large bell; andañ (large) bell; see also tiñ

tap (onomat.) any snapping sound; trap sharp snapping sound, e.g. of a whip cracking; tatap, tatrap to make such sounds; mepu... make s.t. go 'snap/crack'

tapat some, any; tapatni ~ tapa-tapat anything, anything at all

tapes no, none; nothing; tape-tapes(ni) (emph.) absolutely nothing, nothing at all

taput to supply, furnish (with); andaput a supply/store of...; cakataput overstocked

tar- (~tra- before cons.) negative prefix, not..., un-

tarambu (~trambu) (it is) forbidden; see ambu

tarandak (intens. cacarandak) famine, starvation; horem... (vi) to starve; rundarandak (vt) to starve s.o., cause a famine

tarandará a fanfare with trumpets etc.; also refers to loud applause/cheers etc.

taritan absent; (irreg.) çutritan (alo...) to stay away from, avoid, evade; with reflexive IO, to absent or remove onself (from a place or situation); rundaritan to keep s.t. away, stave off, hold at bay; to prevent; catritan truant, chronically absent without excuse, or for unknown reasons; also said of s.o. who tends to break, or not appear for, appointments etc., hence, undependable for that reason

tarom convex; to bulge out, to swell; andarom convexity; a bulge, swelling; cakatarom badly/abnormally bulging or swollen

taruna the basic unit of currency of the Federated Lands and many other Kaç areas; colloq. truni

tarupat (vi) to be unwilling (see upat)

tasutan a lute-like stringed instrument

taça an arrow (archery); taçi (math. or typog.) a small arrow or indicator (symbol)

1. tata easy (see also sata); cakatata ~cakatát extremely/ridiculously easy

2. tata (affect.) grandfather (see otama)

tatam rhythm, (musical) beat

tati...tati neither...nor

tatrañ to hammer, to pound with a hammer or similar tool; ekandrañ a (heavy) hammer, carpenter's hammer; tranji small (wooden) mallet used to play certain musical instruments; drumstick(s); trambom (padded) mallet used with gongs

tatun (vt) to pluck, pick (e.g. fruits)

tavun animal sp. --a shy mammal, herbivorous; an agric. pest that is hunted and eaten by farmers (< Dirk Elzinga's Miapimoquitch tapune 'Cottontail')

tawu dry; arid; çutawu (vi) to dry out; rundawu to dry s.t.; cakatawu completely dried out; thirsty (~catawu colloq., thirsty); andawu drought; tawuni aridity; etawu towel; (vt) tatawu ~rupat ... to preserve (food) by drying

tawu-ko (pron.[táwko]) "correct" (Gwr trade-name) but rarely used form of tuko q.v.

tawu-çi original (Gwr trade-name) but no longer used form of tuçi q.v.

taya, ~taye (fem.), ~tayu (neut.) this: demonstrative of things near the speaker (plur. tala, taç)

tayanju now (colloq. tanju))

tayi (pron. tai) no; nandayi an emph. form, certainly not, absolutely not

tayondre tonight (colloq. condre)

tayoni the rest of... (ult. < andayo remainder < unayo

te- an old pfx. of respect; see ote-

teca (vi) to wish, desire, hope for (esp. for s.t. difficult or even impossible to achieve); ...re/liri wish that/for...)-- miteca yuno liri e nurak hindaka(le) 'we all wish for world peace'; to aspire to, e.g. yateca (ya)yukar kandumbra 'he aspires to become a doctor'; mepu/kota ... to make a wish; andeca ~teca + poss. such a wish or aspiration; see also renja

teceki the Spirit of Lightning and Electricity-- beneficial, but capricious and often dangerous

tecu a small "lizard" sp., agricultural pest in grain fields (ult. <.necu jump)

tefo (colloq.) an IOU; see fowet

teka (vi) to make a ticking/clicking sound (clock, typewriter); ...+ NUM ... o'clock; andeka keyboard (not musical)

tekangaya (colloq. tekangi) a senior or highly respected professor; see kaya

tekup ~tekúp a tip, small amount of money given in return for a service

tekur skinny, thin (of objects, the body); çutekur getting thin, losing weight; catekur too skinny, wasting away, skin and bones, emaciated

telañ (vt) to study, to learn; rundelañ to teach; kandelañ student; andelañ a/the study of..., (~andet- in compds., equiv. to "-ology"); telanga(le) intellectual, learned; telandelañ (vt) to train; andelandelañ training; cakatelañ highly trained, expert: see also añandet

tele blue (color), syn. kundele

telet ~teleci a closet, small storage space

temandri a senior or chief priest (see mandil)

temarok an elder, a respected old person

tematralap the Spirit of the moon Lalap, capricious (< te mar- ... 'respected brother Lalap')

tembes anteroom, vestibule, foyer; waiting room-- colloq. but common for atembes

temo a hero (< Gwr. tai mo); tetemo heroic; andemo heroism

tenar battle, combat; mepu... engage in....; kandenar (arch.) warrior, knight

tendon a bar, rod (of metal)

tendruçek the Sea Spirit, powerful but capricious (< te inde roçe 'respected mother sea')

tengayi (~tengi) to print; rundengayi to publish; andengayi edition, printing; kandengayi printer; publisher. NB tengi may also be used to form the derivs.; see also etengi

tenge (vt) to wash (things, not the body-- see sasawu, toçin); tetenge clean; tratenge unwashed, dirty; andenge (colloq. andek) laundry, things to be washed, spec. clothes, dishes etc.; kandenge commercial laundry; laundry-man (in this sense, colloq. and a bit pejor., ~kandeke); irreg. kendekimu (colloq. and a bit pejor., ~kendeki) dish-washer (kitchen servant, or in a restaurant, irreg. <kandeke+nimu)

tengi common var. of tengayi

tenguriñ frame, framework of s.t.; ... trako skeleton

tepet to pluck, strum; play a musical instrument; (colloq.) sexual play, foreplay

tepro var. of etepro, the potter's wheel

terik (vt) to hate; teterik hateful, obnoxious (usu. of a person); anderik hatred, hate; cakaterik have irrational hatred of, bigoted, prejudiced-- ne cakaterik liri kaçin angur he really hates/is prejudiced toward Gwr people

teçayu (vt) yearn for, long for (obj. in gen.); to miss (a person), have nostalgia for s.t. (obj. in dat/acc.); andeçayu ~teçayu +poss. (n.) yearning, longing; nostalgia; (ca)teteçayu to be homesick; cf. avan

tete ~teté) affect. term for mother; see also inde, nini

tevas fine, delicate; elegant (of behavior as well as things); tetevas luxurious; andetevas luxury; cakatevas overly refined, affected; tratevas coarse, inelegant

teyomarak the Fire Spirit, capricious (< te o marak 'respected angry one')

tica knife (usu. small to med. size)-- back-form. <lica, andica

ticandi a myth.monster: a large, vicious Cousin-like animal (< tiça tandi moon cousin-- some humans are believed to turn into this when both moons are full)

tici (colloq., affect.) grandmother (see otinde)

tihas (vt) to glimpse, catch a glimpse of; to glance (at) quickly; peek at; andihas ~tihasni a glimpse of, a quick glance at; see also titihas

tikar perpendicular

tikas (vt) to see; çutikas become visible, emerge; rundikas to exhibit, show; kandikas (legal) witness; (usu.pl.) viewer(s), spectator(s), audience; cakatikas (+dat.) to see/ understand suddenly, have a flash of insight; (+nom.) of an obj. or pers., to suddenly appear, pop into view; potikas visible; trapotikas invisible; titikas to notice, take note of...; happen to see...; endo kitikas (colloq. engi tikas ~endikas ~tikas, ~titik) good-bye; andikas the sense of vision; tiká ~tikás(interj.) look! behold!; tikasti (interj.) look out! pay attention!

tiki a second (meas. of time); tiki-tiki second by second, every second

tikomaka a carnival or circus-like entertainment; (irreg.) ketimaka performer in id., esp. an acrobat

tikuluñ right away, forthwith

timbani enough (< old *timba+ni), as both quantifier (...endak enough meat) and verb (ta (ya)timbani it's not enough)

timbara a coffee-like beverage (< tisip pambara black berry)

timbat (vt) to know (a person); be familiar/acquainted with (a field of study, or a situation); çutimbat yam... getting to know, getting acquainted with; rundimbat to introduce s.o.; cakatimbat taking liberties, acting overly familiar

timuhok (vi) to squat on the haunches; timuk

timuk (colloq. var.or timuhok) kandimuk an idler, do-nothing; ca(ka)timuk (dat.) be a chronic idler, a do-nothing, ne'er-do-well; (nom) to hang around, loiter; wait around (for no good reason), also applied to (illegal) "feather-bedding" employees who do no work but collect a paycheck --NB forms often co-occur with -po suffix, in which case the final -k is dropped

tinda (colloq., slightly pej.) politics; tindaka political; ketinda politician

tindis (vi) nervous, anxious, mildly afraid; concerned (about s.t.); çutindis becoming so; rundindis to make s.o. so, to upset s.o.; cakatindis extremly or chronically so; andindis nervousness, anxiety, alarm; see also tirindis and cf. tiris

tinda (colloq., slightly perj.) politics (as a profession/practice); tindaka political; ketinda a politician

tindor be responsible (for s.t.)--both 'be the cause of...' and 'have...in one's care'; çutindor assume/accept responsibilty for; rundindor hold (s.o.) responsible, to blame; andindor responsibility; tindromer (legally) responsible, guilty; (ca)tratindor irresponsible; andratindor irresponsibility

tingakañu lit., look at, inspect the mind. This is a serious technique, reserved to lawyers, judges, psychologists, etc. and may be done only with permission, except in criminal proceedings; an applicant to a sensitive position might be so probed. ilekañu q.v. is similar, but performed without permission (and probably less skill) and, if possible, without the knowledge of the person being probed.

tingap to shoot with bow and arrow; çohi... to hunt with bow and arrow; kandingap such a hunter; see also singap

tingas (vt) to look at, view, watch; titingas to examine/watch closely; to research, investigate, inspect; pay attention (to s.t. one is seeing); rundingas to point out, show s.t. to s.o.; andingas examination, inspection; anditingas (n.) research; kandingas (edu.) examiner; proctor; (police or official) inspector; kanditingas researcher; cakatingas (nom). pay attention to details; (psych.) be obsessive, obsess over s.t.(gen.); (dat.) nit-picking

tingava the horizon (ult. <tikas+nava)

tinje (vt) to select, choose; elect; andinje ~tinje+poss. choice, selection; option; añatinje (pol.) election; kandinje voter; ketinje (mil.) a conscript, draftee; catinje random, at random

tinji (affect.dim.) grandmother (see otinde)

tiñ (imit.) ringing sound; titiñ (vi) ring, be ringing; etiñ a small bell (see also tañ)

tip(i) (onomat.) the sound, or feeling, of light tapping; tipitip(i) id.; (as vb) to tap s.o/s.t. lightly; (of an object/device) to make tapping sounds; tap s.o. on the shoulder or arm, to get their attention

tipevet sparse, scanty, in short supply; rare

tipu, tip- var. of sipu in several derivs.

tira (vt)(mil.) to command, be in command of; (civ.) be in charge of; rundira (mil.) to put in command of; (civ.) to put in charge of; andira ~tirani (mil.) a command, verbal/written order; (civ.) s.t. that one is in charge of (e.g. an office or dept.), one's responsibility; kandira commander (mil. rank); (civ., ironic) supervisor, boss; cakatira bossy, a stickler for details. (The word is somewhat obsolete in the military sense)

tirak terrible, very frightening; andirak great fear, terror; çutirak to be in terror, feel/be terrified; rundirak to terrify; to terrorize; cakatirak in great terror; greatly terrorized (ult. <tiris raka)

tirindis (n, vi) panic; to be in a state of panic; hañu ... a panic or anxiety attack; (irreg.) catrindis suddenly/extremely panicked

tiris (vi) afraid, frightened; çutiris to become afraid, uneasy; rundiris to frighten; cakatiris overcome by fear, fearful, timid, a "scaredy-cat"; cowardly; see also liris, tindis

tirivaçu malicious minor spirits in rivers/lakes that can cause one to drown

tis (imit.) tickle; titis (vt,vi) to tickle; tisitis(i) (mainly nursery) "tickle-tickle!"

tisa formal 2nd pers. pronoun, commoner-to-aristocrat, formerly used in a close, usu. sexual, relationship; sometimes, when the person of lesser status was the sexually dominant partner, it would be the aristocrat who used it, albeit often ironically; nowadays, while somewhat rare, it is used by either partner, almost always with clear humorous or ironic intent. The case forms are: tisa, tisí ~ -si, tisé ~ se, tin; verbal subj.pfx. ti-. Plural forms (tila etc.) exist, but are seldom used; there is no corresponding pl. verbal pfx., regular hi- is used. Probably more common in its dimin. form tiçi (rare gen. ticí, but -si), dat. tiçé ~ ce, acc. cin; also with suffixed -mi, nom. tiçimi, dat. tiçemi ~ irreg. cembi, acc. cimbi (no plural forms)-- verbal sing. pfx. in these cases is ci- or ti-. (Ult. < sisa)

tisip berry, in genl.

tiça first cousin (uncle's or aunt's child); also, (~titiça) cousin of any degree; pratiça any of the wild species related to the Kaç

tita (vt) to tell/order (s.o. to do s.t.); andita an order; kandita the boss; employer; prakandita (non-political) president, chief executive; cakatita bossy, domineering; kratita (colloq. kratita) to dictate, command by force; be a dictator; añakratita dictatorship; tyranny

titi (affect.) grandmother (see otinde)

titihas (vt) to ogle, look at furtively

tití(k) (colloq.) good-bye (< tikas)

titiñ (vi) to ring, be ringing, usu. of bells only; runditiñ (vt) to ring a bell or similar object; çutiti&ñtilde; (fig.) to ring, resound

titriñ to hammer lightly/carefully; etitriñ a small or light-weight hammer

titrit (n., adj.) spiral in form, shape or pattern; (ange...) tree sp., the branches grow in a spiral pattern from the trunk

titruwat (vi) to foretell the future, to prophesy; (irreg.) anditru a prophecy; (pra)kanditru prophet

tiyanju then, at that time; titanju just then, just at that time

tocami ~toçami sweetened bread, "sweet rolls"

tok (imit.) sound of knocking

tokapra paper money, bills (<toye+kapra), colloq. kapi

toki see latoki

tokop a k.o. sausage

tokro in building, a beam

tola (vt) to smell/sniff s.t.; (e.g. yatola aveç he smells the flowers; ne yatola petip he smells (can smell) petip; tolani (n) smell, the smell of; (vi.) to smell (of): (ya)tolani petip it smells of petip; (ya)tolani leñ/muko it smells good/bad); totola to kiss, by smelling; totolum to kiss with the mouth; kandola the nose (humorous, syn. imak)

toli to visit, stop in/by, drop in; (marit.) make a port of call; andoli a visit; port of call; kandoli (anim.) visitor; (neut.) a ship that is due to arrive

tolot to trim, snip (cut off small pieces of s.t.); andolot trimmer, clipper (tool)

toluka raw, uncooked; andoluka(ç) raw material(s), ingredient(s)

tombar glory; fame, renown; also as adj.; tratombar (n,adj) disgrace(d); rundatombar (vt) to disgrace

tombrak an old liquid measure (tomos+raka) now equiv. to 5 cipetu, approx. 7-1/2 qts.US, but in usage equiv. to the US gallon

tombret ~trombet see ombret

tombus a type of steamed bun with meat or vegetable filling

tomen (vt) to judge/decide (legal); andomen judgment/decision (legal); kandomen a judge, magistrate (various ranks); cakatomen found guilty/culpable

tomimik coins; small change (ult. <toye+mimik); colloq. tomiki

tomos a (pre-metric) unit of liquid measure, now syn. with cipetu

tondeñ myth; legend; tondenga(le) mythical, legendary

tongi a small shop or store; çutongi set up shop, go into business; rundongi... spec., have a ...store; also more genl., be in the business of..., deal in..., e.g. yarundongi lingaran he has a shoe store; he's in the shoe business; ketongi shop-keeper/owner/small merchant; tongumut (colloq. tombut) a general store, large store; department store

tongo (naut.) spec., the poles that support the outrigger float, larok; by ext., the entire outrigger, boom and float together

toñak bread with filling, a sandwich

topar (colloq. topi) a ferry (boat); nopra-topa to cross by ferry (usu. vi, may be vt with object= the body of water crossed); rundopar...(ri andopra...) to ferry s.t./s.o. (across...); ketopi the person/family responsible for providing ferry service in rural or isolated areas.

topimbañ hormone (< Gwr doyh pi:ng bang 'body seed (=gland) juice'

topet pencil, stylus; topelica burin, tool for engraving on metal; topekut paintbrush (of any size)

toçami ~tocami sweetened bread, "sweet roll"

toçin (vi) to bathe, take a bath; rundoçin to bathe s.o.; andoçin ~ toçin+poss. bath; yutroçin ~ atetroçin bathing-room or (outdoor) area

toço (vt) to bake; andoço baked goods in genl., also, a baked product comparable to bread; kandoço baker; yundroço oven; bakery

totok (vi) to knock, strike with the knuckles

totola to kiss, in the Kash way, by sniffing and rubbing the cheek; totolum to kiss with the mouth

tovar (vi) to be hopeful, to hope; çutovar to become hopeful, be encouaged; rundovar to encourage s.o.; cakatovar to get one's hopes up, to hope in vain

toye (colloq. often towe) money, in genl.; añandoye (common colloq. andowe) finance; ando(y,w)eka(le) financial; ... punduñ trust fund (usu. by a living grantor); ...panip play-money, such as children might make or use in a game; toyambanip id., or, gambling scrip or chips (with real value); totoye cash; tovacan credit; andoye wealth; pendoye wealthy; see toyonji

towikoñ protein (< Gwr doyh gÿ:ng 'life building-block')

toyonji counterfeit money; mepu... to counterfeit; kandoyonji counterfeiter (contrast toye panip~ambanip play-money, such as might be used in a game)

tra- (~tar- before vowel) negative prefix, not... un-

trafun art, artistic work; the fine arts in genl.; ketrafun artist; trafunga(le) artistic; trafufun an (artistic) amateur, dilettante, would-be or hack artist

traka (vt) to buy; kandraka buyer; see also kandrak; ...toye to buy for cash; ...tovacan buy on credit; (ka)pitraka (fin.) an option to buy, a call-option; traka-traka ~traka-taka to buy up, to "corner the market"; traka-tovar (fin.) to speculate (lit., buy-hope)-- more commonly colloq. traka-trop

trakalat (med. only) ... ana to abort a pregnancy; andrakalat abortion; catrakalat (dat., the woman) to undergo an abortion; (nom., the child) to be aborted (<kalar)

trakiç dice (for gambling); NB there is no singular form-- mesa trakiç one/a die; panip... to play at...., cinga ... to throw...., faki/(pa)paki ... to gamble at ... (ult. related to trako)

trako bone; (as adj. ~tatrako) bony

traleleñ evil (n., adj.); evil-doing, evil things (<leñ)

tramba lamp

tramit sad (see also traminda)

tramuko (colloq.) not bad, OK

trañ (imit.) the sound of hammering or heavy pounding; see also tatrañ

trap see tap

traponolit illiterate (< nolit)

trasanje (vulg. slang) e... masturbation; mepu e... to masturbate (see sanje)

trayi (vt) to pull, draw toward; (vi, dat. obj.) to attract, interest, e.g me yatrayi e rinda music interests me, I'm interested in music; mita me yatrayi I'm attracted to Mita; tatrayi interesting, attractive; see also katrayi

trehan (vi) to jump, leap (off of s.t.)

trelo (colloq.) the seven-day week (see sotero)

trep (interj.) back! get back! handrep (n., vi) (mil.) retreat

tret torn, ripped; rundét to rip, tear s.t.; cakatrét in shreds, tatters

trik (vt) to prick, poke; to skewer; cakatrík to get pricked, poked (painfully); etrík fork, skewer (utensil); see also trok

trikañu lit., poke the mind; a telepathic technique, to give someone a quick message (in the course of a verbal conversation)--a reminder, correction, information they need etc.; also, to receive such a quick message from someone; if used to excess, it can come to be considered rather aggressive or rude

triñ (imit) the sound of light hammering, tapping (with an object)

trip (vi) to drip; (n) a drip, drop; also onomat.

trivus awkward, clumsy; unskilled; (vi) to slip up, make an error; rundivus (vt) fumble, botch, do s.t. incorrectly; ca- ~cakatrivus utterly clumsy, totally inept (of a person or his work)

troci small purse, coin purse; see yutroci

troçe colloq. alt. of kundroçe green

trok (to prick, poke, in many dials.-- but not in Holundan; see trik) trok, icitrók, cakatrók, troki coarse terms for sexual intercourse, to be avoided

trokañu lit., f*ck the mind: to "speak" or invade someone's mind, with the purpose of insulting, greatly confusing, or otherwise upsetting them; syns. cokañu, icikañu (trok- ~cok-, ici- are vulgarisms for the sex act)

tromat (vt) to find, discover; andromat a discovery; añandromat findings, data, information

tomolu (manufactured) product(s)-- colloq. often pronounced without the final vowel (based on putative noml. < rumolu caus. of volu)

trondato colloq. for katorom lato < sorom

tropa warning, caution; vele... to warn; catropa to be warned, told to be careful, "you'd better watch out"

troçe colloq. alt. of kundroçe green

truci see nunje

trufa grass, turf-- refers more to domesticated varieties, deliberately planted, e.g in a lawn; okam (q.v.) refers more to wild grasses

trundata an import (i.e. a product); as adj. imported--colloq.often pronounced without the final vowel (< putative noml. of rundata caus. of rata)

trunjosa an export (i.e. a product); as adj. exported--colloq.often pronounced without the final vowel (< putative noml. of runjosa caus. of cosa

trupek to exclude, keep out; trupengi excluding; (as prep.) except (for)

truçomi ~truçoñi in vain, without purpose-- colloq. for inguçomi, see inga

tuko a medicinal salve, of Gwr manufacture (properly tawu-ko, its trade name)

tukrim (colloq. turi) various lizard spp.(and a few mammals) capable of flight that also "sing", have an audible cry (~"bird"); tukrayo(k) a small, dark-green sp. whose cry is heard at sunset; tukrimbara a med.size black tukrim with a raucous cry; they are social and considered intelligent but malicious and an ill omen (associated with death); also called (tukrim) kayi-ko (< Gwr)see also tumbrik

tulan a tray, salver, for serving food

tulu gap or narrow opening between things that are close together, through which one may pass-- e.g. between two parked cars; a narrow walkway between buildings; pathway through rocky terrain; aisle(s) in e.g. a theater or auditorium; mouth of a cave; a mountain pass (~tulu surañ), opening in a reef or sandbar through which boats may pass (~tulu çaru, tucaru)

tumbra healed, cured; çutumbra to be healing, on the mend, recovering from an illness; rundumbra to heal/cure s.o., to treat; kandumbra medical doctor, native healer; andumbra medicine, therapy, treatment, e... (more common, colloq. yandumbra the art/science of medicine

tumbrik those lizard and mammal spp. capable of flight that do not "sing", have no audible cry

tumbiyunu ~tupiyunu cure-all, panacea (old colloq., < tumbra+yuno)

tundeyu Carbon dioxide (CO2); tundeyamir (colloq. tunjami) frozen CO2, "dry ice" (< Gwr alive+air)

tundo to pray, beseech, appeal to (stronger than turo); andundo (legal) appeal; rundundo (vt) to appeal (a legal ruling); kandundo kandundo appellant (legal); etundo a prayer, petition, (non-legal) appeal; see also himaçema

tundru (vt) to lift with the hand; pick up; ... hece , colloq. tukrece to lift weights (exercise); andukrece weightlifting; kandukrece weightlifter, body-builder; cakatundru thievish, light-fingered.

tungar tribe, clan (somewhat arch.); party; (social) class; any sizeable group of people who share e.g. politics, language, interests...; tunga(r) luhu the nobility; tungakramon the aristocracy; tunga samar commoners (somewhat obs.); the common people; tutungar club, association (colloq. tutuk); tungaprehan cohort (group of people roughly the same age); (school) class, grade; colloq. kaprekan, prekan

tunjami see tundeyu

tunje (slang) contr. of rundunje to deliver; see nunje, ketuci

tup (onomat.) bounce; catúp (vi) to bounce; runjátup to bounce s.t.

tupam grease, fat, for cooking; animal fat; tupanga(le) greasy; (tech., med.) fatty, adipose

tupatúp (hum., coarse) to have sexual intercourse (< tup)

tur ~ turi desc. of things flying/floating or drifting in the air; turin to fly, usu. of "birds", airships etc.; çuturin to take off, take to flight; rundurin put to flight ("birds"), to fly/pilot (airship); andurin flight, aeronautics; kandurin pilot, aviator; cematruwin airport, airfield; turi-turi to hover (stationary in the air, as a helicopter can do); foya tur ~turin air-sickness or vertigo; cakatúr air-sick; cakaturin to fall (fatally) from a great height; see also turilelo

turas regular, occurring at regular intervals; (esp. gram., geom.) regular in form/shape; traturas irregular; anduras regularity; schedule; cf. tuça

turat the 6th day of the 7-day week

turilelo flying insects comparable to butterflies; they are often colorful, usu. diurnal

turiyoret (dial. tuçoret) flying insects comparable to moths, mainly nocturnal

turo to beg, beg for; turole ~ maturo excuse me (often ... na); turole ~ maturo precedes an imper. addr. to a superior, "please..."; in colloq. usage, simple turo is 'please'

tuça exact, precise (also used adverbially, e.g. teka ro tuça(ni) ~tuça(ni) teka ro exactly two o'clock); fixed, firm, definite; anduça precision, exactitude; runduça to set right, correct-- runduça pinaro to set a clock; cakatuça to be a perfectionist; tratuça inexact; imprecise

tuçi an antibiotic ointment of Gwr manufacture

tutek colloq. var. of sutek

tutuk (colloq.) see tungar

tuwi soup; sutuwi plain/clear broth

tuyam a popular noodle-soup

See also the Supplement

N (Twelfth letter of hakanga, called na, an alveolar nasal, IPA [n].)

na ~naná, ~aná, ~ená) intro. hesitation word., well, hmm, oh..., er...-- the vowel is usu. lengthened; nána thing, unspec. object e.g. kandri nana yu what's that thing? kaná thingy, whatchacallit (when one can't remember a word)

naci a watch (timepiece) (colloq., <pinaci)

naciki to fry (usu. contr. >ciki)

nafe scale(s) of a fish/reptile; (adj.) scaly; see also randap

nahan (vt) to eat; to erode (by wind, water), corrode (by acid, harsh chemicals); cakanahan eroded, corroded, consumed; rundahan to feed s.t. to s.o.; ponahan edible; andahan food; a meal; tranahan to fast; andranahan a fast; see also endak

naka (vt) to pardon, forgive; andaka pardon, forgiveness

nakayi (pron. nakai) emph. form of hayi yes-- yes, definitely, absolutely

nakuça (vt) to broil

nakuweyu (proper name) a Gwr mathematician, Na Kwæy-Hu (fl. ca. 2000 p.m.), who researched and formalized what we call the "Fibonacci series"; moyot ... the relationship between any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, basically 8:5-- considered harmonious and aesthetically pleasing; also called moyot maci (< maq dzi [octal] ten five)

namapus (vt) to cook by steaming

nami (vi) to cook, be cooking; often used colloq. as vt; çunami (of food) to be cooking; rundami to cook (s.t., a dish); (nami) nami fanan ~napanan to cook slowly in liquid, to braise or stew; cakanami overcooked; tranami raw (of s.t. that ought to be cooked)

namik see anamingi

nana thing, object, device (unspec. or unidentifiable); pl. nanaç things, in genl., stuff; see na

nandayi (pron. nandai) emph. form of tayi no-- absolutely not

nandu (colloq.) snacks or drinks, "street food", usu. sold from a temporary stand or push-cart; kenandu such a vendor

nangan rough (texture); rundangan to roughen, abrade, file; cakanangan to rub the fur the wrong way.

nanguça (vi,vt) to burn up/down (s.t. in its entirety); vele... to cremate; irreg. derivs. çunguça be in flames, burning up; runguça set fire to; (obs.) to clear fields by burning; canguça burnt up/down, destroyed by fire; anguça a (destructive) fire e.g. ... puna, ... añange; (irreg.) añanguça arson; kañanguça arsonist

naniyaki malicious minor spirits (children of Forest) that lead one astray in the forest; if they succeed in leading one all the way to "Father Forest", one may die

naniyoret ~nañoret a mischievous or malicious nocturnal sprite

nanowin ~nonowin career, area of work, life's work; see nowin

nanja (vt) to meet, encounter; to collide with, ~... mate collide; cakananja to collide, have an accident; krananja accident; sunanja waves, surf (of ocean or lake)

nanjul (vt) to steal; kandanjul thief; cakananjul (pers.) to be/get robbed; (thing) to get stolen

napasan to roast (nami+fasan)

napi(ni) barely (free form of -pi)

napo(ni) just, only (free form of -po); ...naponi only (restrictive); napo-napo only, merely, nothing but...

narak loud; çunarak becoming/getting loud; rundarak to increase the volume of; andarak noise; commotion; kandarak loudspeaker

nasa minute (meas. of time); nasa-nasa every minute, minute by minute; nasani(po) (adv) for just a minute, momentarily; (as adj.) nasani ~nanasani momentary, temporary; nasani cosa(po) just a minute/moment ago; see also naçi(po)

naçi(po) (interj.) just a minute! i.e, I'll be right there!; naçi-naçi(po) just a minute! not so fast! hold on! wait!; (ult. <nasa+ci)

natawu (vt) to boil, cook by boiling

nava far; far away (NB prefixed comparative/superlative, lanava, canava); nanava very far away, out of sight; çunava to recede, go away, vanish into the distance; rundava move s.t. away; andava ~navani distance; cakanava unattainable, impossible to achieve; beyond all expectations; following an adj., (caka)nava means 'extraordinarily...'; ...navani as far as..., up to... (of distance, e.g. micosa holundan navani we went as far as Holunda; miharan i ratuwe fanu navani we walked as far as/up to 8th Street); NB correctly, it is postposed; colloq., preposed, in which case its "object" is in the nom.-- micosa navani holunda, miharan navani ratu fanu

nawus (vi) to swim; nawu(s)-nawus paddle around, splash/play around in the water; nawu-çelum the backstroke; nawu-rini breast- or butterfly stroke; yurunawus a (man-made) swimming pool

naya kind, sort; (gram.) gender; kandraya what kind of...? e.g. ...ele iyu what kind of plant is that?; naya-naya all kinds of, all sorts of; andaya (tech.) social class; añandaya society in genl.; cakandaya (sociol.) highly class-structured; (colloq, pej.) class-ridden; pranaya (high) status, socially superior; nayakure low status, socially inferior; nayumut bisexual orientation (most common amongst the Kash); nayaró (med.) hermaphrodite/-itic; nayasít common term/self-designation for those who have exclusively homosexual orientation (lit. gender three; see also nayaci, nimesa

nayaci (adj., indefinite) some kind of..., some sort of...,e.g. yaworana numuwi nayaci 'it looked like some sort of fish...'; ena, iya titiça (~tiçami) nayaci 'oh, he's some sort of cousin (of mine)'; also (colloq.) nanayaci ~nañaci (adv., indef.) sort-of..., kind-of..., to some ~a certain degree..., as ikono nanayaci (~nanayaci ikono) 'they sort-of agreed'; postposed when modifying an adjective-- puna raka nañaci 'sort of a big house ~a sort-of big house'

nayi ~naiyici (pron. [naj], ['najtSi) the young of the kusimi, ~kit, kitten

nayipañ a veg/fruit similar to the tomato

necu (vi) to jump (from standing position); as vt, to jump over s.t; ...rini to dive; cakanecu to jump/start out of fright or surprise, be startled

nekan building, in genl., any (usu. large) structure

nekece (n) rust; corrosion, in genl. (ult. < neyak+hece); rusty (see also kece); irreg. çungece (vi) to rust; corrode (usu. by action of air or water; of acid, nahan)

nele the sky; as pl. neleç the heavens, the firmament

neneyu (in compds. nenu-) gas; nenuka(le) gaseous; (< Gwr redup. næw air)

nengit (vt) to claim, aver (i.e. that s.t. is true, a fact)

neyak excrement; any exudation; neçikun earwax; neçimak mucus from the nose, snot (see also fufimak, fumak)

neyuprum (coll. ñuprum) stomach/intestinal gas; the discomfort of...; indigestion

nici leak, leaky; cakanici to spring a leak

nicumbok a large "lizard" of low intelligence; in the past sometimes used as a pack animal despite being refractory and unreliable

nifa snow; yanifa ~yale nifa it is snowing

nihiket the scalp

nihin the top surface, top of; ri.... on top of, above

nika a twig, small branch or piece thereof

nikapiki (colloq. kapiki, piki) a match (for lighting things)--most used in urban/sophisticated dial.; ult. < nika+ Gwr. fire); see also the less-used (native) syn. nikuç

nikar vertical, upright; plumb; enikar plumb-bob

nikor an alloy of metals (< Gwr ni kr two metal)

nikuç a match (for lighting things)--more used in rural areas, or by purists who try to avoid Gwr loans (< nika+huça; see also nikapiki)

nila (anim., ~niç neut.) demonstrative, and pronoun of the 3rd pers. plural, they, those, those things

nilus the hand

nim the number five; bears the stress in derivs. e.g. kuním, folaním etc.

nimbis a pillow, cushion; nimbimi a small pad/cushion

nimbrak the skull

nimbuna attic or loft-space of a house

nimbur (vt) to remember (takes gen/dat. object); rundimbur to remind s.o. of s.t.; nimbu-nimbur (liri...) (vi) to reminisce (about...)

nimesa ~nimesapo exclusively heterosexual orientation (< naya mesa)

nimu a pot: usu. a metal cooking pot, but can refer to ceramic pots both useful and decorative; nimu fanan a heavy metal/ceramic pot for slow braising/stewing; nimu ceñ an electric version thereof, of Gwr manufacture (Gwr ceng trade name)

ninat ceiling (see also hafa)

nindopor Solstice (< Gwr ning naw br)

nindrako the head

ningar (vi) to stand, be upright; çuningar to get up, rise from a sitting position; rundingar to set s.t. upright; to erect s.t.; cakaningar ecut +poss. (s.t.) to make one's fur stand on end, make one's flesh crawl (from fright, alarm, disgust etc.); ninga-tringat crudely built, jerry-built, jury-rigged; see also eningar, ningombra

ningombra (lit. body-dead) carcass, remains (of a dead animal); rude if said of humans

nine affect. term for mother, see also inde, tete

nini ~nini-nini (usu. caka-, colloq.) to overuse/misuse the -ni suffix- a problem grammar teachers encounter in young students

ninim to trace/track a person/animal by visible clues (irreg. < inim)

ninip (vi) to slide; rundinip to slide s.t., push s.t. (a little bit)

nip (imit., interj.) said when one slips, "oops!"; cakaníp to slip (and usu., fall); (inanim.) slippery

niri (vt) to steer ( a vehicle or boat); andiri steering wheel of a car or other vehicle; kandiri driver of a car; cakaniri (of a vehicle) out of control, skidding

nirit to control; çunirit (liri...) to gain control (of...); andirit (n.) control; kandirit controller (person--may also be used of a device, but better apral kandirit; cakanirit said os s.o. who always wants to be in control, a controlling person

nisa king/queen-- the supreme, usu. hereditary, ruler of a nation-- used in various areas of Hanjomim, Nocaniki and elsewhere but not in Yanatros. The first child of a nisa is called anandisa, roughly "crown prince"

niçur brave; andiçur bravery; kandiçur brave person, hero (syn. temo); cakaniçur rash, fool-hardy, taking chances; traniçur cowardly, andraniçur cowardice--esp. in a military context catraniçur >overcome by cowardice, said of one who runs away from the battle, who refuses to do his duty

niya very; more emph. niya-niya, niniya very, extremely, highly

niyak branch (lit. and fig.); mepu... ~çuniyak to branch off; niyaci a stick of wood; (builder's slang) ~ñaci piece(s) of lumber, usu. of lighter weight/manageable size, e.g. wall-studs, rafters etc.

niyon the arm (as a whole, from shoulder to hand); niyocuma the upper arm; niyongure the lower arm, forearm

nocaniki the name of the smaller continent on Cindu (etym. uncertain)

nokrando (vt) to poison; (vi) poisonous, toxic; colloq. nokrat; nokrati mildly poisonous; enokrando ~enokrat poison(s) in genl., but usu. those derived from plants/chemicals; sunokrat venom of an animal/insect; venomous

nolit (vt) to read; ponolit able to read, literate; (inanim.) legible; noli(t)-nolit read quickly, skim; traponolit illiterate; (inanim.) illegible; andolit literacy; kandolit reader; andonolit literature; andonolita(le) literary; kandonolit litterateur, critic

nombuk danger; dangerous (usu. physical); rundombuk to endanger, jeopardize; put at risk; nombukrak great danger, peril, risk, jeopardy; canombukrak to be in id.

nomo (vt) to greet; andomo a greeting; manomo hello

nonji (vt) to scoop up (with a ladle or large spoon); andonji a portion, serving of food; enonji a ladle; kandonji an excavating machine

nopat a bridge, viaduct, overpass on a highway; railroad trestle

nopra (vt) to cross, go across; andopra the other side of; ri...(dat./acc) across, on/to the other side of

nowin one's living, livelihood; occupation; (as vb.) to make one's living as..., to work as..., e.g. yanowin kañulin he works as ~makes his living as a carpenter; tonowin wages, salary; note verbal use as "to earn"-- tonowimbi sit truni aroni I earn 3 truni an hour; nowin ri... work at, be employed at..., e.g. yanowin ri landiñ he works at a bank; see also nanowin

-nu (sfx) often (see nunu)

nuca sandal(s), usu. a flat piece of leather or rubber to protect the sole of the foot, held on with a band or (fancy) straps

nula var. of anula gold

nulañ sad; nulandulañ melancholy, depressed; depressing, gloomy; çunulañ becoming sad; rundulañ to sadden; cakanulañ (hum., nom.) "down in the dumps", blue; (dat.) melancholic, depressed; (inanim.) depressing; andulañ ~nulañi sadness; depression; nulak(i) interj. of sympathy, what a pity!, how sad!; ...nulanji poor little..! andulañi unfortunately, sadly

numba (vi) go along, accompany; kandumba passenger; (vt) to ride in/on, e.g. ... kreci/ñaki to take a train/car, go by train/car, ... haran to go on foot

numu (anim.) fish in genl.; (inanim.) fish as food

nundik a stupid, boring or irritating person (< Gwr nung diq)

nunje (vt) to carry in the hand; rundunje (slang tunje) to convey, deliver s.t.; andunje a small package or parcel; ketuci (slang) a person who makes deliveries, e.g. a mail-carrier; truci (colloq.) a small pack or package of s.t., i.e. of food/etc. pre-packaged

nunji (vt) to meet, encounter, make the acquaintance of; rundunji to introduce s.o.

nunu often (free form of sfx. -nu)

nupeliç fake gold, pinchbeck-- a cheap alloy that resembles gold (< nula feliyoç Gwr gold)

nurak peace; nuraka(le) peaceful; çunurak to be at peace, to make peace (with); endo te nurak "peace to you" the normal greeting to a stranger, or on introduction; less formally ende nurak ~ nurak.

nuro deep; çunuro becoming deep; runduro make s.t. deep(er); cakanuro (of a ship) lost at sea; anduro ~nuroni depth

nuça (vt) ask for, request, order s.t.; anduça a request, order for s.t.

nuçim lonely, alone (of a person); nunuçim reclusive; a loner or hermit; runduçim to isolate s.t. or s.o., to set apart; cakanuçim ostracized, esp. as punishment for persistent anti-social behavior

nuwak (vi) to ask; to question s.o. (dat.); (with reflex.) to wonder (about); runduwak to interrogate (anim); anduwak a question; nuwa(k)-nuwak curious; cakanuwak overly curious, inquisitive, nosy; penuwak to doubt; be doubtful; abbr. nw

nuwakañu to question the mind, usu. in a benign or friendly sense; sometimes used casually to determine a person's truthfulness, sincerity, compatibility or motivation.

nuwar (vi) to spend the night, stay overnight; cakanuwar (of a guest) to stay longer than expected or invited; to over-stay one's welcome; punduwar hotel, inn, guesthouse

nuyot insect(s) in genl.; cakanuyot infested with insects

See also the Supplement

R (Thirteenth letter of hakanga, called ra, an alveolar trill IPA [r])

racañ (vt, vi) to grind up (mainly of meat); ground, ground up; eracañ a meat-grinder/food mill

racuñ (vt) to help, assist, aid; andracuñ help, assistance; parandacuñ (çehanga) magic

raka big, large, great; çuraka get big, grow; rundaka to enlarge, expand s.t.; andraka ~rakani size; raka-raka very large, huge, gigantic; palaraka imposing, impressive (esp. if large) see also laraka, caraka

rakop difficult, hard; rundakop to impede; andrakop difficulty

rambas (vt) to remove, take off (NB: yarambas payoni he took off his (own) cape, vs. ne yarambas payoni he took off his/her (someone else's) cape-- the distinction is necessary only when both referents are 3d-pers. pronouns); see also ravas

(randa) (old deriv. of rata) see laranda

randap to scale a fish; to remove the skin of a fish/reptile

randik muscle e.g. randikiç niyoni the muscles of the arm; as adj., muscular, e.g. kaçut randik a muscular man, yarandik he is muscular; randika(le) (med.) pertaining to the muscles/muscular system, e.g. andurup ... muscular weakness

rango a bowl, either decorative or useful

rapinda (interj.) welcome! ...ri(+acc.) welcome to... (< rata+minda); kota/vele ... to welcome s.o.

rapundan (colloq. pundan[ji]) a cupboard/ pantry for storing food

raput (vt) to put away, save; toye ... savings (money); rundaput to preserve food; rapu(t)-raput to hoard; cakraput miserly, stingy; andraput s.t. saved, put away for safe-keeping; yundraput store-house, ware-house, ...kota vocabulary, ...etengi (large or public) library (but more usu pundek; see also kandengi); archive(s); ... trafun ~yundrafun museum; kandrapu(t) celi storage battery of a car, colloq. puceli

rase vine, creeper, in genl.; raçange (genl.) the large, thick-stemmed vines/lianas that grow in tropical forests, sim. to rattan

raça (vt) to curse s.o.; raç (interj.) damn! damned...!

rata (vi) to come; to arrive; andrata arrival; cakrata to show up, put in an appearance (usu. unexpectedly)

ratu street, road (usu. paved); ratumik small lane or alley; ratraka highway

ravas orig. a syn. of rambas, now has the math. usage 'to subtract, take away', as ravaska nim alo folaket subtract 5 from 16; andravas subtraction; rap (~rapa before ro) (math.slang) minus, take away, as, nim rapa ro ya(le) sila 5 minus 2 is 3

ravut to uproot (plants etc.); fig., destroy, extirpate; cakravut (obs.) to suffer one's family to be killed off/wiped out (an ancient punishment); by ext., totally uprooted, destroyed, wiped out-- a somewhat stronger term than cakayamun (see yamun), which implies a certain selectiveness

rayan flag, banner

re post-vocalic var. of are sent. conj., rel. marker

recek (vi) to fall, tip over; çurecek ~ cakrece(k)-recek unsteady, about to fall; rundecek to knock/tip s.t. over; cakrecek to fall to the ground, get knocked over, collapse

rembaci to scold; cakrembaci to get scolded; <rembak

rembak to punish; andrembak punishment; cakrembak get punished, suffer punishment (implies: severely), (legal) cakrembak-omer get "punished to the full extent of the law"

rendik (vt) to twist (see also murendik)

renja to really desire or want (stronger than teca, with which is is ult. related); (irreg.) arenja such a desire, lust, esp. sexual; karenja (colloq. krenja) (vt) to covet; ...liri (vi) be envious or jealous of...; akrenja ~krenja+poss. envy, jealousy, covetousness; cakrenja (hum., nom.) overcome by jealousy, "green with envy"; (dat) or syn. hañukrenja having a jealous or envious nature

reçel (vt) to trade, swap; andreçel trade, commerce in genl.; andreçenga(le) commercial; añareçel (n.) an exchange, trade

ret (onomat.) rip, tear

ri (~i if the neighboring word begins/ends with r)(prep.) with dative, to; with acc. at, in, on; many prep. expressions ri + noun + noun.; with gen., at the home of, ri arani... at (place of business, shop, etc)

ricañ the knee; see also iricañ

rikas a show, performance (e.g. on stage, TV, movie etc.)--ult. < rundikas caus. of tikas

rimbik drizzle, mist (see ripa)

rimbur austere, severe

rimevi expensive, costly; ta... ~tramevi inexpensive; see also mevi

rinda music; kerinda musician; cindarinda the musical scale

rindi (vi) to stop, cease; çurindi come to a stop; rundindi to stop s.t.; cakrindi come to a sudden halt (lit., fig.); of traffic, blocked; tarindi ceaseless(ly), endless(ly), without stopping

rindikañu to stop/block a telepathic message or probe-- a difficult technique

rini (vi) to fly; necu ... to dive; foya ... air-sick(ness); cakrini (of a chip or fragment) to fly off; cakrini-rini id. in quantity, in all directions; see also tur, turin

rinjumuñ to chant, intone (<rinju+ñumuñ)

rinjura (short rinju is more common, esp. in derivs.) to sing (esp. of adults); kandrinju(ra) singer; kandrinju lato (arch.) "wandering singer", troubadour;andrinju(ra) song; rinjaros "morning song"-- a literary/musical genre usu.expressing joy, hopefulness, anticipation, etc.; rinjoret "night/evening song"-- a literary/musical genre usu.expressing sadness or weariness at an ending, regret/disappointment at things done or left undone etc.

ripa (n) rain; pl. the rainy season; yaripa ~yale ripa it's raining; cakripa (of a person) to be caught in the rain; (of weather) to be raining hard, a downpour; ripa-ripa a brief shower; rimbik drizzle, mist; çuripaç (of the rainy season) approaching, about to begin; rundipa (fig.) to rain (s.t.) down on (s.o.)

riçatra to have sex outside one's own species but within the family Hominidae, a practice generally avoided by the Kash (borr. < the Galactic language, with thanks to J.Cowan and apologies to Larry Niven)

ritan here; ritandi right here

riti the tiller/rudder of a boat; kandriti ~triti steersman/ helmsman of a boat

riyan there (nearby); riyandi right there

riyena (at) where? (see also karinena)

riyene (to) where?

riyeni (from) where?

riyun there (far, yonder); riyundi way over there (but at a specific place)

ro the number two; kuró second; (note dissim. in redup.: loro two by two, each two, lorongo two hundred); roka(le) double; twin (see the separate listing); loro+poss. both (of...); andoro a pair, set of two matching items; andoroni (its) mate, the other one of a pair (esp. if missing); çukaró (vi) to split in two; rundoro to double s.t.; see also rona

roka twin, spec. of children: ana ... ~androka twin(s)-- like all multiple births, rare amongst the Kash; (ana) roka kuwa ~(and)rokuwa identical twins; (ana) roka çunu ~(and)rocunu fraternal twins; these terms are considered units, and case endings/possessive sfxs. go on the last term-- ana rokami my twins/twin children; yarungamon ana roka kuwaye (~androkuwaye) she gave birth to identical twins. The reduced compds. are more colloq. Parents always include ana ...; when referring to one's own twin sibling, one simply says roka(mi). Plural forms are not used; as subject of a verb, however, ana roka... calls for the plural subject-pfx.-- ana rokani (~androkani) loroni mende iyukar kandumbrala her twins have both become doctors

rona in proper names, second child-- properly used only by royal and aristocratic families, but often affected by the nouveaux-riches

rondoñ (also colloq. rondroñ, rondondroñ) (vi) to make a low-pitched purring sound (esp. of some animals, also fig. of e.g. a motor); see also muru-muru

ronek cold; çukronek get cold; rundonek make s.t. cold; cakronek overcome by cold, "chilled to the bone"; ronenek(i) a little cold, chilly

rongo hundred(s); erongo a quantity/set of 100, the Kash "gross"

rop (onomat) fall forward, fall on one's face; cakróp to fall forward/on one's face

roçe (n.anim.) the sea, ocean; roçembik a sea (i.e. a smaller,definable portion of an ocean); ñondroçe a bay, large inlet (<niyon+roçe)

rota deck, of a ship

rowak (n, vb) flood; çurowak (of rivers, tide e.g.) beginning to rise; rundowak to flood s.t. (deliberately, as a field); cakrowak severely flooded, inundated; androwak ~surowak (more formal, n.only) a flood; kotroçe (cak)rowak storm surge, tidal surge

rucunu (vt) to change, alter s.t.(<çunu)

rukan lip(s) (of the mouth)

rukit a faucet or spigot; paha... to open/turn on id., lipet... to close/turn off id.

rumale (caus.) to create (<ale)

rumanat (caus.) to whiten, to whitewash, paint white (<vanat)

rumbaha (caus.) to open s.t. (<paha)

rumbat (math.) to multiply; andrumbat multiplication; pat (math.slang) times, multiplied by (ult. < rumbando <pando)

rumbatra (caus.) to break s.t.(<matra)

rumbende (caus.) to finish, complete (<mende)

rumbo (aux) may (permission)

rumbole (caus.) to enable, make possible (<pole)

rumek (vt) to cause, bring about; to make (s.o. do s.t.); the caus. pfx. rum- is deriv.

ruminji (caus.) to rejuvenate (<inji)

rundahan (caus.) to feed (<nahan)

rundakale (caus.) to annihilate (<tak ale)

rundana (vt) to imitate or copy s.o.; to make a copy of s.t. (see orana)

rundek tolerant; (politically) liberal; porundek (vt) to tolerate

rundikas (caus.) to show, to exhibit (<tikas)

rundiris (caus.) to frighten (<tiris, liris)

rundondo (caus.) to fill s.t. (<londo)

rundumbra (caus.) to heal, to cure s.o. (<tumbra)

rundunji (caus.) to introduce s.o. (<nunji) Erek me ya... Minan Erek introduced me to Mina; Erek man ne ya... Erek introduced her to me.

rungi (liri...) excited, enthusiastic (about...); andrungi excitement, enthusiasm; çurungi (liri...) becoming/ getting excited; carungi very or overly excited; (inanim.) very exciting. NB for the causative, one uses rungayi to excite, to animate (< kayi) , of which rungi is (originally) a colloq. variant. See also caruki

rungombra (caus.) to kill (<kombra)

ruñur to growl (see also kruñ)

rupasan (caus.) to heat s.t. (<fasan)

rus (~cakrús) moldy, mildewed, musty

ruvon to rub, massage; andruvon a massage; kandruvon masseur/masseuse; <ruvondruvon to rub up against each other (sign of affection); cakruvon chafed, made sore by rubbing

ruwi (vi) to flow; çuruwi (of the tide) beginning to rise; andruwi current (in water); cakruwi caught in a strong current, swept away; ... celica electric current; note irreg. uwi in (ma/ha/ya-)wuwi male's slang for the sexual climax, to be "coming"; see also andruyonam

See also the Supplement

L (Fourteenth letter of hakanga, called la, a denti-alveolar lateral, IPA [l].)

la- prefix to form the comparative of some adjs. (ult. <lavi)

laca a table; lacuri a desk

lahu the ankle (the med. and correct term; see also ñukace)

lakon school; lakongure lower or elementary school; lakonandru upper or high school

lalambrik a small bottle, vial; (chem.) test-tube

lalap the last day of the 7-day week; as a Spirit, considered masculine; the smaller of Cindu's two moons (var. of yalalap)

lalaru a straw for sipping (of any material); a glass tube; glass tubing (as used e.g. in a laboratory)

laléñ better; rundaleñ to make better, to improve

lali to sing, esp. of children and tukrim (implies a higher pitch than rinjura)

lalisam (vt) to prefer (see lisam)

lalu a party, festival; kandalu one who gives a party, host/hostess; laluka(le) party-like, festive; suitable for a party (e.g. clothing, food, decor)

lama (vt) to share, participate in; (n.) share, portion of s.t.; andama (business) partnership; kandama (business) partner; lambraka (bus.) majority interest, majority shareholding; kandambraka senior or controlling partner in a business venture; see also vetrama, tama

lamba any large, broad sheet of cloth: bedsheets; most spec. a ship's sail(s)

lambin soap, in genl.: lambindulus (colloq. tulus) ordinary (fine, not harsh) soap for washing the hands or face (< old Gwr. lu-lus); lambate (harsh) laundry soap or detergent for washing things (...+mate hard); lambinjut liquid soap/shampoo for washing the fur, or the body

landero parasol, sun-shade (ult. <lolan)

landiñ bank (financial inst.)

lando (vi) to float, be afloat (in water); çulando (formal) to launch a vessel; polando buoyant; trapolando non-buoyant; (irreg.) rulando to float s.t., move s.t. by floating; andando ~landoni buoyancy; cakalando (mar.) unsteady because too high in the water; (irreg.) calando flotsam, e.g. driftwood, wreckage; landoro a raft; landrayi a barge

landripa umbrella (for rain)(ult. <lolan)

landru high, lofty; upper; rundandru to raise up, to elevate; andandru height; a high place; landruni height (of s.t.); cakalandru afraid of heights

lani which (of two or more)? Interrog. pron. and adj., irreg. declension.

lanji(ni) colloq. var. of alanji(ni) since, since then

lanot (vt) to add to, to insert; andanot (colloq., more common tanot tenon (construction/woodworking term), see also licolek, colek

lañ-lañ (note pl. lañ-lañ-ila i.e., both ñ's are pronounced as [ŋ]) the indigenous inhabitants of Yanatros who number approx. 300,000 and live in a reserved autonomous area in the mountainous interior of the island, mainly in Kavatu. Primarily hunter-gatherers with some subsistence agriculture, they evince little desire to assimilate to, or even visit, the outside world. They are physically similar (though of different colors) to Kash but apparently a distinct species-- interbreeding is never successful; and they are poor telepaths. Their origin/evolution is not clearly understood. In their language, Prevli-- which is unrelated to any other on Cindu-- they call themselves [laʔlaŋ], plural [laʔlaŋta]

lañon slang for lolañon-- see lolan

laprici (colloq.) a little bit more, a little extra (implied, e.g. to a merchant: a little extra, for free), another helping of food, "lagniappe"

laprit extra, in addition, left over; tahanaprit (colloq. (ta)naprit left-over food

laraka bigger, larger

laranda (vt) to achieve, succeed at/in...; be effective, "work" (as, the medicine worked; that plan won't work); andaranda, achievement, success; (irreg.) kandanda a successful person; cakaranda (to have) a sudden/unexpected success; a windfall (ult. related to rata

lariñ (vt) to lament, mourn (in some outward, visible way; cf. avan); andariñ such lamentation, mourning; parandalariñ the mourning chant for the dead

larok the float of an outrigger canoe; float(s) of a fishing net; laroci a life-jacket

laso (vi) to go astray, wander off; lose one's way (in this sense, also ...ratu, ...vunu); rundaso to lead astray, to seduce; cakalaso lose one's way, get lost (of hum.); ...krece (of a train) to derail, go off the rails; ...ratu (of a vehicle) to go off the road-- also, ñakrece/ñaki cakalaso; ...kota/pila lose one's train of thought; andaso a detour; laso-laso wandering around (lost)

lato (vi) to wander, roam; andato wandering, vagabondage, homelessness; kandato a wanderer, vagabond; rundato (arch.) to exile, expel from the community (an ancient punishment)

latoki (colloq., also toki) a jitney cab/bus (no fixed route, often unlicensed); see also ñaki lato

latondrele (n.anim.) planet (compd. lato ri nele)

lavi more; çulavi to increase (vi); rundavi to increase (vt); andavi majority; lavini the majority/better part of, more/most of...; lavi-omban more or less; lavi-lavini(po) moreover, in addition, furthermore; (colloq.) et cetera; (as adj/n.) even more (of s.t.)

lawu-pa (pron. láu pá) a type of flat bread, sim. to pita (< Gwr)

layakraya a lighthouse (shortened to kraya in mariners' usage), < layar+haya

layar a tower; in modern usage, any tall building

layot to plan, organize; andayot a plan; planning, organization (of s.t.); kandayot planner

1. -le (~ -ale after cons.) sfx. that forms the infinitive/gerund of verbs.

2. -le dear -- (no stress shift) affectionate sfx. for terms of address/vocative , e.g. kambrale my dear friend, çenjile dear Shenji-- also appropriate as salutation of an informal letter

lecele the extra day of a leap-year (a holiday) if it occurs at a solstice or equinox (lit., wait day); see also lekrandam

lecit to curl up (as some animals do when sleeping); as adj., curled up; lecikumbe (of animals or people) to cuddle together for warmth or affection

leka to dispute, argue; leka-mandeka (liri...) to argue about; cakaleka argumentative

lekrandam the extra day of a leap-year (a holiday) if it occurs mid-month (lit., dance day); see also lecele

lele (colloq.) garden; see ilele

lelenup spoon, ~teaspoon (smaller than lenup)

leleñ good, ethical; righteous (<leñ)

lemba (math.) area (< Gwr le ba)

lembo (adv.) well; (colloq.) OK, good! (leñ+ -po)

lembrim the first day of the 7-day week (ult. <lero+mim)

lembruluñ late afternoon, approx. 1400 to sunset, when the heat is less intense (< lero+vuluñ)

lemet lightweight interior louvred shutters, to provide ventilation as well as privacy, common in the tropics in lieu of glazed windows

lendi an old pseudo-nominal <leñ+ -ni, now used only in some formal fixed expressions-- lendi lero good day; lendi ondre good evening-- in lieu of nurak, manomo or kinunji to individuals or groups whom one sees regularly; lendi çeva bon voyage, have a good trip!; lendi nahan bon appetit, enjoy your meal!

lendup (vt) to mix, blend; stir up; kralendup stir up violently, roil

lenjir (vt) to coil, coil up; roll or wind up, e.g. a rope, hose; (vi) to coil or roll up the body (or part thereof), as certain lizards, snakes, fish and insects do; also as n., a coil (as in some electrical devices); any object of such shape; cakalenjir coiled/rolled up improperly, in a tangle

lenjis (vt) to repair; çulenjis to be/become repaired; rundenjis to have s.o. repair s.t.; tralenjis in need of repair, in bad repair/condition

lenup a ladle, large serving spoon

leñ good (in almost all senses except the ethical); lembo well, e.g. lembo yamunuksa he played/competed well; (colloq.) OK! good!; lendeñ really good/well, excellent(ly); lendalañ (idiom) for good or ill; see also laléñ, caléñ, lendi; leleñ

leña tear-drop; cakaleña (of the eyes) to water; kraleña any watery/runny abnormal discharge from the eyes

leñaña (vi) to cry, shed tears; caleñaña (nom) to break into tears; be reduced to tears; (dat.) given to crying, overly emotional; be a cry-baby

lepes to call/name (as...), e.g. ne yalepes feliyo he called him a fool; uku (yu) milepes we call that "uku" ~ that's called...; rundepes to describe; andepes ~lepesni description; arandepes title, term of address; (gram.) proper noun

lepurik (vt) to bury s.t. (cf. çarok)

lero (n.anim.) the sun; yale... it is sunny; çulero becoming sunny, clearing up; more spec. the dry season is approaching/beginning; rundero put s.t. out in the sun to dry; cakalero overcome by heat, have a heat- or sun-stroke; see also lecele, lekrandam

lero (n.neut) day (meas. of time, 20 aroç); daytime (opp. night); mesa/ro ... cosa one/two/etc. ...day(s) ago; lero-lero, lelero (adv.) daily, every day; (adj.) leroka(le) daily; lerowaka (<lero+raka) holiday; (ri) yuno leroç amaraç forever, eternally; yuno... ~... yuno all day, the whole day; mesa leroni one day, "once upon a time"; ri leroç cosa in days gone by

lerondecóç the "Good Old Days", often ironic esp. with ref. to pre-Destruction times

leçe poor, needy; andeçe poverty; keleçe pauper; çuleçe to become poor, to be "going down in the world"; rundeçe to impoverish s.o., esp., to cheat s.o. out of their money; cakaleçe to go bankrupt; lose a lot of money e.g. by foolish spending, gambling, speculation

letrata tomorrow (compd. lero+rata); letratamés (properly letrata i mesa) day after to-morrow (syn. sapat, sapamés)

letrayu today (compd. lero+tayu)

levur (vt) to regret; (vt, impers.) be sorry, e.g. me yalevur (liri..., lire...) I'm sorry (about/for..., that...); cakalevur feel guilty; andevur apology, expression of regret (for some wrong), velandevur ~kotandevur to give/make ~say an apology, to apologize

leyal safe, out of danger; rundeyal to save/rescue s.o/s.t. (syn. yunek; andeyalsafety

li the basic unit of measure, slightly longer than a metre (1.1171m. or 43.98 in.)

lica (vt) to cut; trapolica dull (of a tool/knife); andica slice of..., strip of; lilica to carve, slice (food); licakan to carve, whittle, shape with a knife or other tool; licarak to cut off (large pieces), to amputate; licamik to cut up; licahá to dice (food); licecut to shave off the fur; cakalica to cut oneself accid.; lica-lica (vt) to slash at, hack at, stab...; lica-tumbra ~licumbra (med.) surgery, surgical operation; id. ~ mepu... to perform id.; kena... to undergo id.; see also tica, licolek); liconoç to neuter an animal-- of males, to castrate; of females, to spay (a rare procedure)

licolek (colloq. colek is more common) mortise (construction/wood-working term) < lica+olek; mecolek to cut/make a mortise; colek-tanot mortise and tenon; see also tanot

licucu mush (pej., usu. refers to food)

licun (cooking term) to mash/puree, of soft or cooked things; andicun a puree; see also licucu (< lica+cun)

likat tavern, bar (for drinking only; considered somewhat disreputable); (rural and almost obs.) a temporary hut built in the fields at harvest time, where someone stayed to protect the crops from thieves or foraging animals; in certain traditional tribal areas, the unmarried men's house

lilisam (vt) to adore, dote on (<lisam)

limbe (vt) to put on, don; to wear; elimbe clothing; limbekuwa (military) uniform, (servant's) livery; limbeliya to cross-dress-- a rather formal term; usu.colloq.peliya; (irreg.) kambeliya a cross-dresser, transvestite (with genuine desire/intent to appear as the other sex)-- could also refer to a trans-gendered person although that is rare among the Kash; peliçi ~capeliçi and noml. kambeliçi id., but with less serious intent, more in fun-- e.g. for a costume party; to be or go in drag; kandimbe (nobility) a lady's personal maid; limbekuwa common colloq. pronunciation of elimbekuwa uniform, livery

limu a k.o. semi-sweet wine

lin (anat.) the jaw(s), jawbone; puño lin the chin

linde limited, restricted, constrained; (as noun) limit, restriction, restraint; rundinde to limit, restrict s.t., set a limit on...; tralinde unlimited, etc.; catralinde (pej.) unconstrained, knowing no bounds, "beyond the pale"

lindilus glove(s), gauntlet

linganin a rug or carpet

lingaran shoe(s) (to cover the entire foot); lingandrak boot(s)

lipacema (vt, myth.) to control s.o. by magical means, by a spell; to enchant, enthrall (fig/lit.); calipacema possessed, esp. by a spirit (ult. < lipat+çehama)

lipat (vt) to capture, catch; (gram.) bound (morpheme); andipat a trap, snare; kelipat a captive, hostage; cakalipat caught up in..., involved in...(in a bad way); çuña-lipat to kidnap; see also pundipat

lipakañu lit., capture the mind: to exert mind-control over s.o.; andipakañu (n.) mind-control; kandikañu one who exercises mind control; (irreg.) candikañu (vb) to be under the control of..., e.g. ne candikañu keyopori 'he is/was under the control of an Alien'. This is the most general term; it is usually done with permission, for some specific purpose (e.g. to relay an Alien's message in spoken form, or perhaps to perform some [legitimate] act that the controller is unable to do). It must be carefully done, with no more force than necessary, since mental damage can result. Very few Kash are able to do it; some of the Aliens, however, are quite skilled, and have been known to misuse the power

lipembet (vt) to wrap, envelop (<lipet)

lipet (vt) to close, to cover; andipet a covering, wrapping; envelope; lipetni lid, box-top etc.

liprap (vi) to blink the eyes; lipa-lipra ~lipraci very quickly, "in the blink of an eye"

lire see liri

liri (redup. ri) about, with respect to, concerning, as to; lire id., when followed by a sentence (contr. <liri are..., also used but very formal)

liris (vt) to fear, be afraid of; rundiris to frighten; cakaliris overcome by fear, "scared to death, scared out of one's wits"; andiris fear; liri-liris uneasy, fearful; see also tirak, tiris

lisam (vt) to like; lisa-lisam (vb) (be) favorite, e.g. etengi re malisa-lisam my favorite book; lalisam (vt) to prefer; lisandalisam like it or not; see lilisam

livek long, both in size and (fig.) extent/duration (but not "a long time", see pandaçu); rundivek to lengthen s.t.; andivek ~ livekni length; (ri) livengi... (prep.)along

liya other, another; liya-liya each other, one another; (preverbal) respectively, mutually; liya-liyani one after the other; liyani otherwise; i liyani and others, et al.; et cetera, interchangeable with i lusokni q.v. sub lusok

liyalo(ni) (preferably without -ni) (adv.) besides, (as prep.) aside from (+gen.); strictly speaking, means 'aside from that, besides that'

liyu a sound, in genl.; liyuni (colloq.) (make) the sound of..., e.g. cun, cun, liyuni hiciçni his teeth went(made the sound of) "grind, grind", more formal meniyu to make/give off a sound, as hiciçni imeniyu cun, cun

loca season (of the year); locaka(le) seasonal; locangasi spring; locaripa the rainy season; localero ~locafasan the hot (dry) season

lofi small boat, usu.of wooden constuction, for personal use; lofosi ~lofoci such a boat with a sail; lofi çaka a motor-boat; lofiyak a long, narrow boat, sim.to a canoe; a racing shell; (arch., almost obs.) a dugout canoe; the traditional outrigger canoe (more spec. lofiyatongo ~lofetóñ, lofetók)

loko ~loloko (vi) be fun, in genl, entertaining, enjoyable.; (n.) loko (~andoko, more formal) fun, pleasurable diversion, entertainment; rundoko to entertain, amuse s.o.; caloko (dat.) fun-loving, amusing; (nom.) have a lot of fun, enjoy oneself immensely; kandoko entertainer (professional); see also ilongo, lokro

lokro (vt) to enjoy, take pleaure in; andokro enjoyment, pleasure; rundokro to please s.o.; gain the favor of s.o.; (irreg.) cakokro carefree, devil-may-care; hedonistic

lolan (vt) to protect; andolan protection, s.t. that protects; any sort of protective shield (see also lungara kandolan protector; (pol.) regent; andolandrehan parachute; ana ... foster-child, ama/inde... foster-parent; lolañon ~lañon a padded under-garment worn by athletes/workers to protect the genital area

lolok (~lokolok) (n)(humorous) joke, prank, antic; (as adj, vi) amusing, funny; andolok humor, sense of humor; kelolok an amusing/funny person, a joker; (irreg.) çukolok to amuse (dat.); note impersonal usage: dat.+....(without pers.pfx.)(liri) be amused (by...), e.g. me çukolok liri kotaçni I was amused by his words (equiv. to kotaçni me içukolok); ta mile çukolok we are not amused; cakolok frivolous (ult. <lolongo)

lolongo fun-loving (see lolok, ilongo)

lombi "the boss" (a somewhat disrespectful term,though sometimes used in informal settings); < Gwr lÿng master, boss + Kash -mi

lomek fertile, productive (of land); rundomek to fertilize; kandomek fertilizer; tralomek infertile (of soil); kralomek infertile (of people), unable to bear/conceive children

londo full; çulondo filling up, getting full; rundondo to fill s.t.; cakalondo to overflow; sated, stuffed, from eating; andondo capacity- (of liquids) usu. with ref. to small/medium-size containers; rundondo laca to set a table (with dishes, silverware etc.); see also meru

londolop filled to the very top, or overflowing; çulondolop filling up in such a way; rundondolop to fill s.t. in such a way

longe flint; longece flint and steel (for striking a fire (old); (arch.) the firing mechanism of the old flintlock rifle)

lonip soft to the touch; cakalonip squishy, mushy

lonot sated, satisfied; rundonot to satisfy; andonot satisfaction, satiety; cakalonot to over-eat, be "stuffed"

lopa an animal sp., about the size of a sheep or goat (domesticated, raised for food/wool/hides); as food, inanim.; lopra(k) surañ, lopañange, lopaçu related wild spp.-- some are as large as a deer/llama

lopro a small/medium-size double-hulled boat, catamaran, for pleasure/sporting use; aposi ... a large, double-hulled (commercial) vessel

loros (vi) to rest; relax; loloros restful; andoros leisure, ease; rundoros to put s.o, at ease, to placate; caloros lazy (see also fita)

luhu blood; ... kavatu a dark red/ maroon color reserved to the Kavatu royal family; anduhu breeding, blood-line, heritage

lukat copper, see also keret luhu

lukeñ unconscious; çulukeñ to fall unconscious, faint; calukeñ id., more emph., to swoon; caluke-lukeñ to fade in and out of consciousness (as a sick or dying person might); andulukeñ (med.) coma; rundukeñ render s.o. unconscious; to knock out; kandukeñ stun-gun; lulukeñ (vt) to shoot s.o. with a stun-gun (rendering them unconscious)

lukut (vi) to bleed; cakorem (ca)lukut bleed to death

lulum (vt) to lick; see also lum, elum

lulus done, finished (<lus); (irreg.) çulus coming to a close; finishing up; rundulus to annihilate; to extinguish; andulus end; destination; andulusni ~lulusni finally, at last

lum (imit. of licking, "slurp")

luma female, of hum.; (gram.) feminine (gender); see also kaçuma

lumbacelum (med., polite) oral-anal (sexual) contact

lumbak to come/go home, return home

lumbi general term of respectful address to a woman, "ma'am", esp. to a stranger, as, a sales-clerk to a customer; lumi + (surname) respectful title for adult women- Miss, Mrs, Ms.....; see also simbi

lumbit a female servant, maid, in genl.; see also simbit

lumbrelo afternoon, in genl. (orig.colloq., ult. < çelum cindero)

luminji young woman (from approx. puberty to 16-17 or marriage); lumiñ term of address to such a young woman

lunda ever, once, at some time or other; used to; aka lunda hanunji minaye? have you ever met Mina? lunda me yasisa she used to love me; aka lunda cis ne hatikasto? will you ever see him again? (see also talunda)

lundot tail (of an animal)

lunduñ (n.) a shelter, place to shelter o.s/s.t.; refuge; (of animals) den, lair; (as vi) to shelter (o.s.) (in, under, etc.); tralunduñ (be) unprotected; unsheltered; catralunduñ id., but connotes a difficult or dire situation; without recourse; mepu/minja/vele ... to make/seek/give shelter

luneyu oxygen (O) (< Gwr. pure air)

lungara (obs.) a warrior's shield

lunjur smooth; (naturally) furless; tralunjur rough (texture)

lupap a lump, small growth (~wart, skin-tag) on the human body; (as adj.) rough, bumpy (as the skin of certain "lizards" and fish)

lupat murky, troubled (of water or other normally clear fluids); cakalupat obscure, incomprehensible

lurap to spit, spit out; (n.) spit, spittle

lurin candle (orig. referred to nuts/oil of the alurit tree)

lurundi (prep.) instead (of), e.g. sawu lurundi poren water instead of wine; as adv., syn. with mowa-mowa, cf. mipila numba ñaki, mowa-mowa miharan or mipila numba ñaki, lurundi miharan (~miharan lurundi) we planned to go by car, (but) instead we walked. lurundi re... when followed by a sentence, e.g. lurundi re miharan, minumba ñaki instead of walking, we went by car.

lurup weak (fig. and lit.); çulurup becoming weak, weakening; rundurup to weaken; andurup weakness; cakalurup (nom.) suddenly overcome by weakness; lose one's grip on s.t.

lus end, ending; last

lusok (vt) to follow; kandusok follower (lit.), adherent of (fig.); andusok s.t. that follows, result, conslusion, consequence; lulusok pursue, chase; persecute, bedevil ~cakalusok to be persecuted, bedevilled; lusongi +acc. (prep.) following, according to, in accord with; (as adv.) as follows...; luso-lusok successive, one after the other ( a sequence of events not necessarily related)--contrast kake-lusok id. of logically related events; i lusokni and so forth, i lusok liyani and so forth and so on...

luç (slang, somewhat impolite) sexually promiscuous anduç promiscuity; añaluç perversion, any sexual practice outside accepted norms, e.g. sado-masochism, bestiality; kañaluç pervert; lalu luç (sexual) orgy; see luçu

luçi see luçu

luçu (vi.) to mate, of animals; çuluçu coming into heat/oestrus, of animals; runduçu to breed animals, i.e. commercially; anduçu mating season, oestrus period, of animals; luçu + poss. the mate of an animal; irreg. cakalúç(u) (of animal) a good breeder; (of people, impolite) over-sexed, promiscuous, (jocularly) sexy, "hot"); lalu luç(u), lalu cakalúç(u) sexual orgy; luç ~luçi jocular but somewhat disrespectful term for one's wife or significant other.

See also the Supplement

F (Fifteenth letter of hakanga, called fa, voiceless bilabial or labio-dental fricative, IPA [φ] (X-SAMPA [P]) or [f])

facol lonely, desolate, isolated (of a place); cakafacol stranded, marooned

faki ~faci to bet, wager; make a...; apaki (colloq. paki) a bet, wager; kapaki bettor; cakafaki addicted to gambling (NB the forms with /-c-/ are considered slightly colloq., but either may occur); the irreg.deriv. yumbraki gambling place, casino, occurs only with /-k-/; see also papaki

fakri a leavening agent in cookery and brewing-- usu.cooked uku that has been allowed to ferment (sim.to sourdough starter).

fakus a flute used by the Lañ-lañ people, usu. made from a human arm or leg bone

falaka the head; puño... crown of the head; falapatap hard-headed, stubborn; falapasak fever, feverish

fale a market, marketplace

famboli slang term for a male Kash of "average" (1.8 li) height (irreg. <fapola li); see also kemboli

fanan slow; fanapanan slowly, carefully; çufanan to slow down; rupanan to slow s.t. down, to brake; cakafananextremely slow, dawdling

fandat late, slow in arriving; delayed; rupandat to delay, put off, postpone; cakafandat extremely late, overdue; see also caki

fande blind; çufande becoming blind; (of the day) getting toward dusk; rupande to blind s.o.; cakafande totally blind (esp. if by accident), blinded

fanu ~fan the number eight (the short form is stressed in compounds, e.g. folafán eighteen

faram warm; çuparam becoming warm, warming up; ruparam to warm s.t.; cakafaram too warm, uncomfortably warm; aparam ~parañi warmth; traparam ~faraparam tepid, lukewarm

farek (vi) to depart, set out, set forth on a journey, often in compd. with kasi...; ...fosi to set out, set forth; to embark, set sail

fasak (vi, med.) feverish; have a fever; apasak ~pasak+poss. fever; çupasak become feverish; cakafasak overcome by/suffering from a high fever; (common, colloq) falapasak fever, feverish

fasan hot; çufasan getting hot, heating up; rupasan to heat s.t.; cakafasan to suffer a heat-stroke; trafasan tepid

fatap strong, harsh (e.g. of flavors, behavior); strict; cakafatap ~fatatap said of s.o. who seems needlessly strict/demanding, a stickler for details, a "pain in the ass"; ...tarambu strictly forbidden, ... vatip strictly personal/confidential; hañufatap hard-hearted; falapatap hard-headed, stubborn (cf. also çendek)

fatik spotted, blotchy (usu. of animal fur with irreg. markings, but could refer to a picture or painting)

fekrim a dagger

fekrop (~fefekrop) slightly sticky, tacky; see fengop

feles a screw (fastener); mepeles ~peles (vt) to screw s.t.; irreg. cakapeles to strip the threads of a screw

felíç (interj.) fool! you fool! cf. feliyo

feliyo foolish, silly; (n) fool; feliçi) foolishness, silliness, nonsense; feliyoç a pej. term for the Gwr people

fenefet a weasel/ferret-like mammal sp., preys on tecu

fengop (vi) to stick, adhere; sticky; rupengop to stick s.t., glue s.t.; apengop (colloq. pengop) glue; cakafengop to get stuck, stuck together, jammed (lit and fig.)

fetrak a bolt (fastener); (irreg.) petrak to bolt s.t.; bolted; capetrak firmy bolted down, firmly in place; (fig.) immobilized (e.g. from fear); immoveable (e.g. of opinion); fetracumbet a bolt with its matching nut; see also çumbet

ficas (liri...) (vi) to complain (about...); apicas complaint; kapicas complainant, (legal) plaintiff, suer; (irreg.) filambicas (colloq.) to make/file a complaint, (legal) to sue, bring suit against (cf. formal uhiyomer); fifiyacu a chronic complainer, a malcontent; cafiyacu be a chronic complainer/malcontent (these < **ficacu by haplology < ficas+çu; ult.rel. to fikas/vingas)

fici see cucifici

fifiyacu see ficas

fikan (~ange...) a tree sp. whose leaves can be used for fine sanding/polishing; epikan the leaves so used; see pikan

fikanga sandpaper (usu. commercially made, not from fikan, syn. kaprikan; see pikan

fikas (vi) to protest, object (the thing protested/objected to is expressed with liri...); apikas objection, protest; cakafikas always argumentative, protestatious; be a nay-sayer; have a negative attitude

filambicas see ficas

filan (vt) to bring, take, carry; apilan a load; the capacity of s.t.; kefilan (colloq. kefin) a porter; kapilan any relatively small device for carrying things e.g. a hand-truck (dolly), pushcart, wheel-barrow; filapilan a souvenir, s.t. brought back as a gift/memento from a trip (usu. s.t. typical of the place one has visited); see also epilan, kambilak

findoro (vt) to juggle (things); (vi) be a juggler; kapindoro juggler

findu door, doorway, gate, entrance; ekapindu a door (the actual object)

finja var. of minja--occurs only in furi-finja the game of hide-and-seek (see furik, minja)

firo (vt) to toss, throw (with no or poor aim); rupiro to eject s.o. or s.t.; to evict; cakafiro (in a game) to throw the ball away; (irreg.) piro a ball

fiça (kere(t) ...) the metal tin, Sn; kapiça tinsmith; see also miça

fita ~cakafita lazy (syn. caloros, see loros)

fitros ecstatic, rapturous, paradisical; derivs. have irreg. p-: çupitros becoming so...; rupitros to cause such feelings in s.o.; cakapitros overcome by, or seeking, such feelings, perhaps to the exclusion of all else; as n. ecstasy, rapture, paradise-- any state of extreme pleasurable feeling; kepitros (colloq. kepico) s.o. who causes such feelings in one, esp. a lover, one's ideal, one's "dreamboat"

fiyan (interrog.) how much? how many? how....? e.g. ... yaçangi ~(colloq.)... çangini how sick is he? ...pehandi how old are you?

focip (vt) to touch, abut, adjoin, be/come in contact with; apocip (geog.) boundary line; rupocip to place in contact with, to connect, join (physically); cakafocip overly crowded, jammed; asipocip (geom.) line tangent to a circle/sphere

-fola ~ -pola ten(s); epola a quantity/set of 10, the Kash "dozen"; in counting: mepola ten (mes+fola), rofola 20, sipola 30, hafola 40, nipola, kepola, sopola, fapola, sapola-- there is a growing tendency to use -pola in all cases. kufola tenth (ordinal, fraction); fola-fola by tens, every ten; folames eleven, folaro 12, folasit, folaha, folanim, folaket, folasot, folafan, folasan-- all stressed on the final syll.

fonjikañu lit., touch the mind-- generally, the first step in establishing a telepathic relationship

fonjip (vt) to touch, feel s.t.; hit the target; aponjip target; añafonjip sense of touch; cakafonjip to touch or fondle s.o. in an inappropriate way, esp. sexually; fonji-fonjip (police slang) to search s.o. (e.g. for a weapon) by patting them down

forit torch; foceli flashlight; forici headlight(s) of a ñaki

fosi (vi) to sail, travel by boat; çuposi to set sail (see also farek); ruposi to sail/pilot a ship; aposi boat, ship; aposi oprañol spaceship; aposi-inde mother-ship; aposici shuttle-craft (small spaceship for short trips) kaposi ~kefosi sailor; angefosi crew of a ship

fowet (vi,vt) to owe, be in debt; çupowet to go into debt, fall into debt; apowet ~fowet+poss debt; kapowet debtor; cakafowet deeply in debt, in financial difficulty; tefo (colloq., <te fowet) an IOU, chit, marker-- informal, but legally binding.

foya nausea; çufoya ~cakafoya (become/feel) nauseated; ...roçe sea-sick(ness); ...rini air-sick(ness); apoya motion sickness, in genl.; fofoya groggy, as when emerging from unconsciousness or the effects of a drug

foyayan (vi) to shine, twinkle, glitter (see also efoyan)

fufu (coarse) hum. or anim. excrement, shit; fuf an interj.

fum onomat. 'boom', sound of an explosion

fundoñ roof of a house/building; rupundoñ to roof

fup (onomat., coarse) a fart; cafúp, cakafúp to fart

furik (vi) hidden; to hide, be hiding; rupurik to hide s.t.; apurik a mystery; furi-finja the game "hide-and-seek"; see also yumburi, purik

fuçan sleeve of a garment

fuwi (vt) to blow on; play a flute; fufuwi (vi) to whistle, make a whistling sound; epuwi a flute

See also the Supplement

P (Sixteenth letter of hakanga, called pa, voiceless to semi-voiced bilabial stop, IPA [p])

paci a hole, opening in s.t.; pacimak nostril(s); (paci+imak); paciçun eye-socket; pacelum (med., polite) the anus; pacinák the mouth (humorous); pacifút ~cifút the anus, "asshole" (vulg.);see also pacik, panji

pacik eyelet-- small hole or fixture for attaching e.g. laces, hooks; viyu-pacik hook-and-eye fastener

pacili a common "hybridized" alternative of cili 1000 li, the Cindu "kilometer" (pa- contr. <amba thousand)

pacun any powder ~powdery material; (colloq. often refers to medicines in genl. or in powder form); pacumbacun powdery; çupacun become powdery, disintegrate; rumbacun to grind/make s.t. into a powder; pacupum, pacukuç gunpowder; see also cumate

pafut (colloq., somewhat coarse) have a bowel movement; see hukopaful

paha (vi) open; çupaha to open up, become open; rumbaha to open s.t.; cakapaha to fly open, burst open suddenly; ambaha an opening, way in, means of access

pahan (vi) to breathe (cf. ufahan); kambahan lung; ambahan ~pahan+poss. (act of) breathing;

pahandus (vi, lit., breathe-last) to breathe one's last, a polite term for "to die"; (irreg., slang) cakapandus id., but disrepectful; (fig.) to make one's "last gasp"-- final, perhaps desperate, argument or effort; ambahandus the various ceremonies and rituals carried out just before/after someone's death

paka see pañ

pakapum (vt) to shoot (with a gun)

pakivak pop.term for ~spiders and certain crustaceans: ...roçe (marine or riverine) ~shrimp; pakipakrak ~lobster (<baki; mostly scavengers; most aquatic spp.are edible, land spp. are generally not)

pakrakutuñ the 4th rank of nobility, below anoras; like anoras, may be appointed to provincial governorships (contr. pakrutuñ also occurs)

pakrali (colloq) can/bottle opener, see kambakrala

pakran (vt) to kill; ambakran weapon, in genl.; kambakran killer, murderer; capakran to get killed, usu. violently

pakruça to extinguish a fire (pakran+huça)

palaraka imposing, impressive, majestic, splendid, magnificent (syn. tambok)

palo undershorts (obs., loincloth)

palut a coastal (salt-water) marsh or swamp

pambara black; irreg. derivs.-- çumbara becoming black, blackening; rumbara to make s.t. black; ambara(ni) blackness; in compds., usu. -mbara

pambi (colloq., slang) toy, child's plaything-- ult. < nursery speech, see kambam(i)

pambraka thousand million, billion (109) (contracted redup. of amba-ambraka)

pambun to descend, come down; to land; dismount, get off of, get out of (e.g. a car); rumbambun to send/bring down; to land an airship; ambambum descent, landing

pambut to descend (from-- in a family lineage); ambambut descent, heritage; anapambut descendant (compd. with ana child)

panar (n) prop, support; (vt) to prop up, support; ambanar a prop, support, reinforcement; rumbanar to reinforce; offer or give support/backing to; panace crutch(es); panaci a cane, walking stick

pandaçu(ni) (adv.) (for)(a) long time; (irreg.) pandacosa a long time ago; pandacocosa ~pandacosa-cosa a very long time ago

pando much, many, a lot (of), pat- in some compds.; çupando (vi) increase, become more numerous; rumbando to increase (vt); ambando (fin.) profit, ambando-konga profit-and-loss; pando-pando ~papando increasingly; see also rumbat (math.) to multiply; and also pepando

pandu (~panduraka) continent; see also pawundu (< Gwr bau du 'great land')

pangaçu any large crowd (neutral connotations)

pangorus the color tan

pangoyor a fruit sp., orange in color

panip (vt,vi) to play; papanip playful; pani-panip play around, fool around; ambanip a game; capani-panip to pretend; cakapanip to play a trick on; be tricked, fooled (in a playful, non-malicious way e.g. ne...mili 'he got tricked by us ~we fooled/tricked him'-- contrast onji)

panji a very vulgar term for the female organs

panjum (vt) to carry on the back

pañ (~paka ~payi [pai] before cons. or for euphony in speech, or poetic metre) interj., how...! what....! what a....!

pap onomat. 'plop'; cakapáp (person as subj.) to plop down, e.g. on a chair; (thing as subj.) to plop s.t. down, set s.t. down suddenly/awkwardly

papaki to gamble, play at gambling games; (irreg.) apapaki gambling/games of chance in genl.; (ca)krapaki to gamble away, gamble foolishly; see also faki

papan (colloq.) lucky, fortunate; (interj.) (also papandi ~pandi) good luck!; papañi luckily, fortunately; trapapan unlucky, usu. of minor things; as interj. ~trapandi too bad! (<upapan)-- "bad luck" in inherent/superstitious sense is cakañol q.v;

papem Kash alternative for cipem (a Gwr word), the Cindu "kilogram" (pa- <amba+pem)

par- (~pra- before cons.) honorific prefix

parahambesa (usu. e ...) The Creator, First Cause (par+ahan+mesa)-- often shortened to (e) parahan; see ahan

paranjak ~pranjak colloq. for paranjanga the legislative Assembly; see canga

parenende the Sky Spirit (ult. < nele sky), generally benign but capricious-- sometimes shortened to enende, but that is considered disrespectful

parun (liri...) solicitous, caring, sympathetic (toward...); to care (about); çuparun be/become concerned, worried about; feel sympathy for; cakaparun fawning, overly protective

pasam pleasant, nice, agreeable; ambasam pleasant/good nature; (in pl.) etiquette, pleasantries of behavior or conversation; trapasam unpleasant; impolite

pasop to fit, be the right size; rumbasop to make s.t. fit, adjust to fit; trapasop ill-fitting

paçu a fresh-water marsh or wetland; paçuçup quicksand

patone a mus.instrument, sim.to the accordion/concertina

patrekana the 5th rank of nobility (honorifics par+te + kana (archaic) 'to stand by, stand ready; ally'

patrun to care for (s.o.), take care of, attend to (s.o. or s.t.)

patu smoke; as vb., smoky; patu-patu (of a fire) smoldering, to smolder (barely lit); rumbatu to smoke food; kahambatu haze, smoke hanging in the air

pavas a cave, cavern; pavaçi a small cave, grotto

pawundu continent (<Gwr bau du 'great land'); see also pandu

pawus slime, scum

payi see pañ

payilip shirt (colloq. pilip is far more common)

payo cape (garment, for warmth); poncho-- generally long, to the knee or mid-calf; payomik a short cape, tunic/smock, to waist or hip in length; payo ripa ~payiripa a waterproof raincoat or cape; payisungar blanket (cape + bed); payorak a loose caftan-like floor-length garment/robe, usu. put on over the head, but sometimes opening in front and closed with buttons/hasps or a sash

pe- ~peñ- an obs. pfx. meaning 'having..., possessed of..., -ful' (<apeña)

pecal frame (picture); decorative moldings; decorative border

pefa free, loose; çupefa to get loose, get free, escape; cakapefa id., but from a difficult/captive situation; rumbefa to release, set free

pehan a year, 464 days; pepehan yearly, every year; pehambol ~pehambot decade; pehandrok century; pehanamba millennium; pehandivek leap-year (465 days) (< ...+livek)

pehaya brilliant, giving off light (e.g. a polished metal surface, jewels); capehaya too bright/blinding, of lights; < haya

pekrol ~pekrot meat or mashed vegetable or starch like uku, formed into a cake or ball, then either sautéed, deep-fried or boiled; see also pirocik

peliya ~peliçi see limbeliya s.v. limbe

pem 1/1000 cipem, the Cindu "gram"

pembet common, widespread (rel. to tipevet scarce)

pembotán the 19-year period in which 3 leap-years occur

pendoye wealthy; çupendoye to become wealthy, get rich; prosper; ambendoye prosperity; capendoye (nom.)to be extremely wealthy, pej. "filthy rich" ~(dat.) to become extremely or suddenly wealthy

pengop (colloq. for apengop) glue; pengopi paste, pasty mixture; medicinal poultice; see fengop

penjeñ (vi) rotten; çupenjeñ to rot, decompose; cakapenjeñ totally rotten/decomposed (generally a term of disgust, though it might refer [tech.] to skeletal remains at a crime scene)

penjolo ~penjo a foodstuff-- edible semi-solid paste sim. to tofu made from coloçe-beans

penuwak (vt) to doubt, be doubtful (of); ambenuwak doubt

peña an unpaved road or street; peña-peña a narrow path, an animal track in the forest

pepando (vi) rich in..., (well) endowed with..., full of... (mostly fig. usages, somewhat archaic)

pepu(k) (colloq.) drunk, spec. from alcohol (ult.<pe- +puhi); çupepu(k) to get drunk; cakapepu(k) drunk, very drunk, soused, "3 sheets to the wind"; see also handato

peçaka powerful, mighty

peçapat miraculous; ambeçapat a miracle; ahambeçapat to work/perform a miracle (usu.attributed to the Spirits and implies a magical or inexplicable occurrence); akambeçapat id., but more figurative or hyperbolic, of non-Spirit agents-- e.g. kandumbra ya pole ... that doctor can work miracles; < çapat

peçar elevator/lift in a bldg. (ult. < meçar)

peçaprós a canal-lock (means of raising/lowering a boat); < peçar+(a)posi; see keçaprós

peçukas (pejor.) odd, eccentric, silly, ridiculous, "crazy"

pete female, of animals

petip a root used for flavoring-- similar to garlic

petu a fluid pem, 1/1000 cipetu (the Kash "litre")

pici (vi) to wink, wink at; (n) a wink; see prapik

picik(ni) a little, little bit

picivet (n.) itch; itchy place on the body

pikan to sand, smooth (with epikan or fikanga)

piki see nikapiki

piku loaf, loaf-shaped things (implied: small and coherent but divisible, e.g. of bread, cake, block of salt/sugar)

pikuçut a mound/small pile of s.t. (implied: of small particles, easily broken up); mound or hill made by certain insects, burrowing animals; (as vt) to pile up, make a pile of... (usu.of small things-- contrast cakambar s.v. hambar)

pila to think; ...+verb to intend to (verb); pila-pila to ponder, consider, think over; ambila reason (ability to think); pila+poss. thought, idea; cakapila lost in thought, "wool-gathering"; capila-pila to over-analyze a matter (such that no resolution is ever achieved). NB in correct usage, negative ta pila only occurs with the literal meaning, e.g. ta mapila liriyu I didn't (=neglected to) think about that, or, I won't (=refuse to) think about that. Where English and other languages can say ":I don't think he'll come, ~I don't think that's true" etc., Kash requires the negative in the complement clause: mapila re ta yarata ~pilami, ta yarata or else uses "doubt" or "not believe"; there is, however, colloq. tambilami "I don't think so!" as an interj. of doubt or disbelief.

pilen pocket (usu.of a garment, but may refer to other small enclosures)

pilimen to consider as, view as, regard as (obj. in dative, e.g. ne ipilimen feliyo they consider him a fool).

pimbuna (street) address, house-number (colloq. pimbu); riyena ...ti? what's your address? (abbrev. pp; < pinal+puna)

pimbus a hedge (colloq. but far more common than correct asipimbus, see vimbrus)

pinaci a watch (timepiece); colloq. naci

pinal (vt) to count; ...marok Old Count (calendar, abbr. p.m.); ...velu New Count (p.v.); ambinal ~pinal +poss. score in a game; (acad.) grade, mark; epinal a number; epikalap (math.) prime number; añambinal mathematics; pinambés (gram.) singular; pinambát (gram.) plural; pimbehan calendar (system) e.g. ...tandika/leroka lunar/solar calendar; ...ketera napo yale 12 açurak the Terran calendar has only 12 months (see also uprehan); pimbehanga(le) calendrical

pinami kitchen/cooking utensils (spoons, forks, spatulas etc.; may include pots and pans)

pinap an abscess or boil full of pus (see minap)

pindan eating utensils, table-ware, silverware (ult. < yumbit+nahan)

pindaro a clock (compd. pinal+aro); see also pinaci, naci

pindramba per thousand; (optional) millage (e.g. in taxes) (< pinal+amba)

pindrongo percent; as n.,...+ni percentage (< pinal+rongo

pinduka Carbon (C)(< Gwr)

pinduça to decide, conclude; make up one's mind, come to a conclusion--somewhat colloq. syn. of kanget, with fewer derivs.; usu.takes a re... clause; ambinduça ~pinduça+Poss. decision, conclusion (compd. pila+tuça think+firm/exact)

pineyu hydrogen (H)(< Gwr fire air)

pingapra (colloq. pingap) a briefcase or portfolio

pipinal each, every (<pinal)

pipoñ a mus. instrument, ~recorder (flute), primarily of the Gwr (pih bÿng)

pirik bead(s)-- man-made (glass, plastic) or of non-precious stone/shell/bone etc. (reg.pl. pirikiç has > colloq. prikiç, then sing. priki by back-form.)

piripis (vt) to trample, trample down/on (see pripis)

pirit a hot, pepper-like spice (several spp. and colors)

piro a ball or ball-shaped object; pirocik a (fried) fritter or croquette, ball-shaped; often made or flavored with fruit pulp and considered a dessert or sweet snack; see also pekrol

pisat a thin pastry crust covered with a meat/vegetable mixture with various sauces, a popular snack (ult. < the Gwr)

pita to need, require; to take (+ measure of time) e.g. ...~pitani 5 aro it takes 5 hours; ambita need, requirement; necessity

pitotuñ (med., sci.) a gene; pitotunga(le) genetic (< Gwr piq doyh tu:ng 'little life cause')

piyaka plate (for eating); in pl., dishes/tableware in genl.

piyal perfect; rumbiyal to make s.t. perfect, to perfect; ambiyal perfection; tandi... full moon; makrapiyal quintessence, essence, embodiment

po- verbal prefix, potential (<pole)

-po (suffix) just, only; the free form is napo

pociyo laboratory (colloq., slang poco lab)-- < Gwr pòw tsi yò 'science work room'

pokrop ~capokrop (vi) to belch (considered impolite)

-pola var. of -fola ten(s)

pole (aux) be able, can...; rumbole to enable; popole ~pole-pole to manage (to do s.t.), (finally) succeed in..., to accomplish; polepo ~pole-polepo (colloq.) can/might just as well...

pom (onomat.) the sound of a gong; pombom to play/sound a gong (as in a musical piece); propom an alarm (bell or other sound); as vb., to sound an alarm; (arch., rural) to beat a gong repeatedly to give an alarm; see ambom

pombro magnet, magnetic; ambombro magnetism (ult. <. Gwr)

pondam (vi) to fall or drop (of an object)

pondra camp (temporary or mil./permanent); mepu... to make/set up a camp

pondri (anim.subj.)bored, uninterested (...liri...); (inanim.subj.) boring; çupondri becoming bored; (irreg.) rupondri to bore s.o.; apondri boredom; cakapondri (dat. anim.) completely bored with; (nom.) extremely boring

pongunak likely, probable (colloq.pongu, pongu-pongu); ambongunak likelihood, probability; ponguni probably; trapongunak (~trapongu) unlikely, improbable; andrapongu unlikelihood, improbability

poni ~poni-poni ~poniponam (vulg. slang) to have sex, engage in a sexual act; see onam

ponolit able to read, literate (< nolit)

popo a commercially raised "lizard" sp., comparable to chicken in the Kash diet

popor dull, not sharp (tool); also fig.; çupopor to get dull; rumbopor to dull

poren wine, in genl., also a spec. kind

pori tired; çupori to get tired; rumbori to tire s.o.; cakapori exhausted; ambori fatigue, tiredness

poro (aux) to be going to...; poro-poro to be about to...

poçi a small boat (non-sail), usu.of wooden construction, larger than a lofi-- usu.rowed, sometimes motorized; the lifeboat(s) of an ocean-going vessel

potrelo (med.) the woman's oestrus period-- it occurs approx. every 3 months and lasts about 10 days (thus ult. < (me)pola lero); luhu... the post-oestral flow of blood and cellular matter that occurs if conception has not taken place; (dat.) yale... to be in oestrus; (colloq.) potre; capotre to be in one's period

poya animal sp., in folk tales usu. a trickster. (Thanks to Dirk Elzinga)

pra- (~par-) honorific prefix; NB terms of address to young children of nobility: pramesa, parona, prasina (less formal without the -a, might be used by intimates, household servants, nannies etc.); see also prasinji (which is used for prana)

pracaka a motor; as adj., motorized; (< apral+çaka)

pracalengi (your, his/her) excellency-- term of address to king and/or karun (although orig. < pra+ca+leñ + irreg. 2d pl. poss. -hi, it is now the noun base, i.e. the dative is pracalengiye); short form calengi may be used by advisors, ministers etc. and personal servants who have frequent contact with the king/karun

pracinek ambassador (diplomatic post), see also cinek

prahaniyu divinity-- the manifestation of e parahambesa that inhabits all things, acc'g to Kash belief-- yale prahaniyu riyondeni yunoç-yunola "there is that of God within all things (anim. and inanim.)"

prakambi formal 2nd pers. pronoun (commoner to aristocrat/noble), to all intents moribund in Holundan Kash. NB monomorphemic: case forms are prakambiyi, prakambiye, prakambin, plural prakambila etc. Takes verb in 3d person. (Contr. < pra+kambra+mi)

prakapilan (arch.) sedan-chair, palanquin-- still used on some royal/religious occasions; prakambilanila the bearers of same

prakendeki dish-washing machine; pra- is popularly/humorously said to be the honorific pfx., in fact it is a contraction of apral device, machine

prale a stall or stand in a public market, or a kiosk on the street (i.e. a permanent structure); department, in a large store or commercial establishment; keprale (colloq. keprát) the owner/vendor in a market-stall or kiosk

pralumañ lady (noble or aristocratic status)

pralumbi term of address corresponding to pralumañ, to adult female members/wives of the nobility, below the rank of karun, and to high female govt. figures like ministers, ambassadors (or their wives) even if not of noble status; see prasimbi

prana in proper names, the fourth (and later) child-- properly used only by royal and aristocratic families, but often affected by the nouveaux-riches. prana have little rank or status; pranji commonly used (by all classes) affect. term for one's younger siblings

prangi a 1-cent coin, 1/100 truni (ult. < kepranat zinc, from which they are made); same as dial. kromi, krombi

pranguci spark plug (of internal combustion engines), ult. < apral+huça

pranjak var. paranjak

prañangula the royal carriage/coach; (obs., a wheeled platform pulled by men, keñaki)

prapik the eyelid; see also liprap, pici

prasimbi term to address (corresponding to prasinuñ) to minor male adult nobles, below the rank of karun, and to high govt. figures like ministers, ambassadors (even if they are not of noble status); see pralumbi

prasinji term of address to children of the nobility (mesa, rona, sina, prana), used when the child's rank is unknown; in formal settings it is also used for any child of the wealthy class

prasinuñ gentleman (noble or aristocratic status)

pratur (colloq.) airplane, airship; see apral

prefaç vacation, leave/furlough (of some duration-- orig. colloq. for leprefa(ç) (lero pefa(ç) free days), still used formally/officially); prefaci a short break from work (say 1-3 days off); prepi a short break during the workday; (school) recess

prekan see tungaprehan, kaprekan

prikipan a mild pain-relieving medicine, equiv.to aspirin

prilut a chisel (several sizes and types)

prinan light in weight; çuprinan to ease up; become lighter; rupinan to lighten s.t., ease up on; to facilitate; caprinan unimportant, minor, trivial; superficial, "lightweight"

pripis (vt) to step on, tread on; piripis trample, trample down/on

pripit spicy-hot; astringent; smarting; tapripit bland, of food

pris a step, pace; cakaprís to trip, stumble; prisi-prisi to pace about nervously

priçi (math.) degree (< pris+ci)

priya, priye honorific full form of masc/fem. 3d pers.sing. pronoun; (inanim. priyu seldom needed); case forms prini, prine, priyan ~ priyen; other hon.forms simply add pra to the base form, thus prahat; plural prahila, pranila, pratila--hon.full forms of 1st person pronouns are not used.

priyo (vt) to cultivate the land, to farm; ambriyo agriculture; kepriyo farmer; yumbriyo a farm (The word is believed to derive from Kash par- honorif.pfx. + Gwr uy yawq plow)

priyonek president (of a country)--this title is not used by the Kash; it is adapted <. Gwr hi hoq neq 'head man' + Kash par-

priyundomer (legal) court of law (ult. < par+*yundomer < yurun omer)-- there are various levels of courts in Holunda/Kavatu: p. ecak ~enje village ~town/city, p.hutuñ lower provincial, p.anoras higher provincial, p. karun the highest (in formal usage, the modifiers have the -(k)a(le) adj.suffix); see also yundombrut

procañ ~proca-mambrocañ to negotiate, bargain; ambrocañ negotiation, bargaining; kambrocañ negotiator; caprocañ of one who is difficult/inflexible in negotiations; to drive a hard bargain; cakaprocañ (dat.) to "get the short end of the stick" in bargaining; be a poor bargainer; (irreg. deriv. <pokocañ < kocañ)

prum the belly, abdomen; pruma(le) (med.) abdominal; ombrum intestines, innards, guts

prundak the stomach

prup ~purup ~purúp (onomat.) the sound of bubbling; the sound of liquid pouring out of a container; purup (as vb.) to decant, pour liquid from one container into another; pruprup the sound/feeling of rumbling in the stomach/bowels; (n.) purupurup that condition; stomach gas, discomfort from it, e.g. misosir ....ni we heard his stomach rumbling; amí me .... oh dear, I've got stomach gas

pruput (n.) bubble; (vi) bubbly, bubbling; at a rolling boil; çupruput coming to a boil; mepruput blow/make bubbles; ambruput ~supruput a natural spring; ca(ka)pruput bubble up unexpectedly, boil over; prupuci drinking fountain

puceli (colloq.) battery (of a car), compd. raput+celi q.v.

puci dust; pucicip dusty; rumahan/uhakan ... alo... to dust (remove dust from...)

puhi alcohol (< Gwr); (irreg.) pukiya(le) alcoholic

pulap mostly edible tuber spp. which include ...luhu (~puluku, red) , ...kret, ...cami, pukange, ...nandranju ("cook 2 times" contains mildly poisonous alkalis that must be leached out), pupanat, (white), pulambula (gold), pulandra (northern), pulangur (Gwr), puturañ (mountain), pulatu, pumori (aquatic spp.)

pum (onomat.) sound of a loud sharp noise, e.g. gunshot; ambum a single sharp thunder-clap

pumbik a shed or small out-building; a small barn for animals.

pumbitumbra (med.) nurse (m/f), doctor's assistant; colloq. pitumbra, pituma, (direct address) pitú (irreg. < pumit+tumbra)

pumit (vt) to serve s.o. (be a household employee of...); (as vi) be a servant, be in service; ambumit service (usu. domestic); rumbumit to have/employ s.o. as a servant; kepumit servant, in genl.; cakapumit be in hereditary service to... (rare now, but a few families consider themselves so bound); (obs.) held in debt-bondage; see also simbit, lumbit

pumuru (often pron. pumbru) rolling or prolonged thunder; pumbrucek thunder and lightning, a thunderstorm

pun if, whether; pun-pun if (...) at all, if any; pupumbo (adv.) just in case; see also pupuñi

puna house; puna-puna a small house, cottage (e.g. the guest-house of a large estate); pumbik a storage-shed or small barn; pundraka a large/imposing house, mansion,; the manor house of a country estate; punduwar hotel, inn, guest-house; punandula palace (of royalty); capitol building of a state; punakreci railroad station

pundahan restaurant (see also yundrahan-- in genl. usage, pundahan connotes a more elegant place)

pundangoko (~pundangok, pundrako(k)) (slang) a mental hospital, insane asylum (ult. < pundramba+kok(o))

pundek (colloq.) library

pundipat prison, jail; irreg. kambundi jailor, prison-guard; kepundip prisoner, inmate

pundramba (obs.) dungeon; (colloq. ~pundrap) jail, prison;

punduñ oath, pledge, bond; ambunduñ id.; amasir punduñ an estate left in trust; toye punduñ trust-fund (est. while the grantor is alive, or by testament); see also mepunduñ

pundriyuni in that case...; pundrayani in this case...

punduwar hotel, inn, guesthouse (<puna+nuwar)

pungavan hospital, clinic (puna+kavan)

punjinek embassy (building) (puna+cinek)

punoret (inexpensive and minimal) place to spend the night, hostel

puño tip, sharp point of s.t. (usu.small); puño lin the chin; puño falaka crown of the head; puñoñ the tip of the penis; see also puñoyo

puñoyo peak, pinnacle; roofpeak, ridge

pupuñi (NB base pupun does not occur) (prep.) in case of...; pupumbo just in case; (deriv. < pun if)

pupus (vi) to exhale; (vt) to emit, give off (e.g. an odor/liquid); ambupus exhalation; emission; rumbupus to deflate s.t.; cakapupus (nom.) out of breath, winded; suddenly deflate/go flat (e.g. of a tire); (dat.) to have the wind knocked out of one; pupuçi (n,V) a sigh, to sigh;kaprupus bad breath, halitosis; see pus

purapo a large (to 3m. long) amphibious "lizard" of colder coastal areas (now rare in the far north, where it was hunted). An expert swimmer; the front legs have evolved into flippers; very clumsy on land, but highly territorial and somewhat aggressive toward humans.

purik (n,adj.) secret; rumburik to conceal, keep secret; cakapurik secretive, mysterious (usu.of a person); kota (dat.) purik tell/confide a secret to s.o.; rungaya (dat.) purik to tell/reveal a secret (to s.o.), i.e. to betray a confidence

pus (onomat) sound of blowing, exhalation, sighing

puso (vt) to suck, suck on; irreg. rupuso (vt,vi) to suckle, breast-feed-- either mother or child may be subj. (cf. muso)

pusup (vt) to blow on/at with the mouth

puço horizontal, level; flat; çupuço (of a surface or object) becoming level; epuço a carpenter's level; rumbuço (colloq. pupuço) to level s.t., make s.t. level (e.g. hacayi... tokro yu you have to level (make level) that beam); colloq. carpenters'/builders' usage, puç and so in compds.

putap to shed, molt; ...ekam, ...hendo to shed/drop leaves, shed/slough off the skin (of many "lizard" and reptile spp.); ambutap the normal (slight) shedding of fur that Kaç experience; the dropping of leaves, the shedding/sloughing of skin; putekam (of trees) deciduous

putom to pour/cast (spec. metal or other materials, e.g. plaster of Paris, glass, rubber); ambutom the mold for such castings; yumbrutom a foundry; (irreg.) puto cast, in compds, e.g. hece puto cast iron, nula puto cast gold

puvaco (relig.) a hermitage where monks live (usu.small, in a forest) (ult. < puna facol)

puwaya amphibian spp., similar in appearance/habits to the crocodile (grows to ±3m.); puwerak a slightly larger sp., heavier, more sluggish, somewhat less dangerous-- these two inhabit both fresh as well as brackish coastal waters; puweci a smaller, fresh-water sp. (to 1.5m), very aggressive

puyat waistcoat or vest-- a short sleeveless jacket, often ornately embroidered, and usu. worn on formal occasions

See also the Supplement

M (Eighteenth letter of hakanga, called ma, a bilabial nasal, IPA [m].)

mace (vt) to damage, mar; cakamace to get damaged

maci see nakuweyu

mahas fresh (usu. of food, but also fig., e.g. yangaci mahas 'a fresh breeze'); tramahas not fresh, stale; sumahas fresh (not salt) water

mahen symbolic, figurative; ambahen symbolism; rumbahen to symbolize, represent/stand for; cakamahen overly symbolic, obscure, baroque (esp. of certain artistic/literary styles); see also emahen

makendum(med., polite) oral sex, spec. fellatio

makepacelum (med., polite) anal intercourse

maker intrinsic, inherent; (as n.) nature, essence (equiv.to haniyu, but of inanimate or abstract things); ri makeri (gen.) by nature

makir fermented; çumakir (v.i.) to ferment, be fermenting; rumakir (colloq.pakir) to ferment s.t., to cause to ferment; ambakir fermentation; kambakir any fermenting/leavening agent; see also fakri

makra pith, marrow (e.g. makratako bone marrow); (fig.) gist, core; makrapiyal quintessence, essence, embodiment; makrani (adv.) in essense, at bottom, essentially

makris a (sub)tropical fruit, and (ange...) its tree. About 5-6cm. diam., thin-skinned (the skin may be eaten, but usu. is not); green when young, greenish-black when under-ripe, black when fully ripe, black with red areas when over-ripe. The Kash prefer to eat them when under-ripe, when the flesh is still firm and not so sweet-- or over-ripe, when they begin to ferment slightly. The fully ripe fruit becomes rather mushy and is cloyingly sweet to the Kash taste.. Fully- and over-ripe fruits are processed for their juice, which is allowed to ferment-- in the home, slightly, for use as a refreshing drink mixed with ice and soda-water; commercially, the fully fermented, purified juice is bottled as a popular semi-dry, slightly sparkling wine.

mala (fine) sand

mam pron. of 1st per. sing., I (irreg. acc. man)

mama (affect.) father; mambi is used by very young children, "papa"; see ama, ambi

mamak-cuñ ~mamacúñ a game of strategy similar to chess, played on a 64-square (8x8) board; the name derives < Gwr maq maq tsung "100 squares"[octal]

mambrama paternal uncle (FaBr)

mambre brother; see also marem

mambrinde maternal uncle (MoBr)

mandil a priest; (arch. or regional, ~pra-) shaman; mandikañu a priest-therapist, professional psychologist/psychotherapist; kramandil a witch or (evil) sorcerer; see also mandomer, temandri (ult. <vandil)

mando ripe (of s.t. ready for its proper use); mature, adult; çumando ripening; maturing; growing into adulthood; growing up; rumbando to ripen/age s.t. (usu. by artificial means); ambando ~mando +poss. ripeness; adulthood; kemando an adult (person); (as adj.) adult, i.e. proper, behavior; cakamando over-ripe, past its prime (of fruits, etc.)

mandomer lawyer; temandomer a member of the Legal Council (interpreters of the law, equiv. to a "Supreme Court ~Law Lords"-- NB irreg. plural temandromila); temandombrés the Chief Law Lord-- in judicial proceedings, usu.addressed as "mandombi, mandondi"

mandum (vt) to lend; ambandum (colloq. ambat) a loan

mangos (human) voice; (anim.) typical cry or sound; in music, the voices are: (male) ...vangur ~basso profundo, ...vangaci ~upper bass or baritone-- most common; (male/fem.) ...(ka)taren ~tenor/contralto, (fem.) ...(ka)tarenji ~a slightly higher contralto-- most common, ...vinda ~alto, ...vindalat ~mezzo

manji (vt) to answer; also as n.; cakamanji said of s.o. who "knows all the answers; a know-it-all"; colloq. nuwa-manji question-and-answer; abbr. mnj

maña right (inherent); privilege (granted)-- if necessary to distinguish, maña kamon ~maña kaç inherent rights vs. maña vele granted rights, privileges, entitlements

mapus steam (n)

maraci(ci) indignant; (irreg.) cakaraci in a huff, in a snit (ult. < marak+ci)

marak angry; çumarak getting angry, with dat.obj., get angry with...; (both base and inch. form often redupl. for more intensive (çu)mara-marak); rumbarak to anger, make s.o. angry; cakamarak (dat.) gruff, disagreeable, angry (by nature); (nom) ~cakamara-marak very angry, enraged, furious; ambarak anger; kambara-marak angry crowd, mob (often as neut. plur.)

marem (~marenji, marende) a term of affection used among males (implies a very close, possibly [esp. marende] sexual, relationship) (marende ult. < marem leñ)

marok old, in years, of people or things (as opp. to old in style, old-fashioned); mamarok elderly, of advanced age; çumarok getting old, aging; cakamarok senile; ambarok old age; marokni age of s.t. (ambarok[ni] is sometimes used in this sense); la- ~camarok older ~ oldest

marombar ancient, antique

maru (vt) to invite; ambaru invitation; cakamaru show up uninvited, crash a party; sneak in; stow away; travel without paying the fare; kecamaru a stowaway; a party-crasher

maçan (vi, vt) to turn, change direction; maçan mulet turn around; to reverse; (mil., fig.) to do an about-face; mamaçan (vi) go back, return; çumaçan (naut.) to change course; rumbaçan to return/give back s.t.; pomaçan reversible; trapomaçan irreversible; cakamaçan change course suddenly, reverse oneself, to change one's mind (for no clear reason-- hence, changeable, capricious); maçan pila to change one's mind, reconsider; maçañi (adv.) in turn

matange a musical instrument sim. to the xylophone-- tuned wooden blocks, percussive

mate hard (of objects); çumate becoming hard, to harden; rumbate to harden s.t.; ambate ~mateni hardness

matra (vi) to break, broken, in pieces pomatra fragile, breakable; pomatrani fragility; çumatra beginning to fall apart, crumble; rumbatra to break/smash s.t.; mamatra (vt) to smash s.t. (deliberately, e.g. out of rage); ambatra fragment; (math.) fraction; matraci cracked; matraçit to interrupt (someone's speech); ambatraçit interruption; camatraçit said of s.o. who constantly interrupts or butts in on a conversation; matrapin to interrupt (someone's train of thought); ambatrapin such an interruption, distraction; camatrapin thoroughly distracted/distracting

matralap the Spirit of the moon Lalap (< mar(em)+lalap), capricious and irresponsible

matu (math.) the square of...; squared, e.g. matuni ro yale ha the square of two is four; ro matu yale ha two squared is four; matu-sit/ha etc., cube/fourth etc. power of; cubed, to the fourth etc. power-- matu-sitni ro yale 8 the cube of two is 8; ro matu-sit yale 8 two-cubed is 8; mepola (~fola) matu-san 10 to the ninth power. See also ñutu

mecindi (vt) to perform/play a spoken work; to act id., to act the role of...

mekan (vt) concoct, fabricate (ironic/pejor.); < mepu+ahan

melat cannon (< dial. Gwr mey lat)

melo (vt and aux) to want, want to; çumelo liri/re... to agree to; çumelo-melo to volunteer (...liri ....for, ...re...to...); kemelo-melo a volunteer; colloq. pers. pfx +mbelo (e.g. mambelo, hambelo etc) I/you/he etc. would like to...; tambelo (I, you etc.) don't want to... ~don't want it.

melu-melu news, new report (e.g. on radio); ult. < velu

meme (colloq.) baby, infant; see veve

memu (colloq.) a written receipt (see upan)

mende already; as inv. aux., marks perfect tenses; (vi) all over, done; ... +verb (colloq. mende-mende ~memende) to have just...; çumende coming to an end, winding down; rumbende to finish, complete; ambende finale, climax; see also tambende, yamét

mendro (vi) to insist; cakamendro overly insistent, demanding

mene (n) air; (vb) to ventilate; to air, air out; tramene airless; stuffy; meneci, meneçu a draft; cakamene(-mene) drafty; (hum.) feeling a draft; mene kayi ~mengayi the atmosphere, breathable air

menjar (vt) to climb, mount, go up; çumenjar (vi) to rise, go up (e.g. prices, temperature); rumbenjar to raise/elevate s.t.

mepangos (vt) to play/perform music or a musical work; to sing/act the role of...

mepu (vt) to do, to make; çumepu to set to work, get to work; rumbepu to put s.o. to work at..., to order s.t. done; caka-mepu overloaded/swamped with work; ambepu deed, action; job, work, project; colloq. mepu + poss. id., work, s.t. to do, job, project; kambepu workman, laborer; pomepu doable, feasible; trapomepu not feasible; mepu-mepu (n) busy-work; camepu-mepu to do busy-work; pretend to work, goof off; tramepu left undone, incomplete (by omission, or because the work was abandoned, vs. ta rumbende incomplete but due to be finished); not done; trambepu unemployed

mepunduñ (vi) to swear/make an oath; to pledge, to promise; camepunduñ bound by an oath or promise (ult.< mepu punduñ)

meron to demand; amberon ~meron+POSS. a demand; cakameron overly/obnoxiously demanding, bossy (related to mendro insist)

meru (vt) to fill (alt. of rundondo < londo)

1.mesa (~mes) the number one; the short form bears the stress in derivs. e.g. folamés; kumés(a) first (in counting, see also angasi < kasi); mesa-mesa ~memesa one by one, each one; mesani one of...; mesa-mesani (as adj) the very first; (as sent.advbl.) first, first of all, first off; mesangunjo one-half (<kunjo); çumesa (vi) to unite, join, come together; acumbesa unity; rumbesa (vt) to unite; ambesa unit (math.slang pesa); kemesa (n) individual; mesaka(le) (adj.) single, sole; individual; only, unique

2.mesa in proper names, first child; of royalty, crown prince, prince; the eldest child of any hereditary noble, who succeeds to the title and estates; properly used only by royal and aristocratic families, but often affected by the nouveaux-riches (ult. the same as mesa one)

meçar (vt) to lift, hoist, pull up (usu.by mechanical means); aprambeçar (colloq. prambeç) any device for hoisting; a crane; (irreg.) peçar elevator/lift in a bldg.

metik (vt) to spy on; ambetik spying, espionage; kambetik a spy, secret agent;

metrita (colloq. for ametrita) government (see vetrita)

mevi to cost; mevini the cost, price of s.t.; see also rimevi

micet clerk, minor functionary; micecu id., somewhat pej., bureaucrat; añamicet bureaucracy

mici (colloq.) unimportant, useless, of little value; see also mingip

micu short; çumicu getting short/ smaller; to shrink; rumbicu to shorten, shrink (can apply to both size and time); cumicu shortly, in a short time, a little while

miki see mimik

mila pron. of 1st pers.plur., we (irreg. acc. min)

mimik small, little; colloq. often miki; çumimik ~çumbik (vi) to decrease, diminish. rumbimik ~rumbik (vt.) to decrease, diminish s.t.; in compds., -mbik

minap pus; (vb) containing/full of pus; (irreg.) pinap any pussy abscess or boil

minda (vi) to smile, be happy; miminda to grin broadly; çuminda become happy, cheer up; rumbinda make happy, elate; ambinda happiness, joy; cakaminda overjoyed, elated; minda-minda merry, jolly; hañuminda having a jolly or good-humored disposition; traminda unhappy, sad (see also tramit); trambinda unhappiness; NB the names mita (M), mina (F) are derived

mindura a park, public garden

mingip minor, unimportant, insignificant (< mimik-mik); (colloq., pej.) mici-mingip, mici-vici ~cakamici utterly..., good-for-nothing, beneath contempt, etc.

minja (vt) to seek, look for; explore; ambinja exploration; search; minja-minja look all over for; furi-finja the game "hide-and-seek"

minjakañu lit., to seek the mind-- benign, a way of establishing a relationship telephathically

minjer agent, broker; the title of members of the elected legislature, "deputy" praminjer a government minister, head of a "cabinet" department

miñu the seed-pod of various plants, whether useful or not; yembiñu id. of useful plants, containing edible seeds ~beans, or seeds that can be propagated

miri to blow, of the wind; çumiri begin to blow, to rise (of the wind); miri-miri strong, of the wind; cakamiri blown away/about, scattered by the wind; ambiri a strong wind, gale; kambiri (electric) fan

mirum stiff; taut; tramirum flaccid, slack, limp

misip (vi) furtive, sneaky; creeping/crawling around stealthily; ...ri to creep/sneak up on, approach [noun] stealthily (pronoun objects take dative, e.g. imisip ri enjeye they sneaked up on the city; nile mimisip we sneakedk up on them); cakamisip sneaky, devious; sotimbris(i) to eavesdrop (< sotir)

miça (colloq.) a (tin) can/container

miçi ~hukombiçi, hungiçi (vi) to urinate; cakamiçi to urinate accidentally (e.g. from fear, or incontinence); (~sumbiçi) urine; miçika(le) (med.) urinary

miyoñ (vt) to polish (colloq. contr. <rumiyoñ, see iyoñ)

moco any of several plant spp. similar to Capsicum-- a vine; the edible fruits range from very small (hottest) to fist-size (mild)

moka gnat, small flying insect(s) (sometimes stinging)

mola (vi) be valuable; (with a monetary or other expression) to be worth...; çumola becoming valuable, appreciating; rumbola to value/appreciate s.t.; to place a value on, to estimate; tramola worthless, without value; (opt. ...uçoñi) in vain; cakamola (nom.) overly concerned with the value of things; to be cheap, a cheapskate; (dat.) overly conscious of/impressed by wealth; ambola ~molani the value/ worth of s.t.; colloq. ta me mola (~tambola) I don't care (dismissive); (idiom.) tambola uçoñi it isn't worth the effort/trouble, tambola mepuni isn't worth doing, tambola anjuni isn't worth the time, etc.

molu ~molu-molu to swarm (of insects, fish, or fig.); (used colloq. as a noun in lieu of amolu); see volu

mondes poor (in quality), shoddy; cakamondes (of clothing, or one's appearance) sloppy, ill-kempt

mondra (adv.) almost (cf. mora)

mora near; çumora (ri) approach, draw near; rumbora bring s.t. closer; morani nearly, almost; mora-mora (adj.) nearby, in the vicinity; ri morani... (prep.) nearby, in the vicinity of...; cakamora too close for comfort; inappropriately intimate or familiar; ambora nearness, proximity; see also vora

morongo verandah or porch of a house

mowa ~omo but; mowa-mowani but rather, instead, but on the contrary

moyocim in sewing, a particular stitch? there are various kinds, with descriptive names. NB to stitch is simply cicim to sew, unless a particular style of stitching is intended, in which case mepu/umit moyocim (+name) (< moyot+cim)

moyot pattern, model; example, specimen; moyondi for example (abbrev. my)

mucat (vt) to pronounce (e.g. a word); ambucat pronunciation; cakamucat badly or mis-pronounced

mucen (vt) to stab

mucovare the sport of fencing

mucuso breast/pectoral area of the male (irreg.redup. < muso)

muko bad (in genl., not morally); çumuko to go/get bad, deteriorate; rumbuko to damage, mar; tramuko not bad, just OK, so-so; la- ~camuko worse ~worst; see also muçi

mulet backwards, in reverse; mule-mulet vice-versa, the other way round (abbrev. mm)

mumuso the nipple(s) of the male

mundokrando ~mundokratantidote to a poison; antivenom

mundruk to oppose; fight against; kambundruk opponent-- all forms connote some hostility, unlike munuk

mundrukañu to oppose or resist telepathy-- a specialized technique

munducangi (med.) immune; ...+ni immunity; çumunducangi become immune to...; (irreg.) rumunducangi liri.. to immunize s.o. against...; añumunducangi immunization (colloq., all form replace -cangi with -cák)

munduk (vt) to oppose, be against (e.g. an idea; or politically-- neutral connotations); to resist; munduk liri... (vi) opposite (to), opposed (to), contrary (to); as prep.(+ acc.) against (opposed to), anti-; kota munduk (gram.) opposite (of)(a word), antonym (of), e.g. ronek yale kota munduk fasan cold is the opposite/antonym of hot; munduk (ri) meloni (idiom.) contrary to expectations...; (irreg.) amunduk opposition; resistance; çupunduk (liri...) becoming opposed (to), to set in opposition to; rumbunduk (~rumbundukuwa) to balance, put in equilibrium; to match, match up; ambunduk(uwa) equilibrium; trapunduk(uwa) not matching; out of balance, in disequilibrium, disharmony (this word is ult. < caus. rumunduk < vunduk, obs.)

mundum to drum, beat/play a drum; also as n., a drum ~emundum

munepak to box (fight with fists; refers to the organized sport-- illegal in many countries); onjepak to spar, practice boxing

munis to solve, resolve (a problem); ambunis (re)solution (of a problem)

munjat to announce; ambunjat announcement; kambunjat announcer, master of ceremonies

munuk (vi) to compete, vie with; oppose, be against; ...yama to race against, run a race; ambunuk contest, competition; kambunuk competitor, opponent (e.g. in a game); (mus.) munupangos counterpoint; cf. mundruk

munup (vt) to button (irreg. for rumunup < unup)

muñas system (pl. muñaç

muñok left (hand, side) (ult.< muko)

mupak camera (< a Gwr trade name); syn. atenjet

murendik to wrestle (formally, as sport)

muru-muru (n.) the low-pitched purring sound made by several Cousin spp. and some other animals; (as vi) to make such a sound; see also rondoñ

muso breast(s) of a woman; ambuso the woman's nipple(s) sumuso breast-milk; see also mumuso, puso

muçi (interj., slang, ~muçik(i)-- the accent may go on the final syl. of all forms) sorry! too bad! expressing mild sympathy or regret, e.g. muçí, ta yale lavi sorry, there isn't any more; muçiki cakenda too bad [you/your team] lost/got beaten (ult. <muko)

muyas (vt) to plane (wood), use a plane (woodworkers' slang, < rumuyas < uyas); see also emuyas

See also the Supplement

V (Nineteenth letter of hakanga, called va, a voiced bilabial or labio-dental approximant, IPA [β], X-SAMPA [B] or IPA [υ], XS [v\])

vacan (vt) to believe; povacan believable; tra(po)vacan unbelievable, incredible; rumacan to persuade; cakavacan too trusting, credulous, gullible; amacan belief; tovacan (fin.) credit

vacanjan (vt) believe in, trust; pravacanjan trustworthy; in good faith; travacanjan untrustworthy; in bad faith

vaha down, in a downwards direction (usu. with -ni); ri... down below, downstairs (~cimbri vaha); vori vaha down-stream, down-river

vahañ an oar (usu.larger than a vahe); see also çumake

vahe 1. paddle for propelling a small boat/canoe; 2. the shoulder-blade of certain large animals, mostly non-mammals

vahut an omen, sign (superstitious); vahuléñ an auspicious omen; (as adj.) auspicious; travahut an ill omen; (adj.) inauspicious; cakavahut superstitious (i.e. one who still takes omens seriously, places excessive reliance on the power of the Spirits, etc.); (irreg.) anjavahut superstition. Belief in omens-- based on behavior of certain animals, analysis of their internal organs, unusual natural phenomena-- was common among the ancient Kash and Gwr, but is not very prevalent in modern societies. The Kash Spirits, however, are still given due ceremonial deference.

vaka bottom; ri ... below, under; (also as slang, in vori-vaka downriver; and as ~vaca, vaci in expressions with vika, q.v.)

vakekañu to join minds; amakekañu (n.) the joining of minds. Lovers or close friends might do this from time to time; it is voluntary, benign, pleasurable, and does not imply control-- it is simply "two minds thinking as one" also used as a syn. of çakañu the art/ability of telepathy, in genl. (<. vakep)

vakep to join together; ... yam +acc. the polite and sci.term for sexual intercourse, ; amakep (anat.) joint; see also yamakep, makendum, makepacelum

vakun to ransom, redeem, buy back

valin to pass, pass by (s.t.); vavalin to pass, go past, overtake; exceed, go beyond; çuvalin (of time) to pass, elapse, e.g. nim lero çuvalin five days passed/elapsed; cakavalin "in passing", casual, as içun... a passing glance; tundru... to shoplift; vandini by the way..., incidentally...(to introduce supplementary or perhaps off- topic material/afterthoughts into conversation/discussion)

valita seagrass/seaweed in genl., some spp. are edible

valun way, manner; kambralun how? in what way? (more formal, kandri valuñi is also used)

vanat white; çuvanat to become pale; fading; of anim. fur, become white, take on winter coat; rumanat to whitewash, paint white; amanat whitewash

vandil (rural) to clear a field; to clear/make a path e.g.through undergrowth; (archaic, shamanistic) to open a path/way to the spirit world

vangep to gather, amass, collect (things); vavangep together; amangep a collection (of things); kamangep a collector

vangi old, worn-out, old-fashioned; of colors, dark; vavangi antique; amavangi history, historical; (a more formal adj: amavangika(le))

vara (conj.) in order to

varu the color brown

varumbara the very dark brown color of some Kaç fur

varusi the brown color of some Gwr fur

vasi ( ~trako...) the shoulder-blade of humans/Cousins and most mammals

vasilus to miss (target); fail to hit or achieve what was aimed at; cavasilus (nom.) completely off the mark; completely missing the point of s.t.

vasir (vt) to inherit; rumasir to bequeath; amasir inheritance, estate; amasir punduñ estate left in trust; kamasir legator; (ana/kaç) kevasir heir, legatee

vaçat serious, grave; having consequences

vatip personal, private; vavatip in a personal way, personally, privately; cakavatip (of a person) extremely private, closed, a "loner"; amatip privacy; see also hamatip

vayi (pron. vai) male, of animals

vecut dirty; çuvecut get dirty; rumecut to dirty, to besmirch; cakavecut filthy, disgusting; lewd; disgraceful; amecut dirt, filth

vekombra to perform euthanasia, to euthanize (obj. in dative); amekombra euthanasia (ult. <vele kombra)

velas a large machete, bolo-knife (syn. sombrak

vele (vt) to give; amele ~vele +poss. gift; kamele giver; vele-vele (vb) to give out, hand out, distribute freely; (as adj.) generous vele nanguça to cremate; amele-mele generosity; see also vevele

veliçun (colloq. veli) to focus on, to concentrate on; veli-veli to stare at s.o. (impolite); cakaveli be stared at, be pointed out, attract or be the object of unwelcome attention

velu new; cavelu modern, up to date; travelu used, second-hand; rumelu to restore, refurbish s.t.; amelu s.t. new esp.if unusual, a novelty; (med.) a genetic mutation; veluni(po) lately, recently; anamelu new-born, infant, baby; see also melu-melu

vembom (mus.) a wind instrument-- double-reed, various sizes

vendanak (vt) to fuel, fill ~provide with fuel (< vele+tanak), often in compd. rundondo ...

vendel noble (status); (fig. ~hañuvendel) noble in character/behavior (but not status); high-minded, highly respected etc.; añavendel the nobility; kevendel a noble, member of the nobility; aramendel a noble title

vengat (vi) to struggle, contend; rumengat to struggle over, to contest, dispute; amengat a struggle, dispute; contest

vetrama (fin.) to share out/distribute earnings (<vele+lama); ametrama dividend

vetrita to rule, govern (<vele+tita); ametrita, colloq. metrita government; metritaka governmental, official; kemetrita a government official or representative; trametrita anarchy, ketrametrita anarchist

veve ~meme (nursery and colloq.) baby, infant, new-born

vevele to give up, to cede; to sacrifice s.t.; PRON+tu ... uçoñi... to sacrifice oneself for... ~give up one's life for...(another)

vicupracu to shrug the shoulders

vihat specific, definite; rumihat to specify; to list; amihat a list; index; vihatni specifically, to wit; i.e., that is (abbrev. vi)

vika see vita

vimbrus a bush; bushy plants in genl., shrubbery; (irreg.) asipimbus a hedge, row of bushes (decorative, or to mark a boundary, < asit+vimbus), see also pimbus

vine ~cakavine wounded; rumine to wound; evine (n) wound

vinene (vt) to graze, hit with a glancing blow/shot

vingakañu to obstruct telepathy-- a specialized technique (cf. vingas)

vingas obstacle; (vt) to hinder, get in the way of; travingas clear, without obstacles (e.g. a road, plan of action); çutravingas become clear, free of obstacles; rundavingas to clear, remove obstacles from; t unblock

vinguça to brand; (n.) a brand-mark (nowadays, of animals only; anciently, a punishment for criminals

vinja a barrel-- in trade, conventionally 25 tombrak = 125 cipetu, approx. 46.875 gals. (US)

virap sure, certain; certainly; çuvirap (are/liri...) to become sure (that/of...), to ascertain; rumirap to assure, guarantee; travirap unsure, uncertain; tambirap (colloq.) (I'm) not sure...

virik beautiful; rumirik to beautify, enhance; amirik ~ virik +poss. beauty; travirik ugly; see kamirik

visiñ deposit/vein/lode (of ore or other material)

viça a fern-like plant-- several spp. from small to tree-size, with delicate, lacy fronds (amiça)

vita up, upwards; upper surface of s.t.; ri vitani... up, above, overhead, above the surface of; upstairs (~cimbri vita); vori-vita upstream, upriver; also as slang, vika, vica, vici) in the expressions vika-vaka, vica-vaca, vici-vaci all referring to alternating "up and down" motions or events, e.g. in the stock market, "boom and bust"; yavika-yavaka ~vikani-vakani "what goes up, (must) come down"

vital tall; amital ~vital+poss. height

vivine (colloq. vivin) a scar; (as vb, ~cakavivin) scarred; rumivin(e) to scarify the skin (a mostly obs. ritual practice of primitive Kash, Lañ-Lañ and Gwr tribes); amivin(e) the practice of scarification; añamivin(e) (or moyopivin) the designs/patterns created thereby (ult. < vine)

viyu a hook, in genl.; viyu-pacik hook-and-eye (fastener)

voko to cough; a cough; rumoko make/cause s.o. to cough; voko-voko, cakavoko to cough uncontrollably

vokra a city-block (area bounded by streets)

volap ugly, unattractive, aesthetically displeasing (of things, not people); rumolap to deface; cakavolap be in bad taste, exhibit bad taste

vole possible; çuvole become possible; rumole make possible; amole possibility; voleni possibly, perhaps; travole impossible (also has çu-, ruñ- verbal and añ- noun derivs.); catravole absolutely impossible, in no way...

volu (vt) bring together, gather, amass (materials); as adj., constructed, man-made (as opposed to naturally occurring); amolu an assemblage (of things), a mass (of things), a swarm (insects), a school (of fish)-- see molu; also, assembly (act of assembling s.t.); rumolu to put s.t. together, to build/ assemble s.t. (from parts); andrumolu manufacturing, industry in genl.; añamolu product(s) in genl.; tarumolu to disassemble, take apart; to undo; kamolu factory-worker; mechanic; yumbrolu factory; see also trumolu

vombrik a small river, stream

vombroçil estuary (wide, bay-like mouth of a river)

vondo plant sp. native to Yanatros, and its extract used by the Lañ-lañ to poison arrow-heads, spears and darts (it acts as a muscle relaxant); < Prevli vondo ~vonor; see also suvondo

vora the side of s.t.; vora-vora side by side, abreast; ri vorani... next to, beside; kamora neighbor (see also mora)

vorañ combining form of vora in names of geometric figures, comparable to -lateral or -agon: (1)as vora- with units 3 and 5-9 e.g. vorasít triangle, voranim pentagon, voraket, vorasot etc.; (2) as vorañ- with 4-- voraká square-- and other common regular (turas) figures e.g. vorapót, voraporó decagon, dodecagon; but (3) as a separate word with unusual/irregular figures and larger numbers, e.g. vorañ folakét 17-sided figure, vorañ rofola 20-sided figure etc. Note further: vorapát polygon; vorangupo parallelogram; vorandivek rectangle; vorasít tikar right triangle, ...kuwa equilateral triangle, ...acekuwa isosceles triangle

vorat (vt) to be a member of, to belong to (an org. or other group); çuvorat (yam...) to join, become a member of, enrol in, enter (a group or org.); amorat membership; kamorat a member of a group or org.

vori river; see also vombrik

vorok important; to matter; çuvorok become important; rumorok bring s.t. into prominence ~to the fore; to focus on, emphasize; amorok ~vorokni importance, emphasis; (gram.) stress; vorokni also adv., mainly, principally; kevorok a person of importance, VIP, big-shot; cakavorok self-important, boastful, conceited; cakevorok id., but more in the sense "he thinks he's a big-shot ~the boss", of s.o. acting above his station; travorok unimportant; catravorok to concentrate on, or worry about, minor details; a "worry-wart"; tamborok (colloq.) it doesn't matter, it's not important (dismissive)

voroset (archit.) dome (< Gwr dial. wor sæt)

vosos a military or police post/station/garrison

voçil wide; çuvoçil to widen, get wider; rumoçil to widen s.t.; travoçil narrow, tight; amoçil a wide place/area; voçindi width ...(ciyur) diameter

vowas kind, gentle; merciful, compassionate (also ~hañu vowas); amowas kindness; mercy, compassion; çuvowas to be merciful to..., to show mercy to...(dat.); cakavowas overly kind, too trusting, "a soft touch".

vulamir (vt) to chill, let cool (usu. of foods)

vuluñ cool, refreshing; çuvuluñ becoming cool; cool off, get refreshed (e.g. by moving into the shade); rumuluñ to cool/refresh s.o.; cakavuluñ catch a chill (such that one shivers, the teeth chatter etc.); amuluñ coolness, shade; see also vulamir)

vundele to excavate (a large hole, e.g.for a foundation or basement); ...liri to mine for...; emundele a mine (underground); cavundele undermined (spec. by digging, creating danger of collapse), also fig., weakened or endangered by subversive means; see also evun

vunduk (obs.) see munduk

vunja plant sp., the extract of the root is used by the Lañ-lañ to stun fish in streams/rivers (Prevli vunza ~vunaz); kumba is the native Kash name and synonymous, but originally referred to a different sp. native to Hanjomim

vunu direction; (naut.) heading, course; dat. + yale vunu(ni) ~yale vunu+poss. to be on course; mepu vunu ri... to set a course for, to head toward; (fig.) to decide on, commit to, enter on (e.g. a course of action or contract); mepu vunu-vunu ri... go directly toward/to, head straight for; ri vunuwe ... toward; lani vununi? which direction (is it in)? (answer: ritan, vunini ... from here, it's/you go [north, south, etc.]); cakavunu (naut.) to go/be offcourse

vupin (vt) to rotate, spin; see also yendren

vurot cement or concrete in genl.; mortar for laying brick/tile etc.; see also vutrevas

vuruna the 4th day of the 7-day week, after Vuruna (var. tamuruna) the larger of Cindu's two moons, named after a myth. character; as a Spirit, considered feminine

vutrevas plaster (for interior walls/ceilings); stucco (for exterior)

See also the Supplement

A (Twentieth letter of hakanga, called ani, a low central vowel, IPA [a].)

acal matter, thing, affair; kracal problem

acangi sickness (< çangi)

ace leg

acece stem, stalk

acepamba a millipede-like insect (colloq., various spp.)

acepat a centipede-like insect (colloq., various spp.)

acero (colloq. cero) long pants or leggings, mostly worn in colder areas (properly <halo ... lit., two-legged sarong); see also ceromik

acim a belt or sash; (e) acikinda (colloq.) the Equator; see çim

acin- comb.form of acindi 'speech', in several grammatical terms: acindandru high speech (absolutely correct, quite formal); acindevas rhetoric (lit., elegant speech, may imply baroque, affected, high-flown); acindevasa(le) rhetorical, pertaining to rhetoric; acindimik ~acindici slang (lit., little speech; speech+dim.); acindula special forms of speech used in noble palaces (except for terms of address, most of this vocabulary is now obs.; lit., gold speech); acingambo grammar, in genl. (lit., correct speech); acingamboka(le) grammatical, pertaining to grammar; acinjuk (~cuk) vulgar or impolite slang; acingure substandard/incorrect speech (lit., low speech); acimbuna ~acitamar colloquial speech (lit., house ~common speech); acikorokspeech impediment, in genl. (lit., bent/deformed speech)

acupor sewage (ult. < eçupor sewer)

afar (vi) spread (out); çukafar to be spreading; ruñafar to spread ~lay out s.t.; cakafar spread out, strewn about, scattered at random; (hum.) to sprawl; (med.) contagious; añafar ~afandri the spread/extent of s.t.

aful bowel-movement; hukopaful~ hukaful (colloq. also pafut) to move the bowels, have a b.m.; cakaful have an involuntary b.m. (e.g. from fear, or, as an infant might); colloq., the -l often > -t

ahakar painful, hurt (emotional more than physical); irreg. rukakar to cause pain/hurt to s.o.; ... hañu +poss. to dissapoint s.o.; cakakar hurt (in one's feelings)

ahan (vt) to cause, create; devise, invent; añahan a creation, invention; lit. or mus. composition; kañahan creator, inventor; (~keyahan) composer, author; (e) parahan ~(e) parahambesa (relig.) the Supreme Creator, Primum Mobile; (e) parañahan Creation, the Universe; (e) tarahan (~tarahan trahaniyu) Chaos, the time before Creation; see also akan

ahar painful, sore; rumahar to cause pain/suffering, to hurt; cakahar be in pain/agony; añahar (physical) pain, suffering; see also krahar, ahakar

aka a particle that introduces yes-no questions (see also -ka)

akakram obvious; akakrañi obviously

akan (vt) to form, to shape; añakan ~akañi the form/shape of s.t.; (gram.) the inflected/conjugated form(s) of nouns/verbs, e.g. ...aran nominative ('name') case; ...tanju present ('now') tense; trafun ... sculpture; kañakan sculptor

akandula to do goldsmithing, work with gold

akanefi to do silversmithing, work with silver

akangece to forge, do smithing ~work with iron; see also kivuçece, yukriçece

akañu ~prakañu ~krakañu amulet, talisman, fetish (a small object believed to have beneficial, or sometimes malign, power); ult. <akan+hañu

akoros formerly, the 7th rank of nobility, below akro, the equiv. more or less of a baronet; añakoros that rank/position/status (and formerly, the land-holding associated with the title); nowadays a purely honorary (appointed) status; anakoros title that may be used by children of an akoros during the parent's lifetime; they may not use mesa, rona etc. (an akoros was originally the eldest son of an akro)

akram clear; evident, obvious (see also akakram; çukakram become clear (weather & fig.), to settle (of sediment); rumakram make clear, explain; talakram unclear; murky (of liquids); añakram clarification, explanation, definition; añakrangota dictionary

akrañoni temptation, trial (see krañoni, ñoni)

akro the 6th and lowest rank of the hereditary nobility, roughly equiv. to a baron

akukop garbage (<hukop; see akup)

akup (colloq.) garbage

ala glass (the material); alañu mirror

alam (geog.) pole; ...andra north pole, ...umbrik south pole; alakinda the earth's axis

alandani (adv.) henceforth, from now on (mainly formal; takes future tense)

alanji ~lanji (colloq., prep. +gen.) since [time]-- contr. of alo anjuwi(ni)..., also used; (a)lanjini (ever) since then, since that time; (formal, legal) thenceforth, from then on, from that time on (requires past tense)

-a(le) post-cons. var. of adj. suffix -ka(le) q.v.

ale to be; çukale to exist, come into being; rumale to create; rundakale to destroy, annihilate (see takale); añale(k) existence; yale there is/are...; yes; ta yale (colloq. tale) there is not..., there isn't any; no

aleka (more often colloq. alek) real, actual, in existence;añalek existence; taraleka ~tralek(a) unreal

aleleñ (n) good, goodness

alo (prep.) from (+ gen.); than (+gen.), in the comparative construction; aloni therefore

alurit tropical tree sp. with very oily (inedible) nuts that can be used as candles/torches; umalurit ~yundalurit (refined) alurit oil (primarily a fuel and lightweight lubricant; very bitter-- a drop or two is sometimes used as flavoring, but any larger quantity is likely to cause nausea); see also lurin

ama father (colloq., affect. mama, ambi)

amakekañu the telepathic joining of minds-- see vakekañu

amalero ('father sun') the Spirit of the Sun, one of the "Greater Spirits", powerful and benign

amanat (n) whitewash

amar age, era; pl. also, eternity; amakra(le) eternal; amavangi the past; history

amba thousand

(ambal) rumambal (relig.) to perform/celebrate a religious rite or ceremony

ambak ~ambakapum firearms, in genl.; ...nilus pistol, handgun; ... livek rifle; ambak ikro ~ambikro shot-gun; ambikroci a pellet-gun

ambakran weapon in genl.

ambal (vt) to serve (e.g. food), offer; ... lalu give a party; añambal a ritual food-offering; kañambal person who makes such an offering; (colloq.) kañap waiter in a restaurant

ambat (colloq.) a loan (see mandum)

ambeceñ (NB plural ambeceç) fungus/fungi, in general

ambi (colloq.) papa, dad, daddy; may take poss.sfxs- ambimi, ambiti etc. (see ama)

ambik proper, fitting; tarambik improper, inapt, unsuitable; (irreg.) catrambik boorish, gauche; a boor; cakambik prudish, priggish, overly concerned with manners/appearances

ambilus the thumb (ama+nilus); the other fingers are andilus q.v.

ambom gong (usu. the largest, deepest sounding)

ambraka million (<amba raka)

ambrus (vi) to shed the fur heavily (hum. subj.; of Kash and Cousins in temperate/cold areas, when the weather begins to warm); çukambrus beginning to shed (hum. subj., or "fur"); locambrus (humor.) the shedding season, i.e. Spring in cold climates (avos q.v. is related)

ambu (vt) to permit, allow (note 3pl. yambu (re...) it is permitted (that...); cakambu overly liberal/permissive; (of a child) spoiled; trambu (re...) it is not permitted (that...), it is forbidden...-- ~tarambu in officialese; andrambu prohibition, s.t. forbidden (usu. by law, not a socially or religiously based taboo); añambu (colloq. ambu +poss.) permission; a permit; kañambu any licensing authority;

1. ambum a single, sharp thunder-clap

2. ambum a bomb (probably ult. the same as preceding); evumbum bomb crater

ambunduñ a contract, pledge, bond, security (<punduñ); ...(puna) a mortgage (on a house)

amekaran the big toe (ama+ekaran)

amir frozen; çukamir (vi) to freeze; rumamir (vt) to freeze; cakamir to freeze suddenly or accidentally; to get cold very suddenly; fig. to freeze up; vulamir (vt.) to chill, cool off (usu. of foods); añamir, eyamir ice; amiruñat a flavored ice, "sorbet", "granita"; yami cami a drink made of fruit, ice, "milk"

amiça "frond"-like branches/leaves of certain trees and fern-like plants- delicate in appearance, tho sometimes very tough (deriv. <viça)

amut flat (of a surface); añamut surface of a thing, in genl. (kati 'face' may also be used.

ana child; also, the young of Cousins (except the kusimi); anamelu new-born, baby, infant (see also veve); anakasi firstborn, eldest child; analús last-born, youngest child; ... rokale twins; ...lolan foster-child; an(a) unayo orphan; cakana childish; anambre (BrCh), anasuya (SiCh) niece, nephew; anakave any distant relation of one's own or younger generation; see also anana, andi, andum

anacangat sprites/demons that inhabit rocky places-- caves, mines, quarries, canyons and ravines-- they may impede one's path or cause a bad fall, lead one astray, cause rock-falls and landslides, etc. In caves they inhabit stalactites/stalagmites, in the open air they are unusually shaped rocks or small formations, or any rocky rubble that is difficult of passage; in art they are often depicted as short, chunky dwarf-like humanoids (made of rock)

anambruna a sprite, the capricious feminine manifestation of Vuruna, who may help or hinder a love affair. If properly appeased, she will bring happiness; if not, misery, bickering, jealousy and ultimate break-up. The person (m. or f.) who interferes in an affair-- tries to steal one's lover-- is believed to be possessed by anambruna

anamingi (~namik equally common colloq.form) malicious, ill-intentioned sprites (more properly "demons/imps" to our view), conceived of as being the children, or mobile aspects, of the various Spirits, esp.the capricious and/or malicious ones.

anana ~anambik (child's) doll, usu. representing a human or Cousin--other representational toy figures are pambi(ci) (+name), e.g. pambi lopa a toy lopa

anandalap a sprite, the capricious male manifestation of Lalap (who in legend was a drunken reprobate)-- he possesses people and is responsible for drunkenness and drunken behavior. He protects drunkards from major mishaps (he wants to continue inhabiting them, after all), but can cause falls, unconsciousness, and stupid or inappropriate behavior. A hangover is a sign that anandalap has tired of his game

anandel a semi-sweet wine, sim. to sherry

anandisa prince, crown prince-- a continental, not Yanatros, usage; see nisa

andahan food (< nahan)

andakembut a sign-board, billboard (ult. <taken)

andandramut plateau (nom. <landru+amut)

ande (vt) to pawn

andele a garden or field (for crops); ...aves flower garden (irreg. < ilele)

andet as base of añandet science in genl., the "hard"sciences; añandenga(le) scientific; kañandet scientist; in compds. as andet/k- the study of..., equiv. to "-ology" (often with irreg. sandhi)-- andekañu psychology; andekinda geology; andesende linguistics, philology; andetañol astronomy; andekoram physics; andengayi biology; andemacan philosophy; andemetrita politics (properly 'political science')--colloq. syn. tinda; ult. <telañ

andi a boy (from birth to approx. pre-puberty, ~age 10); ana sinut (of which this is a contraction) is equally appropriate, a little more formal (NB irreg. in the sing.: andi, andini, andine, andin; pl. andila etc.)

andica knife (<lica, tica)

andilus the fingers (except the thumb) (<ana nilus)

andiris (n) fear (tiris, liris

andonolit literature (< nolit)

andopra the other/opposite side; ri... across, on/to the other side of (< nopra)

andor a pot, vase (decorative, not for cooking)

andoço baked goods; spec., a bread-like product

andra north

andrangayi clone of a plant or animal; mepu... to clone id. (< andrana (orana)+kayi; see also katoç. NB The cloning of plants and (less successfully) animals has been within the ability of Cindu science for some time; the cloning of humans is Galactic technology that has not yet been attempted.

andruyonam sexual climax/orgasm-- the correct (med.) term; common colloq.anjonam, (slang) conam-- ult. < ruwi

andum a girl (from birth to approx. pre-puberty)-- NB irreg. acc. andun; ana luma is also used, a little more formal

anduyu (sci.) atom; anduyuka(le) atomic, nuclear

aneñe the young of the lopa, from birth to approx.12-13 mos.

angakarun kingdom (ruled by a kakarun)

angambarak gallows (< ange+hambar+-rak)

angasi beginning; first (< kasi)

angayi life (< kayi)

ange tree, in genl.; añange forest

angingo a tree sp.(< ange+kingo "plume tree") with long feathery leaves, that are sometimes dried and used to fill mattresses/pads and cushions

angur the Gwr people; Gwr (adj.); NB irreg. pl. akrila

anici ear-ring(s) (colloq. anji)

anika a few, several

anisu a mischievous sprite who causes people to bump into each other, or to slip and fall, and vehicles to skid, in wet or icy places; contr. nisu is often used as a warning that some surface is slippery, e.g. ayoti, kanin nisu! watch out, slippery floor!

anit a ring, for the finger or toe

anjana (+ poss.) polite term for a woman's period of oestrus

anjayi (aux) ought to, should

anje still, yet; cf. tambende (~tambét) not yet

anji (colloq.) ear-ring(s), see anici

anju time, period; (conj.) when; anju-anju (as conj.) whenever; (as adv.); anju-anjuni meanwhile, in the meantime; anjuci (in/for) a little while; ri anju anjuwe from time to time, occasionally; yale anjusometimes, on occasions; also, in folk tales, "once upon a time"; ri anjuni... (~riyanjuni...) while, during, at the time of...; rikanju when? tayanju now, nowadays; tiyanju then, at that time; titanju just then, precisely at that time; kariyanju sometime, someday; anjana + poss. polite term for a woman's period of oestrus; hukop/ulop... waste time; kayi(-kayi)... pass time (no special purpose); nahan... to kill time; umit... spend time (with a purpose)

anjukuwa (formal usage-- see cukuwa)

anjun grist (grain to be ground up); see cun

anjura a story (<cura)

anoras the third rank of nobility, below king and karun; typically in modern times they may be appointed to provincial governorships

anula ~nula gold; see also keret lero

añambinal mathematics; cf. pinal

añat a mixture of spices rubbed into food, a dry marinade; suwañat a liquid marinade; cucap ... to marinate (colloq., irreg. < uñañat <uñat)

añen patio, courtyard

añito a jelly/gelatin (not sweet), ~aspic; see ayi-to

añol star; añomalut constellation (calque of a Gwr term); cakañol unlucky, ill-omened; andetañol astronomy

añopokrinda (outer) space, beyond Cindu but within the solar system) (cmpd. noml.añ- +opor+hinda), cf. oprañol

añut a moment, point in time; instant; añutipo for just a moment; (as interj.) " hold on! ~(wait) just a sec!; añut-añut instantly; añutni lus (the) last time (i.e. never again), as, kandikre yahoremsa, ne maçindi añutni lus 'before he died, I spoke to him for the last time'-- contrast añutni cosa (the) last time, on a previous occasion; añutni rata (the) next time...

apalí .001 li, the Cindu "millimetre"

apambraka billion (thousand million, l09)

apeña (vt) to own, possess; to belong to; takes obj. in the genitive: erek yapeña punayi yu Erek owns that house; or (correct usage) puna yu yapeña ereki that house belongs to Erek (but here, colloq. and increasingly common, the dat. may be used for humans-- puna yu yapeña ereke); ... +poss. property (of); (irreg.) ambeña ownership; kambeña owner; ambembesa monopoly; kambembesa monopolist; see also pe- ~peñ-

apik comfort; api-apik comfortable; (subj. may be human or inanim., e.g. a chair)

apis root (lit. and fig.); (vi) çukapis to take root; apitraka tap-root; añapis root system

aposi ship, boat (<fosi)

apral machine, device; var. compds. often irreg., e.g. aprañelur loom, apratur airship, airplane (colloq. pratur); aprambinal calculator, calculating machine; colloq. prambin (-jeli if electronic); aprambus a bellows (esp., in a smithy); aprangurip (celici) (electronic) communicator (alien technology)

apranan, aprasan see s.v. aro

apul (mus.) harp; apuñanga (lit. wind harp) wind-chimes (see also apundepet)

apundepet (mus.) a keyboard instrument similar to the harpsichord (the strings are plucked by mechanical action; < apul+tepet)

aran name; (gram.)(kota)... noun; vele... to name, give a name to, e.g. anayeni/ne ivele aran erek 'they named their child/him Erek'; rumaran to name as, to appoint, e.g ereke irumaran karun 'they named/appointed Erek (as) karun'; añaran naming, system of naming (of things), e.g. ...vori naming of rivers, hydronymy; amelaran system of naming people, "anthroponymy"; arandepes any title, term of address, in genl.; palaran, aramendel noble title, tunga(r) palaran (~less used ambalaran) the titled class, the nobility; arandéñ (good) reputation; arambúk (bad) reputation; arambici nickname

arandan an emblem, symbol, (commercial) logo (ult. <aran)

are (re after vowel) introduces S complements, that; invar. relative marker, who, which, that

areyal a temple, place of relig.worship; añareyal (Kash) religion as an institution/organization, "The Church"; see also yutrama

aro hour; fiyan aroni? what time is it? aro(ni) [num.] (it's) [num.] o'clock (syn. teka); arofanan, arofasan (~apranan, aprasan) midday, the slowest/hottest time of day, the 2-3 hours from noon to late afternoon (1100-approx. 1300/1400)-- in the tropics, shops close, and people typically take a siesta after lunch

aros east

asam dough

asipimbus see vimbrus, pimbus

asit a line; mepu... (of people) to form a line, line up, queue up; rumasit to put things in a line/row

asituku ~situku a scratch (wound); (as vt) to scratch (wound); casituku to get scratched; see also ñanak

açakon a k.o. dragon (myth.); also the name of a constellation (prob. an old Gwr loan; modern Gwr sha-kong)

açocon (colloq. cocon q.v.) (vi) to suspect; (irreg.) acocon suspicion

açon (vt) to feel, sense; çukaçon (liri...) becoming aware of..., getting the feeling that...; añaçon the feelings, emotions; the 6 senses; cakaçon... overcome by feeling(s) of..., e.g. me cakaçon andulañi/ambindayi I was overcome by sadness/joy; ne cakaçon re ne itingas he had a feeling he was being watched; see açocon

açun to admit, acknowledge, confess; çukaçun (liri...) to concede; vele-çukaçun to surrender

açurak month; combining form açur- ~çur- in names of months: açumbrés, açuró, açusít, açukrá, açundrím, açukrét, açusót, açuprán, açusán, açuprót, çupromés, çuporó, çuprosít, çuprohá, çuproním, açulús. (Ult. <anju+raka)

atel room in a house or building; ... çiru ~ateciru bedroom; ... nahan ~atendahan dining-room; atetraka the main room, sitting room; atepindu foyer, vestibule (small separate room/space just inside the main door or gate); atenji any small habitable compartment or room (e.g. on a train or ship); see also telet

atembes anteroom, vestibule, foyer; waiting room (colloq. tembes is more common)

atenjet (colloq. tenjet) camera; syn. mupak

atrengaya education, upbringing; see saren

avan to mourn, grieve (inwardly-- cf. lariñ) for the dead or s.t. past; añavan mourning, grief; spiritual pain or sadness; çukavan to begin the mourning period after a death, go into mourning; cakavan in mourning; leroç cakavan period of mourning hañuwavan (hañu+avan) grieving, sad at heart, heavy-hearted; avan-avan nostalgic; nostalgia (implies much more sadness than andeçayu < teçayu q.v.)

avana a mid-size "lizard" sp.-- omnivorous, about 5 ft. tall at the shoulders, body approx. 6-7 ft. in length, plus a stubby tail; it can stand and (clumsily) walk on its hind legs, and use the forelegs to grasp. The hind legs are powerful, and it can pounce on prey from quite a distance. Its color is splotchy green/black/brown, excellent camouflage for its forest-floor habitat. It is aggressive and its bite or scratch is septic.

aves flower, in genl. (plur. aveç)

avos of the fur, to fall out (due to a disease); acangi ~ çangi ... that disease; kena ... to have/suffer that disease; cakavos to have, or appear to have, that disease, look scruffy, mangy (of an adult, impolite; may be used to scold a child who has gotten very dirty); ecutavos a bald spot caused by this disease

ayi-to (often written ayito~ayi to, but pron. [áy tó], < Gwr) a sea-weed product used to make gelatin, and for thickening (sim. to agar-agar)

ayok war; mepu ... (vi) to wage war, make war, go to war; rumayok to wage war on...

See also the Supplement

I (Twenty-first letter of hakanga, called ini, a high front vowel, slightly lower than IPA [i])

1. i (conj.) and

2. i var. of ri q.v., if the contiguous syllable also contains an r

icak the young of various "lizard" species, esp. (also icaci) of popo; also icacu of undesirable/inedible spp.

ici ~icoñ the penis (colloq., to be avoided); ici ~iciñ, icitrok ~citrok coarse terms for sexual intercourse

icikañu syn. of trokañu q.v.

ihis sharp, of a tool or knife; rumihis to sharpen; tarihis dull, syn. popor

ikri (ult. <ikro) only in ...kiket the irritating dead bodies/excrement of the kiket parasite that adhere to the body or fur; ikri +ti/ni an insulting curse-word implying that s.o. is unclean, unhealthy, probably infested with kiket

ikrik (coarse) sand; cf. ikro

ikro pebble; gravel; ikikro a pellet, small shot

ile (vt) to dig; ile-ile to dig into, rifle the contents of s.t.; cakile-ile to dig into one's food ~get involved in s.t., with enthusiasm

ilekañu lit., to dig (in) the mind-- perhaps to determine truthfulness, secrets or motivation-- sim. to tingakañu but without authorization, and considered unethical; it might, for example, be attempted during business negotiations

ilele (vt) to plant; andele (colloq. lele is more common) a garden, field (cf. also ele)

ilik (vi) to taste bad; cakilik id., more emphatic

ilongo lively, crowded; having fun; any situation e.g. a party or street-fair, with lots of people, noise, activity; ilongo-longo id. but very much so. (An angry mob would not be ilongo; the word has good connotations, like Malay ramai.) (see lolongo)

imacalom grizzled, greying (the fur of the nose/face)

imak the nose

imbar the 5th day of the 7-day week

imbovu a navigable canal, for shipping (< Gwr mi baw-bu:q water big-road)

imbuk an alcoholic liquor, 40-50%, both neutral and flavored varieties (similar to vodka/gin) (ult. <imu+puhi)

imik least; imikni at least; çukimik becoming unimportant, insignificant; rumimik to minimize; cakimik (nom.) very trivial, utterly unimportant, not worth bothering with; (hum.,dat.) be treated as insignificant, condescended to, snubbed

imu (vt) to drink; añimu (colloq. ñimu a drink, s.t. to drink; (irreg.) cakimu-kimu to drink (alcohol) to excess, be an alcoholic

inar basket, in genl. (various sizes and types)

inde mother (colloq. affect. nine ~ tete; nimbi, imbi are used mainly by very small children); indeyama parents, parental couple (inde+ama-- the pl. indeyamala is used only in officialese)

inga (vt) to lack, be without, to have no... (+gen.); as prep.(+gen.) without, lacking; inguçomi without purpose; vain, in vain; colloq. truçomi, truçoñi; añinga a lack, need; añayinga deprivation, poverty; ruminga to deprive s.o. of..., take away from, e.g. karun ne yaruminga palaranini the karun took away/deprived him of his title; mende haruminga anayemi sinut nowinini you have deprived my son of his livelihood

ingar home; içiningar homeland

inim trace, track, clue, hint; (irreg.) ninim to trace/ track a person/animal by visible clues; kaninim a tracker; (police) detective; kandim (official title) Detective...

inji young; of colors, light

iña intelligent, smart; tariña stupid, dumb; añiña ~iñani intelligence

iñetum the name of an island

iricañ to kneel; see ricañ

irit (vt) to wring, twist; rukorem~ pakran... (hendiñ) to strangle; cakirit contorted, as in a fight/wrestling; (body part + poss. as subj..)... twisted, sprained, out of joint (NB hendiñi cakirit his neck is/got twisted, out of joint vs. ne cakirit hendiñ he got strangled)

içap dim, poorly lit; çukiçap of light, to grow dim or fade, as at dusk; also of voices, sounds; rumiçap to dim (a light), reduce the sound of, turn down the volume (e.g. of a radio); cakiçap (nom.) grope or stumble around in the dark; (dat.) have very poor vision, semi-blind; añiçap twilight, usu. in the evening, though sometimes (as ... aros) of pre-dawn

içiningar homeland

içinin country, land; nation

içiñ island, in genl.; haveçiñ group of islands, archipelago; içinjur atoll (circular group of islands, usu. of coral); içiturañ high (mountainous) island(s)

içun the eye; içunji (colloq.) the pupil of the eye

iti (conj) or; as tag question particle, ....or what?; iti...iti either...or; (appended to a numerical expression) ...or so, e.g. nim lero iti five days or so

itre (mainly rural, somewhat obs.) an itinerant peddler or tradesman (e.g. tinsmith, knife-sharpener); itre-latro vagabond, wanderer, who may do odd jobs (they are viewed with some mistrust, rather like Gypsies); katorom itre traveling salesman (slightly pej.,) < Gwr hi trè

itrevas gem, precious stone

ivit a k.o. pan-pipes (Lañ-Lañ, < Prevli hibit

iya that, that one; the 3d pers.sing. pronoun. (Fem.iye, Neut.iyu; plur. nila, niç)

iyanjuwe (colloq. iyanje, yanjuwe) (prep.) until, up to; ... re (conj.) until

iyoñ shiny, glossy; tariyoñ dull, matte; rumiyoñ (colloq. miyoñ to polish; cakiyoñ ~cakiyoñ-iyoñ polished to a very high gloss; of manners, behavior, very refined, elegant.

iyu-uwi in: moyot ... "figure 8" pattern or design (so-called from its resemblance to the letters i and u written superimposed on each other

iyuni (~yuni) something; (neg.) anything

See also the Supplement

E(Twenty-second letter of hakanga, called eni, mid front vowel, slightly lower than IPA [e] ~lower mid [E] in closed syllables and before r)

e a def. article used mostly with place names or when stating general concepts e.g. e kundri truth, e rinda music; e kanak the province "Kanak" (believed to be ult. < *ia ~ya)

e- (sometimes eñ-) an old, no longer productive prefix, indicating "a specific instance of.../the instrument of..." (its origin is uncertain-- perhaps same as e 'definite article')

ecak town, village; kañecak towns-people, villagers (simple folk) (ult. <canga)

ecami candy, sweets (<cami)

ecunik pestle; see also eyunjun, cuni-cunik

ecut fur; furry-- usu. ref. to the fur of the Kaç; añecut fur in genl., of other animals, e.g. payo añecut a fur cape (though colloq., ecut might occur here too); ecutavos a bald spot caused by avos (q.v.) disease; tarecut furless

efi silver; see also keret tandi

efisawu mercury; also keret sawu

efoyan bright, of light

ehakas (colloq. ~hakas) very strange, weird, outlandish, bizarre; see ehas

ehandi (~colloq. hanji) a broom, < handi

ehas strange, unusual, odd; añehas oddity; anomaly; ...ni the odd thing is..., what's odd is...

ekam leaf, in genl.; pandekam, ekam-ekam leafy; tarekam leafless; añekam foliage, in genl.; ekaceyak (slang ekaceka "sour-leaf", a plant whose leaves are used to make a tea; putekam deciduous (<putap); ekanji the louvres/slats of lemet

ekandrañ a large/heavy hammer; carpenter's hammer; ekakandrañ a very large hammer, maul or sledge hammer

ekanjat a scale, weighing device

ekañat herb in genl. (ekam+uñat)

ekaran the foot; paw of an animal

ekarat (colloq. karat also common) a saw (tool)

ekivus skill, expertness

eku(k) (colloq.) chair; see kuka

ekurip the token or baton used in a relay-race.

ekut hair; any long, thin hair-like material; (as adj., tech. ekuta[le]) hairy, pilose; ekunduhu capillaries (small blood vessels)-- the Kash would use ekut to describe e.g. human head- and body-hair, or the coat of some animals, as opposed to their own ecut fur

elal (vt) to arrange (things), put in order; añelal arrangement, ordering; (gram.) añelatende grammar

ele plant, in genl.; ele-kulu flora and fauna; ele-ele ombrum intestinal flora/bacteria; (cf. ilele)

elimbe clothing; elimbekuwa (military) uniform; (servant's) livery-- commonly pronounced limbekuwa (< limbe)

elum the tongue; see lum, lulum

emahen figure, image, representation of an object; literary/artistic symbol; (~kota mahen) figure of speech

eme also; eme...eme both...and; tambo... (i) eme... not only...but also...; ememe as well as, in addition ~additionally

emundele a mine (spec., underground vs. evun- which are open-pits except evundula gold mine); comb.form usu. evund(e)-; see also vundele

emundum a drum (see also mundum)

emuyas carpenter's plane (trade slang muya)

ena hesitation particle, well, er, umm-- var. of na, nana

endak flesh (of humans/animals); meat (of animals, as food), flesh/pulp of certain fruits/vegetables- usu. e.g. ... lopa lopa (meat), ...otambik flesh ofotambik (ult. <*e+nahan)

ende and then... (a part. much used in narratives, to introduce new material); (colloq. endeni or more often eneni ~neni) so..., so then..., and so...; i ende(po)? ~endeni(po)? so? so what? what of it?

endo may it be.., let it be..; would that...

endurut shoulder

enende (contraction-- considered disrespectful-- of more common parenende) the Sky Spirit

engarem prize, reward

engap to gasp, pant; cakengap out of breath

engo hull of a boat

engol a broad street, avenue, main thoroughfare in a town, usu. paved; engol uçiru highway

engor improper, inapt, unsuitable

enikar plumb-bob, plumb-line

eningar the human (Kaç) body (<ningar)

eniyak the crotch, groin (usu. of humans); see also ñakace

enje city; enjeka(le) urban; enje-tarenje ~enje-trenje (idiom.) town and country; (pra)puna trenje country-houe (of wealthy or noble); enjangasi capital city of a country

enjiki (colloq. enjik) skillet, frying-pan; enjiñ the more common round-bottomed 'wok' (colloq. contr. < enjik(i) ciñur

enjiyur (math.) circumference

enjun (vt) to grind, mill; cangacun millstone, grinding-stone (see also cun)

eñanik (colloq. ñaniki) a comb, brush; see ñanik

eñe ~eñeñ (onomat., usu. repeated many times) the typical "bleating" sound made by lopas; as vb. yeñe (of lopas) to make that sound; (of people, pejor.) to sound like a lopa bleating when wheedling or being overly insistent/demanding

epahan the chest (anat.)

epak fist; epak-epak to fight; fist-fight (cf. kapak); cakepak to get hit (by someone-- e.g. me ... ereki I got hit by Erek); cakepak-epak get in a (physical) fight (with s.o., e.g. me ... ereki I got into a fight with Erek (see also kepak)

epanan the brake(s), e.g. of a vehicle; see kamban

epikan leaves of the fikan tree, used for sanding/polishing

epilan generic term for various small purses/bags in which one carries e.g. money, ID, notebook, a pen etc. (colloq. pilapi); epilacim a small bag/pouch, worn on the belt, usu. over the right hip (colloq. pacim); epilanji a purse, carried in the hand (colloq. pilanji); epiluno a large bag with shoulder strap for carrying misc. items, usu. worn from left shoulder to right hip (colloq. pilus); pingapra a brief-case, portfolio (colloq. pingap)

epinal number (n.)

epola a quantity of 10, a "dozen"

epro potter, one who makes pots (< Gwr. r po clay craftsman); eprotañ pottery

epukiman a kind of pan-pipes (< epuwi + kiman a mountainous region of Hanjomim)

epuço carpenter's level (a workman will usu. say just puçomi my level; puçoni the level)

epuwi a flute

eracañ a meat-grinder or food-mill

erambik proper, fitting, suitable

erekroçe admiral (naval rank)

erengen (nav.) captain of a ship; (civ.) owner of a ship (the very common male name Erek is derived from this)

erongo a quantity of 100, a "gross"

eçangan a bed, cot, pallet, mat-- anything one may lie down on to rest

eçapupu a baloon (cf. sapus)

eçen (vi) to live, dwell, stay, reside in a place; çukeçen to migrate, to settle (in a new place); (irreg.) angeçen migration; rumeçen to remove/resettle a population; añeçen ~eçen +poss. home, residence; kañeçen inhabitant

eçeva a journey (see çeva)

eçindar a ladder (see çindar)

eçu tube, tube-like; pipe, conduit; (geom.) cylinder, cylindrical; eçulúk (med.) a blood-vein; eçusu water pipes/mains; see also eçupor; (< Gwr)

eçuña finger; eçundraka the middle finger; eçumbik toe

eçupor sewer, sewer pipes; in some larger towns also eçuporipa ~eçupripa storm-sewer(s)-- a separate system for storm-water only; (irreg.) kecupor a sewer-worker; see also yunjupor

eçura (n) honor, respect (see çura)

etende newspaper (<etendero)

etengi book; etenguri note-book; etendero diary, journal, (mar.) ship's log (see also etende) (ult. < e+tengayi); añetengi a collection of books, personal library (also, the room in a house where one's books are kept); kandengi librarian

etepet a plectrum (to pluck the strings of certain mus.instruments); see tepet

etepro ~tepro the potter's wheel (contr. of eyet epro)

etesep a multi-blade device for chopping food; see sesep

etiñ a small bell; see tiñ, titiñ

etitriñ a small, light-weight hammer; tacking hammer

etrik a fork (cooking or eating utensil)

etundo a prayer, appeal (usu. non-relig.); see also himaçema

evakep (anat., tech.) joint

evine (n) wound

evun pit, large hole in the ground; (~evunjangar) quarry; evukece (open-pit) iron mine; see also emundele, vundele

eyala (colloq. yala) a drinking-glass (many speakers use eyala for the container, yala for a quantity, e.g. eyala poren wine-glass, yala poren a glass of wine)

eyamir (colloq. yamir) ice (see amir)

eyas lever; see also yakiñ, yayas

eyet a wheel; ...epro potter's wheel (in the trade, contr. to (e)tepro)

eyole any measuring device; eyolí the common li-stick;

eyukat a spatula, turner

eyunjun a mortar, fo grinding; see also ecunik, cuni-cunik

eyurun toilet, rest-room (lit., the place)

See also the Supplement

U (Twenty-third letter of hakanga, called uni, a high back rounded vowel close to IPA [u])

ucut ugly, unattractive (of people)

ufahan breath

uhañ clean; çukuhañ becoming clean; rumuhañ, uhakañ (vt) to clean s.t.; taruhañ dirty; añuhañ cleanliness

uhima call upon, call for; summon

uhiyomer (legal) to bring suit against..., take to court, to sue (a more formal term than filambicas)

ukat quite, very

ukraçet to draw (pictures) (cf. kaçet)

uku one of the principal food-grains, esp. in the tropics; ukuçu ~ukuci (nursery term) uku-mush, uku-porridge

ulap (vi) to stagger, reel; cakulap to be very drunk, "falling-down drunk"

ularan to sign one's name; añularan signature; ... (r)i sign up for; enrol in; (mil.) enlist (compd. uri+aran)

uleça a screen, scrim-- 1. as a pc.of furniture that hides s.t. or serves as a room divider; 2. the screen in a cinema; also the scenery flies in a theatre. (NB does not refer to mesh window-screening)

ulin board, plank; añulin lumber in genl.; kañulin carpenter

ulop ~cakulop (vt,vi) to spill; spilled, spilt; ulop anju spend time on useless, vain or wasteful pursuits; (rum)ulop luhu spill blood, cause a serious injury/death by violence; (cak)ulolop of liquids, sloshing around in a container, in danger of spilling; see also londolop

umal (med.) the womb

umbat pregnant (of animals); çukumbat to be gestating, becoming visibly pregnant; rumumbat to impregnate; rumumbat onji to impregnate/ inseminate artificially; añumbat onji artificial insemination

umbrik south

umit (vt) to use; used as prep. in the sense "by means of..." (formerly, took genitive object, but now accusative); pole ... able to use, employ (vt); powumit useful; trapowumit useless, to no avail; añumit way, means, method; kañumit user; see also yumbit

umo oil, in genl.; various refined types for cooking; ...hinda petroleum (see also pawundu)

umut general, public; umundi in general, generally; rumumut to make public, to advertise; generally/commonly known; kañumut the public, the populace at large, citizenry

unayo to stay behind, remain; rundayo to leave s.t/s.o. behind, abandon; cakunayo abandoned, forlorn; an(a) unayoorphan

undangayi (colloq.undangi to record (mechanically, on tape, disk etc.); kañundangi recorder (device); keyundangi a stenographer or other person who makes a written record, e.g. of meetings, court proceedings etc. (compd. < rundana angayi copy life); see also tangi

undat bullet; añundat ammunition

undri (gram.) sound (in speech); undri kayi vowel; undri kaket consonant; añawundri sound system/phonology of a language; (pl.) phonology in genl.; undruça phonetic (descriptive of speech sounds); andetundri ~andet undruça phonetics, the science thereof; añawuri undruça the phonetic alphabet used by Kash and Gwr linguists-- a mixture of Kash, Gwr and invented characters (< undri+tuça)

ungeça (vi) commit suicide, kill o.s.; angeça (irreg.) suicide

unjuk (vi) to grow; çukunjuk to sprout; rumunjuk to grow, raise (agric.); añunjuk growth, increase; karunjuk a tumor or other cancerous growth; ucunjuk cultivated (edible) plants, vegetables; tarunjuk stunted; see also kunjuki

unup button (lit. and fig.); munup (vt) to button, e.g. a garment

uñat tasty, flavorful, delicious; kundak ... not very good, usu. of food (polite); rumuñat to flavor s.t., add flavoring to; taruñat bland (of food); uñañat spice(s) in genl.; see also kuñat, añat, suwañat

upan (vt) to receive, get; to accept; rumupan to award, bestow on; to convey s.t. to s.o.; cakupan of s.o. for whom everything always seems to go right, always gets what he wants, lucky (can be used approvingly, but often implies envy); añupan a receipt; memu (colloq.) a written receipt (acronym <mende mawupan 'I have received'); see also upapan

upapan lucky, fortunate; añupapan luck, good fortune; see also papan

upat (aux) to be willing; tarupat be unwilling

upit custom, practice, habit; see also ñupit

uprehan calendar (object, such as one might hang on the wall, as keprale yavele-vele aprehanaç velu the shopkeeper is handing out new calendars); < uri+pehan

ures west

uri (vt) to write; rumuri to inscribe; write down; cakuri to scribble, write badly; añuri anything written, a letter, document; yuri (<*eyuri) a letter of the hakanga-- the letter-name is stressed, e.g. yurihá, yuriká, yurinjá, yurimá, yurani, yureni etc.; uringeret to engrave on metal; urinjangar to engrave/carve on stone (these apply to words/designs, not to sculpting figures); see also ularan

uritan (vi) (be) present, ...ri be present at, attend; çukritan to show up, put in an appearance; become present (of Spirits); with dat/reflexive IO, to present oneself, show up; runditan to bring s.t./s.o. forward, to present s.t.; (legal) to summon officially, to subpoena; cakritan said of someone who hangs around where not wanted, or of no use; cakuritan forcibly/unwillingly brought before authorities, "hauled into court"; uritan tikas (legal) to witness; (irreg.) andritan presence; kandritan (legal) a witness

uçakik a cold in the nose, head-cold (with runny nose) (see also karimak and neçimak)

uçelu algae in genl., some spp. are considered edible

uçiru artery; uçiruwaka (lit. great artery) the aorta

uçom purpose, intended use (cf. yuçom destiny); usage (of a word e.g.); uçoñi for, intended for: kandri uçoñi tani/tayu? 'what's this for?'; krekiç yu uçoñi laluwi/lalu 'those cookies are for the party'; ritá truni uçoñi hati, i mesa minayi 'here's a truni for you, and one for Mina'-- uçoñi properly takes the genitive, but colloq. this is often ignored for inanimate nouns; inguçomi ~truçomi without purpose, in vain

uti rather, somewhat (adv); uti yaçangi 'he's rather sick'; yalimbesa halo mondes uti 'he was wearing a rather shoddy sarong'.

uwakalap sterile (med., as by heat or alcohol); irr. makalap to sterilize s.t., amakalap sterilization

uwam the 2nd day of the 7-day week

uwi (irreg. <ruwi to flow) in (male) slang, ma/ha/ya/wuwi to have a sexual climax, to "come" (usu. contracted and accented on the -wi syllable- mauwí, hauwí, yauwí)

uwik (vi) to run away, flee; rumuwik to drive out/away, to expel; ...mepu to fire (a worker); cakuwik mepu to be/get fired

uwis tight, constricting (esp. of clothing); rumuwis to close in on, surround; cakuwis to be, or to feel, trapped in a situation; (mil.) surrounded

uyas thin, slender; çukuyas to get thin, reduce one's weight; rumuyas to make s.t. thin, pare down; to plane; cakuyas emaciated

See also the Supplement

O (Twenty-fourth letter of hakanga, called oni, a low back rounded vowel, between IPA [o] and [O])

o (on before o,u) personifying article for non-human/inanim. things, e.g. kotani o poya... Poya said..., ende o anacangat... then Stone-child...; may be written joined to the word-- opoya, owanacangat (mostly found in traditional stories, poems etc.)

oci thatch; the thatched roof of traditional houses

okam grass, grassy plants in genl.; okacu weed(s) (syn. kreles (kreleçu)); cakokacu weedy, overgrown with weeds

olama religious ceremony, rite, e.g. olama kamon birth ceremony, olama cetre religious marriage ceremony, olama huça cremation ceremony etc.

olek locked; çukolek become locked; rumolek to lock s.t.; añolek a lock, locking mechanism; yolek (colloq. yoleci[k]) key; cakolek locked up tight, kept secret

om reason, the reason why...; ombi (often colloq. ombini) for, since, because; ombi-ombi(ni) (formal, legal) whereas, inasmuch as... ~since, because; ombiyu because of it/that, for that reason; ombi alo... because of (noun +gen.); (colloq.) aka~kandri ombini why on earth...? whatever for...?; see also yomom

omal hunger; hungry; çukomal becoming so; rumomal to make one hungry; cakomal extremely hungry, famished

omban less; lavi-omban more or less, approximately; çukomban become less, reduced, lose strength/force; rumomban to reduce, make less; cakomban trivial, unimportant

ombrenje rule(s), regulation(s), by-law(s), e.g. of a game, club etc.

ombret irreg. base, originally colloq., < ombrenje in talombret (colloq. tombret ~trombet) violation of rules, infraction; foul, error (in a game); catombret ~catrombet; cakombret against the rules-- catombret usu.in context of a game; cakombret usu.as violation of social norms, a gaffe, faux-pas, e.g. "you can't do that! ~you shouldn't do that! ~that would be wrong!" (< omer)

ombrum intestines, innards, guts (om+prum)

omer a law, statute; añomer the law, the legal system; mandomer lawyer; see also komer, ombrenje, ombret, kematromer

omin (vi) to look behind, look back; rumomin to review; look back on/again; cakomin acting furtively, on the sly, cautiously (for fear of being seen)

omo ~mowa ~mo (conj.) but

onam sexual; pertaining to sexual acts; añonam sex in genl., sexual activity/activities, sexual matters; sexuality; onam-onam ~onanam sexually attractive or stimulating; pornogaphic (in this sense often cakonam-onam ~cakonanam); meponam ~panip onam (slang poniponam, poni, poni-poni) to have sex, engage in a sexual act; cakonam (dat.) sexually obsessed, addicted to sex; (nom.) to "have a dirty mind"; taronam non-sexual, (sci.) asexual-- e.g. reproduction in certain plants/animals/organisms; cataronam (colloq. catronam) not sexually interesting/attractive; a "turn-off"; onanguwa same-sex, homosexual; onandiya heterosexual (formal terms, syns.resp. of nayasit, nimesa-- see naya); onandroka ~onakambos hermaphroditic, hermaphrodite

onde the inside of s.t., interior; ri... (prep.) inside; ondeka(le) internal

ondre night; tayondre (colloq. often condre) tonight; ondreyos (colloq. often onjos) last night; sometimes -oret in compds.

ondumu fish-eggs, roe

ongala offence; sin (relig.)(cf. kala)

ongar why?

ongel look away from, to ignore; çukongel (liri...) to lose interest (in...); rumongel divert s.o.'s attention; distract s.o.; cakongel (liri...) (nom.) inattentive; pay no attention to, deliberately ignore...; to snub...; (dat.) scatter-brained

onici seed; small insect egg(s)

oninde ovary (see ono)

onjak (colloq. and usu. in compds.) nut-- var. of onjange

onjange nut-- the seed produced by some trees/bushes; many are edible; colloq. and in compds. onjak; see also onot;-ult. <ono+ci+ange

onji to feign, pretend (with intent to deceive, unlike panip); fake, imitation/artificial e.g. uñat onji imitation flavor(ing); cakonji fooled, taken in; ...toye swindled; añonji pretense; fakery; kañonji faker, swindler; in genl. s.o. who is not what he appears to be; onjepak to spar (boxing term); see also toyonji

onjiyur pi (3.14159...), symbolized m in math. (Math.slang, omi, omis)

onjos (colloq.) last night (see ondre)

ono an egg (of egg-laying animals); oninde ovary; onono testicle (see also sunono, ondumu, onocaki)

onocaki bacterium/bacteria; germ(s)

onot (dial.) synonym of onjange nut; (common vulg.slang, ~onoci) testicle(s)

oñe (adv.) aside, to one side; oñ-oñe sideways; çukoñe to move or go aside; rumoñe to move/push s.t. aside, put s.t. to one side; cakoñe no longer under consideration; out of mind; in parliamentary usage, shelved/tabled, of a proposal

opici (children's) wooden building blocks (opik+ci)

opik brick; opikrak a large brick of (more usu.) concrete block for building-- builders' slang pikrak

opor out, outside; beyond; foreign; ri... outside (prep.); opondri (adv.) away; opokra(le) external; rumopor to exile; añopor ~opor +poss. the outside of s.t., exterior; keyopor foreigner, outsider; foreign; oporí (interj.) go away! get away!

oporopo (colloq., slang oporóp) to expel unceremoniously, to "kick out" caporopo ~caporóp to get/be expelled, ejected, kicked out, etc.; keporóp ~kepróp (slang) "bouncer" (< opor)

oprañol outer space (beyond the solar system or galaxy); aposi... space-ship, starship (cmpd. opor+añol)

oramba dark; ...+ni ~añoramba darkness; irreg. derivs. çukramba to darken, get dark; rundamba to darken s.t.; cakramba to be overtaken by darkness, caught out in the dark

orambun (conj.) as if

orana alike, similar; (vt) ...+ gen. to look like, resemble; rundana (irreg.) to copy s.t; imitate s.o.; andrana a copy; talorana unlike, dissimilar; oranani (~orandi) (conj.) like, as, just as; orandayu like this, (in) this way, orandiyu like that, (in) that way; colloq. randayu ~randayi, randiyu ~randí

oriyos a monk, member of one of the relig. orders; oriyo common title and term of address to a monk; teriyo(s) an elderly or senior monk; añoriyos a religious order (there are several)

oro potter's clay (<Gwr r lo); ...vanat porcelain clay, kaolin; see also supengop

oromiñ porcelain, porcelain ware (< Gwr r lo ming)

orun (vt) to contain, consist of; to hold (quantity); añorun contents, ingredients; (math.) volume; cakorun jam-packed, chock-full

osan calm, serene; çukosan become calm, calm down; rumosan to calm (s.o. or a situation), to placate; añosan calmness, serenity; cakosan under the influence of a narcotic or other calming drug; (as n, adj.) narcotic-- (n. only, formal, med.) anjakosan a narcotic

otama grandfather (Fa of either parent); affect.tata~taci~tanji; otambarok great grandfather (~otambro if one is counting, or reciting a genealogy); otama sila/ha/nim... etc. great-great-gd.father and so on

otamot a vine, native to Nocaniki, sometimes grown decoratively on Yanatros for its flowers and foliage; its small bright red fruits are inedible and slightly poisonous

otatap (~ota(p)- in compds.) genl. name of various plant spp. that that produce gourd/melon-like fruits, similar to Cucurbita; varieties: otambik, otaprak, otap luhu, otakret, otacami, otaçeyak and others

ote- (~ot-, te-) an old pfx. of respect for the elderly

otinde grandmother (Mo of either parent); affect. titi~tici~tinji; otimbarok great gd.mother (~otindró if counting, or reciting a genealogy); otinde sila/ha/nim...etc. great-great gd.mother and so on.

otroço (n,adj) ceramic; ceramic-ware (< oro+toço)

owap (of colors) to run together, to bleed; (gram.) to elide vowels, run together or slur one's speech; usu. cakowap; see also kotap

owena a mother animal, i.e., that has borne young, as lopa owena a mother lopa (o+ena an obs. word for 'mother')

See also the Supplement

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Copyright © 2001 Roger F. Mills
Created October 2001, revised 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009
URL: http://cinduworld.tripod.com/anakrangota.htm