General comments: The basic wordlist (about 1100 items, both English/Indonesian, devised by me) was collected in 1972 by Ms. Rina Intan, then a student at IKIP-Malang, Java, in conjunction with course-work in my Comparative MP seminar. Her informants were......., also students in the area. Ms. Intan was definitely a superior student, interested in, and with a good grasp of, general linguistics, and very fluent English; consequently I feel she would likely have understood any ambiguities in either the English or my Indonesian glosses, enabling her, I am sure, to elicit a quite accurate wordlist. Indeed, that was confirmed to me when I later got a copy of Middelkoop (1950), and found that both vocabularies matched to a very high degree. The only major differences were (1) her possible occasional mis-hearing of final -k versus glottal stop; and (2) her transcription of /b/, which she wrote with a fricative symbol ("barred-b") in almost every case. Middelkoop does not mention such a pronunciation, though it might well occur, in view of the -b off-glide after /u/ that he mentions (similar to his "dj" off-glide after /i/, which Ms. Intan writes with -j- and -z). Comparison of the two also suggests that Ms. Intan sometimes had difficulty distinguishing open vs. close /e and /o-- she used the IPA symbols "epsilon" and "reversed-c", so it is not a question of omitting diacritics-- as her forms do not always match Middelkoops; but one notes some variation in their occurrence in Middelkoop as well. Perhaps there are dialectal differences, too, but the difficulty is hardly surprising, since these vowels take part in some rather complicated morphophonemic processes-- see Steinhauer (1996) for a recent discussion.

This listing includes not only Ms. Intans material, but also most forms and variants cited in Middelkoop (marked M.). In addition, Jonkers Rotinese dictionary has "Timorese" and other local cognates at many entries, and they are included here (marked J.), along with his cognates. His spellings sometimes differ, but most of his items seem relevant, even if a few seem a bit...shall we say, off-base.


Intan, Rina (1972ms), Comparative Austronesian Wordlist: Dawan. IKIP-Malang, Java, mimeo (in my possession, RFM)

Jonker, J. C. G. 1908, Rotineesch-Hollandsch Woordenboek. Leiden

Middelkoop, Piet 1950, Proeve van een Timorese Grammatica. BKI 106:375-517

Steinhauer, Hein 1996, Morphemic metathesis in Dawanese (Timor), in: Steinhauer, ed., Papers in Austronesian Linguistics No. 3., PacLing A-84: 217-232



a -- ua, eat; M. ah
aa -- M. aan, his word; aat, language; see also ak
abas -- thread; cotton, kapas
abi -- J. to pinch, clasp, klemmen, s.v. Rot. kabi grasp, pick up with tongs; see also habi, kabi
abnin -- M. armpit
abtai -- M. wrap (the lower body); cf. taiz, sarong
an -- twist, memulas
am -- mui ..., tame (animal); cf. next?
at -- quiet, diam
afi -- yesterday; afitakafi, day before yesterday; M afi, recently, lately; cf. fini
afu -- dust, ashes
ahunud -- first [-d misheard for -t?]; see also hunu, unu
1.ahi -- J. tread, trample, thresh (Rot. ai id.)
2.ahi -- ~abi, M. press out
ai -- J. pull toward o.s. (Rot. kai, Kup. kahi)
ai -- or
aifa- -- aifak, (my) lap [the base may be ifa] (J. aif, Rot. ifa)
aik -- sharp; M. naaik (< aki, whetstone?)
ail -- to see; M. mail, just look! kijk eens! (Rot. na-hae look at, notice?)
ain -- M. to run away
ais -- M. to milk
aisa -- in: na-aisa-b, J. tie in bundles; aisa-t, bundle [perh. base isa], s.v. Rot. ise
ait -- to pick up, take
aiz -- fire; flame [off-glide -z] (Rot. hai, dial. ai, ai)
ak -- to say, speak, berkata; M. a
aka -- to hate
aki -- M. whetstone; cf. also kari
akum -- ~aum, J. dew, s.v. Rot. au, dial. angu mist, fog
1. ala -- certain, tentu
2. ala -- must, have to
3. ala -- M. ~al, ale, all (Amarasi ar, are)
alali -- M. plant sp., Ml. keladi
alu -- a scoop, ladle
aluk -- ~alu, J. a small bag for sirih, money etc. s.v. Rot. alukosu
ama -- father [perh. misheard amak my...?]; amanasi grandfather
ams -- to massage [stress indicated on , base perh. -ms]
amnat -- J. advantage, s.v. Rot. nale-k [?]
amun -- to hate
an -- J. nan, he takes, s.v. Rot. n-ala
an -- M. to buy
ana -- in: au ana in ana, my grandchild; liana, child; anmanat, orphan (see manat)
ana -- little;; M. an-ana; ulana drizzle; see ulan
an -- rice, padi; anfine, seed-rice, benih; anog, rice-paddy, sawah
anid -- needle [final -d?]
anin -- wind
anitee -- moss; mouldy, muddy
ankai -- ginger [stress indicated on initial a-; a compd?]
ansa -- ansak (my) chest (anat.); M. ansau-n
a -- to harrow (agric.)
abia -- odd, not even (number), cf. bian
asna -- free; cf. sna, permit, allow?
ak -- (for a-k my...?) body
ap -- naap, pregnant; cf. next
apus -- M. na-apus (kau), made (me) pregnant
as -- spicy-hot, pedas
asu -- dog
1. at- -- liver, hati (~atf, in genl., at-n, his...)
2. at -- M. slave
atfuan -- wasp. (cf. Rot. tekefuak)
atis -- J. loom-- that part in front of the weaver, s.v. Rot, Kup, Tet. id.
atoni -- person, orang; man, orang laki2 (cf. Rot. hataholi)
atpani -- spider, lawa2
atu -- charcoal
au -- I, first pers.pron.; aub, my, mine; M. as object, kau
aum -- uaum, to wrap [misheard? cf. 1.aun below]
au -- J. dew-- see akum
1. aun -- to wind, roll up
2. aun -- naaun n, to move, bergerak
aut --M. push, butt, stoten



Note: In almost all cases, Ms. Intan indicates a fricative pronunciation, using "b with crossbar"; M says nothing about such a pronunciation, so this must be a dialectal or even idiolectal feature. M. does, however, mention a "transitional glide" after u, which he writes "b". The few cases where Intan indicates a "real" b (i.e. without crossbar) will be noted-- but since a real contrast seems unlikely, I attribute her occasional "b"s to mishearing, or slips of the pen.


baaf -- root; M baat "< base ba-"
bab -- J. to help, accompany, s.v. Rot. baba
baba -- parents-in-law; uncle; baba bifl, aunt
ba -- M. brother; relative; cf. next
1. ba -- brother-in-law
2. ba -- uba, to play, bermain [with b]; M. nabae ~ -ba
ban -- to pay, bayar
bat -- to divide (J cites s.v. Rot. bae, Tet. fae, Dili fake)
bahan -- fence, pagar
bai -- ~baif, J. mother-in-law
bai -- M. kuk.... a Ficus sp.
baiafa -- ~baijafa, J. iguana, s.v. Rot. baiafa, Ml. biyawak [the -j- (affricate, "dj" in M.) is transitional after i]
baina -- mabaina to face, berhadapan; nabaina, to revolve, pusar
baiso -- M. (~beso, biso, fiso) to hit
bakal -- M. to care for, as an adopted child (Amarasi bakar)
baki -- M. a stone wall
bala -- ~bala-n, M. place (Amarasi bare); Intan has: lianabaln, womb [with b]
balab -- ubalab, to divide, apportion (e.g. food) [the -b- might be the transitional glide after u-, or a trans.sfx.]
balan -- brave, berani
balas -- repay, requite, membalas
bal -- things, goods, barang2; prob.also in: fase bal, wash clothes etc. (not dishes)
baliku -- M. a bamboo container for water
bana -- M. animal(s), fauna
banu -- widow (M. rouw-pemali)
basa -- shoe(s) [with b]
1. basin -- mosquito
2. basin -- grey
bat -- natbat, J. to lie/sit across, to block, s.v. Rot. bab, natab; cf. Intan: nakabatn, athwart, melintang
1. bati -- M. if, unless
2. bati -- J. divide, apportion, s.v. Rot. id., Kup. bating; see bat; cf. next
batis -- to separate, pisahkan
bau -- nabau, small; ubaun, to make smaller, reduce, kecilkan
bau -- a bat, kalong (J gives kbau, Amar. bakau, s.v. Rot. bauk, Kup kfau)
baukulu -- M. a tree, Ml. bengkudu; J gives bakulu s.v. Rot. manukudu
baut -- M. baggage ("deriv. of bau carry"); cf. perh. Port. bau trunk
1. b -- ub, can, may, bisa, boleh; see also bei; perh. cf. bi
2. b -- J. alert, awake; watch, guard (Rot. be, Kup. b, Savu beke)
beba -- J. rib of a palm leaf (Rot. id., Kup hepang, Tet. bebak)
bb -- duck, bebek
bee -- crocodile (M. gives besi, bei; Rot. bei)
1. bei -- ~bei, M. strong; be able (also J. s.v. Rot. na-bei)
2. bei -- ~bei, M. grandmother
bko -- J. shake (the rear end), wag the tail, kwispelstaarten, s.v. Rot. beko; see also hko
bla -- M. to set or lay down (Amar. bra); see also pla
bela -- "ba-bela", M. tradition
belis -- M. bride-price
bl -- boat, canoe, perahu
bk -- to turn; deviate, turn aside
bna -- plank, board
bnan -- kabnan, M. breadth
benas -- machete
benn -- mabenon, to stretch out, membujur
bese -- iron; copper; knife; kris (M. besi)
beso -- M. to hit (also baiso, biso, fiso, nso, naiso)
bet -- to choose, memilih
btab -- mabtab, to fight cocks (with a steel spur)
bete -- sarong; betana, scarf
betu -- nakbetu, J. flexible (fingers); bend, bent, s.v. Rot. na-ka-betu id., cites Bug. wttu
bi -- ubi, willing, sanggup
bia -- M. buffalo
biak -- friend, associate, partner
bian -- other, another; mabian, even (number), genap; side, edge; ubian, (sit) side by side
bian -- M. beloved
bibi -- goat
bifl -- woman; ...munif, young girl, maiden, dara; baba..., aunt
bif -- rat, mouse (M. gives Amar. knafo, S.Coast nafo, W.Timor ifo)
bijael -- cow, sapi [transitional -j-, stress indicated on bi-]; bijael mt, buffalo, kerbau
bijas -- common, popular; usual, biasa [transitional -j-]
bikase -- horse [stress on bi-]
bik -- ~fiki, M. scar
biklusu -- ~bikluu, M. in pantuns, the cecak lizard. Intan writes biklut (accent on bi-) cecak
bil -- mata bil, to close the eyes
bilu -- blue, biru
biso -- M. to hit (~beso, baiso, fiso; also as bius in a phrase-- see nis)
bisuh -- boil, bisul
biul -- to dance
biut -- M. liana
biut -- (Amarasi) J. throw with a sling, s.v. Rot. pilu, Dili tali fifiruk
blafi -- J. tripang; see lafi
bnapak -- (for bnapa-k, my...?) rib, rusuk
bnik -- ubnik, to forget; M. eni (Intans ubnik perh. for u-(b)(e>0)nik ?)
bnk -- hill
1. b -- anb, M. divide; ban, boon, id.
2. b -- to open, bloom; M. natb, opened, of a flower
3. b -- bs, ten; bs ms eleven, bs nu twelve; bnu twenty, bteon 30, bha 40, bnim 50, bne 60, bhiut 70, bfaun 80, bsiu 90
bb -- nasbb, J. to slurp, s.v. Rot. sa-boba
bo -- M. to grow
1. b -- to peel
2. b -- natb, to float
bofu -- J. fish-trap, s.v. Rot. bufu, dial. fufu, Kup. buhu
boh -- to cough. Note Sika boo
boi -- J. a coconut shell used to store sugar, s.v. Rot. boboik
bk -- pull out, uproot, cabut
1. bk -- bald
2. bk -- pumpkin, gourd, labu; M. id. ~aboko; J id., Rot. bngo
bl -- anbl, M. to rise, come up
bla -- J. hole (Rot. blok); Intan: ubla, to drill; nabola, to leak; perh. fatubola, cave [mishead os, or slip of the pen?]
bol -- ~bo, M. to castrate; see also buli ~bui
bon -- M. the arn-palm (J gives bne ~bnel s.v. Rot. ble, arn-fibres (ijuk), in compds.)
bone -- ubone, to hang; M. boni ~poni, naboni; Amar. nakborit
bno -- J. smallpox (s.v. Rot. dial. boblo schurft)
bto -- botbto, J. to whisper (s.v. Rot. dial. boboto)
buab -- na- to assemble, berkumpul; u- to gather, kumpulkan
buaf -- ~buuf, in: nit...., M. a silver armband
buan -- M. buttocks; cf. buu
buat -- akbuat, M. knotted; cf. buu
bubu -- round; probably in: nabubu, dull, not sharp
buka -- M. a millet sp.
bukis -- M. naked
bulal -- noisy, riuh
1. buli -- ~bui M. to castrate (also as bol ~bo)
2. buli -- M. to thwart, incite; see also fuli
buta -- nabuta, sticky, pulut
buu -- (hau)...., M. lump or knot on a tree. M posits a root bu- (*buku) here and in buan, buat)



1. ek -- carry, bring; M. eki (Roi dial. (k)eri)
2. ek -- with, by means of
3. ek -- to win
k -- uk, to close, cover, menutup
kan -- ~k fuiz, M. pandanus; k tani, aloe; Intan: k-kase pineapple
eku -- M. go in a circle; cf. next(?) and iku
ekut -- M. rattan ring to support a pot (M. derives from the preceding); J. cites id. s.v. Rot. kek
lak -- ladder
ember -- bucket (< Dutch)
ena -- mother [perh. for ena-k ?]; ena nasi, grandmother; cf. next?
enaf -- in: ni enaf, mast
eni -- M. to forget; cf. bnik
eno -- M. door (M notes: e/ vary in this word)
no -- J. road, path, s.v. Rot. dial. no, Tet. inuk
enuk -- gall, bile, empedu [prob. enu-k, my....]
enus -- J. rainbow (s.v. Rot. elus, and cf. Let. yunsu)
1. s -- each, every, tiap2; ss, respectively, masing2
2. s -- a genl. preposition: in, at, on, under-- si, here; sme, where; s mn, outside (M. bi mone); s na, there (far), disana; s nan, there (near), disitu; s nanan, inside
san -- be, there is, ada
1.sk -- stop by, visit, singgah [perh. a compd?]
2. sk -- mask, dark, gelap
esu -- rice mortar, lesung
t -- ut, to trim, prune; cf. kut?
eu -- to shave, cukur; cf. keu, peu
euk -- ueuk, to meet, bertemu



fae -- ~fael, J. a hard, flat fruit, s.v. Rot. fafae
fan -- return, go home; cf. fani
fas -- to wash
faf -- ~fafa, M. to care for; cf. bab
fafi -- pig (M. cites Amar. fauf)
fafon -- M. top, on top
1. fai -- J. to open (pack, basket), s.v. Rot. fei
2. fai -- night; fainadnn, late night [cf. Rot. fafaik, morning]
fakel -- ~fokel, M. to lash
faki -- ufaki, to sink into mud
faku -- faku nais ~fauk ais, J. cites unglossed s.v. Rot. fanuk (~fanduk), fai-fanuk, dry season.
fal -- earring. M. falo ~faul
fane -- J. a storage pot, s.v. Rot. bane, Kup. id.; [Cf. Yamd. fane, Slaru ani, clay pot]
1. fani -- axe
2. fani -- eusfani ~esufani, J. to sneeze, s.v. Rot. kisu-fani (Tet. fani, Sav. bi); Intan, iusfan
fani -- mufani, to return s.t., bring s.t. back, kembalikan
fat -- o fat, J. rain at sea; the west monsoon, s.v. Rot. o-fak, id.
fatu -- J. a shellfish, s.v. Rot. dial. babatu
fatu -- stone; ....kautu, gravel; ....tasi, coral
1. fau -- J. a tree, Hibiscus tiliaceus, s.v. Rot. bau, Kup. id.
2. fau -- namfau, many; fauk, how much, how many (cf. Rot. bau, much)
faub -- mafaub, coarse, thick [off-glide -b ?]; cf. next?
1. faun -- mafaun, J. fat, s.v. Rot. bau, much, Kup babakun
2. faun -- eight
fe -- to open; cf. fai ?
f -- to give; to lend
f -- progressive marker, be...ing, sedang...; cf. also fs, fkah
fs -- nafs, rare, seldom, jarang; often, sering(kali) [contradictory, possibly a misunderstanding?]
fefa -- lips; mouth; muit in fefan, (animals) snout
fk -- ufk, to break off, putus
fkah -- not yet, belum; never; before, sebelum; M. fka
feku -- J. a k.o. flute, s.v. Rot. id.
fl -- wife; cf. bifl
felik -- sit with legs crossed, bersila
1. fn -- get up, wake up; fn man, get up (from sitting)
2. fn -- mafn, heavy. M. fna
fenu -- J. bend, bent (Rot. id.)
feon -- feon kase, a poisonous tree sp., ipuh
fesu -- ~fosu, M. to remove (e.g. ring from finger); M. equates with anhesu, anhosu pull out
fesun -- l fesun, current (in water)
ft -- in: au ft [for ft-k?], my sister; M. li fto young girl het meisje
1. feu -- M. a tree sp.
2. feu -- new
feu -- fresh, segar
feus -- hard (of a blow); cf. beso, fiso etc. to hit
fiki -- ~biki, M. scar
filuli -- ~filuil, M. care about, be concerned, < Ml/Arab. peduli
1. fini -- M. yesterday; finifai, last night
2. fini -- M. seed
fir -- M. to need, < Ml/Arab. perlu
fiso -- M. to hit; cf. beso etc.
fit -- carry in the hand, jinjing
fiti -- calf of the leg
fkun -- star; M. afkun ~akfun
f -- fn, smell, odor; naf, to smell, berbau; fomeni, nafomin, fragrant
fe -- J. stand up, arise; s.v. Rot. id. ~foa
foet -- to cut; perh. cf. M. ot, chop down
foi -- J. to lever, pry up, to dig; s.v. Rot. id., dial. foi, foki
fka -- M. a bamboo tube
fokat -- M a k.o. grasshopper
fl -- to bind
fl -- rudder. (J s.v. Rot. uli cites Tim. munif)
fn -- to rub, polish; J. fon ~fon, to sharpen, s.v. Rot. fola, Kup. hola
fosu -- ~fesu, M. remove (e.g. ring from the finger); cf. hesu ~hosu
fu -- to blow; see also sfu, sbu
fua -- fua-k, (my) heart; nima-k fua-n, (my) finger; ane fuan, grain of rice
fuat -- to look up, tengadah
fue -- ~fuel, J. beans (spp.), s.v. Rot. fue
fufu -- J. wood- or rice-worm, s.v. Rot. fufuk
fui -- M. wild; foreign; J. also, s.v. Rot. fui(k)
fukat -- fringe
fula -- flower
fule -- fuln, foam; J. na-fule, to foam (Amar. fure), s.v. Rot. fude(k)
fuli -- M. persuade; flatter; to lure (Amar. furi); J also s.v. Rot. fufudi
fun -- because
funan -- moon
funu -- M. long (hair); M. equates with Ml. bulu
1. fut -- in: fut manu, cock-fight (without steel spur)
2. fut -- to tie; wind up; M. futu, futus; cf. next?
futu -- loincloth
fuun -- anfuun, M. (it is) swollen



ha -- four
habi -- M. pinch, clasp; see also abi
habu -- M. cloud, mist
1. ha- -- foot, leg; ~hak, my...; perh.in: nolahan, upstream [river+...]
2. ha -- tired, payah; cf. next?
ha -- na-ha, J. to gasp, pant, hijgen, s.v. Rot. hae, breathe; Sik. naing, Savu pengae
hak -- to stand, berdiri; cf. hakp
han -- ukhan, to dig, menggali; M. hani
hafo -- J. shadow, shade, s.v. Rot. mafo, cool off, dial. mafo, shadow; cf. maf
1. hai -- we (excl.), kami; haiz, our; M. notes kai, as object
2. hai -- mahai, M. sour
1. haif -- J. ray (fish), s.v. Rot. hai id.
2. haif -- in: haif nu, twice; haif ms, once
haim -- in: haim faun, millipede, alipan
hakp -- uhakp, to build, membangun [for hakb with -b (caus.suffix), misheard?]
hala -- bed, tempat tidur; M cites Amar. harak, balai; perh.cf. bala ?
han -- uhan, to cook; prob.also in: um hana, kitchen; nai hana, cooking pot
hana- -- hana-k, (my) voice; hanaf, sound, noise; prob.in: hananak, loud
hano -- nahano, white flecks on the skin, panau (J. also, s.v. Rot. hahano id.)
1. hanu- -- hanu-k, (my) shoulder
2. hanu -- pestle, rice-pounder, alu
hao -- J. eat with the hand, s.v. Rot. hao id.; perh. cf. 1.hau
hao -- M. slave, servant
hape -- J. spit, saliva, s.v. Rot. ape, Kup. kapen
1. hapu -- M. tread, step
2. hapu -- J. catch up with; find, get, have, s.v. Rot. id., Sav. peabu
hapun -- mihapun, to plow
hat -- uhat, to deliver, mengantarkan
1. hau -- to feed
2. hau -- wood; haub, tree; haufua, fruit; J. hau-f, a fruit tree sp, s.v. Rot. kaifk
h -- want, will, mau
hei -- J. in: po hei, a crab sp., s.v. Rot. po hk
hei -- mahei, J. sour, s.v. Rot. kei, makeis; perh.cf. 2.hai
hke -- J. put around the neck, s.v. Rot. hnge, to tie
hko -- J. shake (the rear end), wag the tail, kwispelstaarten; cf. bko
hl -- to pull; stretch, extend; prob.in: uhlan, to tighten. J cites hl ~hla, Amar. hera, s.v. Rot. hela, Kup. pela
hln -- recede, go back, surut
hena -- J. hope, s.v. Rot. id., compares Ml. hendak
h -- saw (tool); uh bna, saw (a log) into planks. J. has ho s.v. Rot. hlo ~hro, Kup. holat [?]
h -- nah, tight, erat
heukil ~hiukil -- M. full-grown (of maize)-- a compd.?
heta -- ~heti, hetu, M. to stop flowing
heun -- naheun, to cover, menghampar
heus -- pull out; draw (a sword); M. an-hesu id., cf. also fesu
hi -- 2nd plur.pron, you (all); M notes ki, as object
hil -- to cut
hin -- to know, tahu, kenal; prob. nahin, clever. J. gives hine s.v. Rot.dial. id.
hit -- we (incl.), kita; M. notes kit, as object
hiu -- shark hiu [perh.repeating the BI gloss?]
hiun -- nahiun, full, penuh; M. heun
hiut -- seven
ho -- yes [an alternative pronunciation is given as h+nasalized schwa]
1. h -- nath, M. collapse
2. h -- ~hm, 2nd pers.sing, thou; hb, your; M notes ko, as object, and mentions there is no h- in Amanuban dial.
hb -- to embrace
hf -- ditch, selokan
hoi -- J. to dry in the sun, s.v. Rot, Kup. id.
hok -- J. to call, summon, s.v. Rot. hoka ~hoa
honi- -- give birth (?) in: M. nahonis, (has) given birth; Intan kanahonif, barren, sterile
honu -- nonu, J. strip off with the hand, s.v. Rot. kolu; Intan: hon nof, strip off leaves
hopi -- hopi ai, M. to lay a fire
hopu -- M. to run hard, gallop
hs -- mud; nahs, muddy
hosu -- M. to pull out (equates with -hesu; see heus)
hu -- ~hu, M. a tree, Ml. kayuputih
huita -- J. incite, urge on, s.v. Rot. huti ~kahuhutik
huk -- to hold, pegang
huki -- turmeric, kunyit
humaf -- color
humam -- pretend(ing), pura2 [a likely compd.]
hune -- ~hunel, J. ringworm, s.v. Rot. bubuni, Sav. wuni
hunik -- breath, nyawa [perhaps huni-k, my...]
hunu -- nahunu, J. earlier, first, s.v. Rot. kahuluk; see also ahunud, unu
husik -- nathusik, to fester, membarah
hutu -- louse



i -- this; si, here
ifo -- M. mouse; cf. bifo
ika -- fish; prob.in: naf ika, rancid, fishy smell, bau hanyir
ikas -- naikas, M. (he) lift(s)
ike -- ~ikel, J. a k.o. spindle, s.v. Rot. ine ~inde
ik- -- ikn (its) tail
iku -- M. sit in a circle; cf. eku
ila- -- ilak (my) forehead
in -- he, she, 3rd sing.pron.; ini, his, her
ina -- perhaps, barankali
1. ini -- to choose; J also, s.v. Rot. hele
2. ini -- J. sharpen to a point, s.v. Rot. kili ~kiri; see also kini
insang -- gills of a fish, insang [prob.repeat of the BI gloss]
inu -- M. bead(s); cf. next
inuh -- J. wear around the neck, s.v. Rot. henu, bead(s)
is -- M. to win; lucky
1. isa -- paisa, M. to flatter, coax
2. isa -- (?) poss.base of aisa (J), q.v.
isi -- J. to peel; scale a fish, s.v. Rot. isi id.
iun -- to drink
ius -- in: iusfan, sneeze, bersin; see also fani



jal -- be, become, happen, jadi
jak -- a fruit, nangka
jijabu -- ghost (stress marked on ji-); M. derives < Port. diabo devil



ka -- M. bunch (of bananas)
ka -- M. no, not; Intan kah; prob.in: kantef, less, kurang; kaiz, do not..., jangan (M. kaisa), and perh.others
kaba -- wire, kawat
kabenu -- fly (insect), lalat
kabi -- pinch, clasp; cf. abi
kabiti -- M. scorpion
kabo -- M. sceptre
1. ka -- to cry, weep, tangis; kan, lament, cry over (J. cites s.v. Rot. ki, Kup kia)
2. ka -- M. taboo
kael -- J. cockatoo, s.v. Rot. kakae
kas -- to scratch
kafa -- makafa, J. fast, fleet of foot, s.v. Rot. nggafa-k, dial. nggafa-t, light in weight; cf. also naf
kafun -- J. to shake out (e.g. clothing), s.v. Rot. nggafu
1. kai -- M. to collapse
2. kai -- ~kai, J. to catch, to hook, s.v. Rot. kai; cf. next?
kain -- nakain, J. to block, hinder, s.v. Rot. kai
kaiz -- paddle, oar, gayung
kak -- namkak, M. amazed, surprised
kaka -- in: mat kaka, window, jendela
kak -- M. rainbow
kal -- defeated, kalah; kalab, to defeat
kalabeo -- ~kalabeo, M. a frog
kalai -- to winnow; cf. next?
kalaiz -- a basket, keranjang [-z off-glide]
kalapeo -- M. onion; see also pib
kalas -- J. cites kun-kalas without gloss s.v. Rot. ngga-nggala-s, jaw of a fish, Sav. hegara, palate, jaw
kalila -- thorn
kalis -- line, stripe
kalu -- if, kalau [poss. < the BI/Ml ?]
kam -- ~kama, M. to blame
kana -- makana, M. substantial
kana- -- kanak (my) name
kano -- ~kaun, M. to weave
kanu -- irrigation channel
kao -- J. gather together with the hand, s.v. Rot. id.
kari -- J. (Amar.) whetstone, s.v. Rot. dial. andi, Tet. kadi; see also aki
kase -- J. prob foreign, i.e. imported [perh., cultivated]; M. kas-- seen in several plant/animal names, e.g. k-kase, pineapple; J. compares Rot. hade-kase, a type of rice
kato -- J. to insert; to thread, s.v. Rot. nato
kau -- M. objective case of au, I
kau -- ~kau, M. flower, bloom (also cited with -n)
kault -- eggplant, terung
kauna -- snake; kaunana, worm; kaun malafu, insect(s); J. kaun-sao, a poisonous snake, s.v. Rot. kaisao
kaut -- M. papaya
kautu -- in: fatu kautu, gravel
kan -- room, kamar
kke -- naskke, J. to start, be startled, s.v. Rot. nggengge, Kup. keka; Intan: uskkn, to jerk
kl -- (sea) turtle, penyu; ... mt (land) tortoise, kura2; J. id. ~k s.v. Rot. kea
klo -- (Amar. kro) J. a monkey sp., s.v. Rot. kode, Sav. kode
kn -- to shoot (a gun); cf. next
knat -- gun, bedil
kenom -- M. a tree sp., Melaleuca
kt -- M. a drum
keu -- J. scrape, shave, s.v. Rot. nggeu; see also eu, peu
keut -- to chop, cut off
ki -- J. the blossom/inflorescence of palms, bananas, s.v. Rot. nggik, Dili kiu
kiki -- ~skiki, brush
kikir -- to file, kikir [perh.repeat of the BI gloss?]
kiku -- to scatter, sow
kili -- a comb; M id., Amar. kiri
kimu -- late afternoon, dusk, sor
1. kini -- vein, urat darah
2. kini -- J. sharpen to a point, s.v. Rot. kili ~kiri; see also ini
kis -- to look at, tinjau; cf. kius
kis -- M. in: kis lubu ~kis lubai, a thorny plant
1. kiu -- uskiu, to smell, sniff
2. kiu -- M. kiu kase, tamarind
kiun -- ukiun, to spit; M. nakiun ~na-niun
kius -- M. to see (mentions Amar. tius id., rare); cf. kis
klaut -- bow, arrow
klele -- finger-ring, cincin; nakak klele, curly-haired. J. kleli, Amar. kreni, s.v. Rot. ndeli
kl -- few; little bit, sedikit [also written with a schwa in k__l...]
klul -- M. toe (Amar. kruru-n)
knasa -- J. a fish, Ml. belanak, s.v. Rot. nase
ko -- M. objective case of ho, thou
k -- from, come from (as, uk Im from...); prob. in: nak, since, sejak. See M. p.417 on the conjugation of some prepositions
1. ka -- umka, to daydream
2. ka -- to shout, cry out, call
1. ko -- anko lit, M. thick, of soup, porridge [poss. deriv. < o water?]
2. ko -- mako, M. zealous
kk -- to poke, stick, sungkit
koi -- nakoi, hakoi, J. to bury, s.v. Rot. toi
koko -- natkoko, M. to collapse, fall in
kl -- short, of people; M. kol
kl -- bird (in genl.); as kl- in compds: klan, rice-bird; klkas, klunu, pigeon spp.
kl -- ukl, to hide (ones self)
kn -- nakn, to bark; perh. cf. kn(o) snort
kona -- ~kono, M. hole
konin -- (koni-n?) M. tusk (slagtand)
1.kno -- nakno ~nakn, J. to snort, s.v. Rot. ngglo id.); cf. kn bark, and/or next
2. kno -- na-sa-kno, J. to slurp, sip, s.v. Rot. na-sa-k, dial. -kro
kn- -- (kn-k) (my) beard
konof -- M. a moss sp.
kopu -- M. to have a hole in...
kot -- ~koat, M. fortress [certainly < Ml. kota]
kot- -- kotk (my) back. Perh. misheard, cf. kotin, back, behind, dibelakang; M. id., J. koti- s.v. Rot. nggotik, lower back
kt -- spotted, belang
kou -- M. dumb, stupid, dom
ku- -- reflexive formant, -self, sendiri, in: aukuk myself, hkum yourself, inkun him/herself; haikuk, hitkuk ourselves; sinkuk themselves
kua -- M. to drop off, fall (of leaves)
kuan -- village
kub -- ankub, M. to cover
kubi -- a half coconut shell used as a cup/container [perhaps for kui (see below) if the -b- is transitional]
ku -- ~ku, M. hoof
kun -- in: liana kun, twin(s); M gives Amar. an-rua
kui -- M. a scoop; Intan kui, id. gayung; J. kui, scoop out from a pot, s.v. Rot. ndui
kuk -- in: kuk bai, M. a Ficus sp.
kulaf -- vinegar, cuka
kulat -- ~kulit, M. a basket
kumu -- J. to knead, s.v. Rot. dial. ku-kumu, Tet. kumu; cf. next
kumu -- J. to make a fist, s.v. Rot. dial. kumu, close the hand over s.t.
kun -- nakun, J. hide s.t. in folds of a cloth, s.v. Rot. kuna, folds of fat
kuna -- J. nest, s.v. Rot. ndunu
kunum -- J. unglossed, s.v. Rot. kunu (Sav. id.) element found in a number of plant names
kusat -- nail, paku
kusi -- water jar, guci
kutlu -- (Amar. kutru) J. an owl, s.v. Rot. dial. tuturuik, tutuluik



la-- J. a temporary hut, shed; addition, s.v. Rot. lak, Tet. salk
laat -- M. leaf-sheath
1. lab -- to feel, meraba
2. lab -- naklab, J. to wind around, s.v. Rot. ka-laba
laba -- M. quick; cf. nap
lat -- weak, lemah
lan -- in: tlan, M. branch
lap -- to patch, repair
lafi -- perh.base of blafi (Amar. brafi), J. tripang, s.v. Rot. nafi
lafu -- malafu, maklafu, M. dust, dirt. J. mak-lafu, dry dirt (Amar. -rafu), s.v. Rot. kadafut; cf. afu, and next
lafu -- in: kaun malafu, insect(s)
lahi -- J. dirt on the skin, grime, daki (Amar. rahi), s.v. Rot. dai; M id., cf.also lh, lk
1. lai -- naflai, J. to strike a fire, s.v. Rot. aik, flint, Kup. blait [cf. Ford. larit, flint]
2. lai -- nalai, J. put aside, save (Amar. rai), s.v.Rot. dai, Tet. rai
laikfit -- to jump, melompat [prob. compd.]
lait -- nalait, tall, tinggi
lak -- to cross, cross over, menyeberang; M. an-lak
lakan -- J. to trade, s.v. Rot. dangan < Ml. dagang
lakat -- M. hand-span
lake -- J. a leech (Amar. rake), s.v. Rot. ndaki, k.o. water-snake
laku -- a tuber, ubi
lal -- J. to roast (Amar. rar), s.v. Rot. dala
lalan -- road; lal sekit, crossroads; M. id., Amar. ranan
lali -- klali (Amar. krani), M. incense, Ml. kemenyan
lalit -- after, sesudah; M. na-lali
lal -- in a row/line, berjajar
lam -- busy, lively, ramai [likely from the BI/Ml.]
lami -- to lick
las -- to taste, feel, rasa [likely from the BI/Ml.]
lasan -- J. underlayment, base, support (Amar. rasak), s.v. Rot. lasa
lasi -- M. affair, matter, zaak
las -- poison, racun
lau -- M. tweezers, tongs
1. l -- when; during; prob.in: li now, lm which?; lka when?
2. l -- to knock; cf. 1,2 leku
lal -- the common people [perh. < Port. leal loyal?]
lat -- M. curse
lk -- to point
lka -- M. image, tale (Amar. reta)
lkat -- M. decision
lk -- dirt on the skin, grime, daki; nalk, dirty, kotor; M. id. ~lh, lahi, and lhl, cloudy, turbid (of water); perh. cf. next
lk -- nalk, vague, indistinct, samar
lk -- ulk, to restore, memulihkan; cf. next, and lk
lkf -- in: kanalkf, ugly [not+...]; cf. lk
1. leku -- J. to hit with a stick, s.v. Rot. liu, Kup. diku, Tet. deko; same as next?, and cf. l
2. leku -- M.hour; to strike the hour
ll -- mall, narrow, sempit
ll -- field; M. id., Amar. lne
lelen -- steel spur for cockfighting, taji; M. leli-n
lelu -- M. to claim
lm -- to sink, drown
lenu -- J. to send, order (Amar. renu), s.v. Rot. denu; cf. leol
1. leo -- nableo, M. to touch (Amar. nabreo), also ~leof, neof
2. leo -- M. a snare; nakleo, lassoo a horse; also ~lio, leo
lo -- klo, a little, few sedikit [also written with schwa between k__l...]
lk -- nalk, good; well, healthy; fresh; perfect; M. gives Amar. reko
leol -- to command, order; cf. lenu
lp -- ~lpa, J. to plunge, dunk, s.v. Rot. dpe, Kup. dpe
lepo -- embers, glowing coals
ls -- nakls, thick, viscous
let -- smooth, lancar
leu -- forbidden, taboo; M holy, awesome; cf. leuk ?
leuk -- naleuk, sail along the coast
leuk -- amleuk, bad, jelek; cf. next?
leu -- namleu, broken, damaged; M. namleu
li -- left (hand), kiri
li- ~li- -- in: liana, child; lin mn, son; lin bifl, daughter; prob. M. liat ~liat, young man; note also M. liana ~leana, child
li -- in: litu, to kneel [perh. li bend+ knee?]
lia -- namlia, M. luxuriant
1. liat -- ~liat, M. young man
2. liat -- makliat, M. sticky; cf. lit
liko -- in: kliko, younger/youngest child
lil -- namlil, M. glad, joyful; also ~malin, halin; Amar. hairin(i), to make glad; see lil
lilah -- M. pomegranate; cf. Rot. lilak; Tetl dila, Galoli ai-dilan, papaya
lil-- mlil, happy
lilu -- in: paililu, M. go around, wander. M claims < Port. perdido lost
limlima -- firefly
1. lio -- ~leo, M. snare; cf. next ?
2. lio -- ulio, to tie/make nets
lis -- to spatter, merecik
lis -- M. when, same as lka
lit -- M. glue, bird-lime; cf. Rot. didite
liu -- naliu, shiny, glittering
liu -- to chase; M. an-liu, chase away
l -- far [written with an initial glottal stop+l, perh. emphatic, or misheard kl?]; mukln, move s.t. away, menjauhkan
loa -- loa sisi, M. a wild dove sp.
la -- to vomit
loam -- ~loan, M. a tree sp.
loan -- M. a prop, forked stick
loe -- to pry, gouge, cungkil; cf. loi
l -- ul, to swim; M. lo; perh. cf. next
loeb -- naloeb, to float
lon -- manlon, M. to offer sirih
lf -- in: lfai, just in case, nyampang
loi -- J. carry on a stick over the back (Amar. roi), s.v. Rot. doi, Sav. dui
loi -- J. poke, pry out (Amar. roi), s.v. Rot. doi, Sik. dokit
loil -- in: loil kase, potato, kentang; M. loli-n, ubi, ~lul, Amar. rot; perh. cf. luel, lul
ll -- to slaughter
ll- -- llk (my) brain; M. gives Amar. rone; cf. Rot. dodlek; Tet. dolen, Sav.dole marrow
lol -- to drip [perh.misheard]; M. loli ~loni
lolu -- M. fish-hook; anchor; cf. lonu
lomi -- M. be willing; cf. luem
ln -- na-ln, M (Amanuban dial.) to spit
lonu -- M. anchor
lp -- M. a k.o. hut
lote -- weavers batten, belira
lto -- naklto, J. to boil, cook (Amar. rto), s.v. Rot. ka-dto; M na-lt it cooks
lts -- thunder
lu -- see lulu
lua -- klua, M. praise
luel -- maluel, soft; fine, delicate; M. also ~maluil, manu (?)
lul -- M. all food plants
luem -- to like, suka(i)
luetan -- uluetan, to arrange, mengatur [morph. complex?]
1. lui -- J. manatee, s.v. Rot. luik, Kup. duing
2. lui -- naklui, M. of a bird, to defecate (Amar. rui)
luin -- fall; collapse, fall down; perh. M. maluin, bent? [or perh. < Port. ruim wretched, bad or ruina ruin?]
luk- -- lukk (my) ear; M. Amar. ruki-n
lukf -- M. a small plate
luku -- fathom, depa
1. lul -- direct, terus
2. lul -- J. engrave, carve (Amar. run) s.v. Rot. dula(k) figures/ornaments on sarongs (?)
lulu -- ~lu, na-, M. of a river, to roar
luluf -- J. lip, s.v. Rot. dial. nudu; see also nuruf
lum -- J. only, just (Amar. rum), s.v. Rot. luma, some, a few
luma -- dew
luman -- there is not, tidak ada; empty; M. Amar. ruman, empty
lup -- to sip, hirup
lus -- a deer, rusa
lupit -- ~klipit, M. wall of a house (same as nikit)



ma -- and ma- -- mak (my) tongue
mab -- in: neon mab, afternoon; M. mabe
mae -- ~mael, J. a plant sp., s.v. Rot. mae
ma -- nk ma, ashamed [nk- soul+...]
mak -- kamak, jagged, sumbing
man -- to laugh; to love
mat -- to die; umat, to kill
maf -- ~mafn, shade, shadow; prob. usmaf, to shelter; J. mafo, hafo s.v. Rot. mafo, to cool off; cf. hafo
mahat -- to itch [stress indicated on ma-]
maka -- cooked rice, food, nasi [stress on ma-]; cf. next
makko -- porridge, bubur [prob.compd. maka+ko, q.v.]
mako -- bowl, mangkok [prob. < the BI/Ml.]
malo -- J. medicine (Amar. maro), s.v. Rot. mdo
mam -- anmam, M. chew sirih
man -- naman, midday, siang; perh. cf. manas
manane -- ~mnane M. witch-doctor
manas -- sun; also in: mansa san, east [...+rise], mansa mofun, west [...+fall]
manat -- J. in: anmanat, orphan, s.v. Rot. ma: ana mamk
mantanan -- light, ray, sinar [presumably a compd. manas+....?]
manu -- chicken
maf -- dizzy, mabuk
masan -- M. to appear [perh. pfx. ma+san?]
masek -- slippery [the cluster -s- seems anomalous; prob. compd., the components are unclear]
1. masi -- salt, masin [likely < the BI/Ml.]
2. masi -- although, meskipun [perh. < the BI/Ml.]
masu -- smoke, asap
mat- -- a pfx. to express reciprocity, as mat/tulun help each other
mata- -- matak (my) eye; matan, in front (of); prob.in: matnin, ogle, leer, jeling; matkaka, window
mat -- fresh, unripe; prob. matl, green, hijau; M has mat for both
mau -- namau, rich
mau -- weeds, grass, rumput; M. id. ~mau
maun -- ~namaun, hard (of wood), teras
mauku -- M. a marsupial animal, Ml. kuskus
maus -- J. tame, s.v. Rot. ka-mau, Tet. maus
1. m -- but
2. m -- in: nm, how? bagaimana; M. onm
3. m -- in: um, to stare; cf. also nami
m -- red
melan -- umelan, to wink, blink
ml -- M. to fall silent
mn -- sick; pain, painful; smarting; mnas, sickness; in: nkmn, regret; disappointed [nk soul+...]
mene -- in: fomene, spices; cf. min
menu -- M. bitter; see also meon
meo -- tomorrow
m -- cat
meon -- bitter, pahit
mn -- thirsty
meop -- to work, bekerja; M. mepu
ms -- ams, to squeeze, press; cf. ais
ms -- one; single
mtak -- bruise; cf. next
mtan -- black
mt -- dry
meu -- nameu, clear, jelas; meusin, bright (cf. sine); meo, clear (water)
mez -- table [prob. /mei/ with -z offglide; cf. Leti mei]
mi -- ~mis, urine; also in: nakmi, to urinate; nafmi, smell of urine
min -- namin, tasty, enak; kanamin, bad tasting; mafmin, fragrant; namin , tasteless, flat, tawar; namin mas, salty; see also mene; J. compares s.v. Rot. meni, Kup. mingis, Savu -mengi; cf. next
mina -- oil, minyak; min noah, coconut oil
mnatu -- gold
mns -- raw rice, beras; M. an mns
m -- nam, J. hold s.t. in the lips/mouth, s.v. Rot. ka-m, Savu kmu
1. m -- to make; M. mo ~mo, make, do
2. m -- um, to deny, sangkal; perh. M. moel, lying, untruthful?
msak -- to fade, luntur [morph.complex?]
mfa -- grey-haired, uban; M. mfa, grey
mofu -- M. to fall
ml -- yellow
molus -- M. buy; s.t. bought, gekochte
mn -- stupid, bodoh; M. mon
monas -- naked; J. mones s.v. Rot. maka-hola-k
mn -- husband; male; cf. mun fiu, son-in-law
mn -- in: s mn, outside; M. bi mone
muin -- be born, lahir; to live, hidup
1. mui -- to have; M. mui
2. mui -- mamui, poor, miskin; difficult; kanamuif, easy (according to M. p.432, ult.same as mui have, own)
muis -- to suck, menyusu; see also musi
muit -- animal; muifuiz, wild animal (according to M., ult. same as mui have, own)
1. munif -- young
2. munif -- J. rudder, s.v. Rot. uli, Kup. ulin
muun -- swollen; M. muan
1. musi -- J. to suck, s.v. Rot. na-sa-musi, Savu hemuhi
2. musi -- J. pit, fruit-stone/seed (said to be Amar.), s.v. Rot. boa-muse, gland, Savu lamuhi, pit, seed
musu -- enemy, musuh [likely < the BI/Ml.]
muti -- white



na -- to burn, tunu
1. na -- blood [perh. for nak my...?]
2. na -- mna, old, of things; J cites s.v. Rot. pa-l(k) (dial. -r-), Kup. blan
naba -- nab-naba, M. spider; see also nafa
na -- that, itu; M. nane, nai
na -- termite, anai2
nak -- big; nanak, to grow; unab, to increase, besarkan; J. id., ~nael s.v. Rot. mo-nae, Savu ae, mone
nan -- to run, berlari
nas -- namnas, old; see also nasi
naf -- manaf, light (weight), ringan; cheap, murah; M. manaf, makaf
nafa -- nafnafa, M. spider
nafo -- ~knafo, M.(dial.) mouse
nafu- -- nafun, feather, bulu; aok nafun (my?) body-hair; nakak nafun, head hair; matak nafun, eyebrow
nah -- umnah, hungry; M. mnahas, hunger
nahe -- ~nahek, J. a mat, s.v. Rot. neak, Kup. knhe
nai -- M. prince; cf. Intan, naijuf, the nobility [nai+uf ?]
nai -- pot, pan; nai l, waterjar, kendi; M. na ~anai
nain -- (nai-?) M. earth; Intan nainunus, earthquake; see also nizan
naiso -- M. to hit; [for na-iso?]; cf. nso, bso etc.
nait -- nasnait, J. lean on/against, s.v. Rot. na-sa-lai; cf. snlait
naka- -- nakak (my) head, skull; nakaf, head-man, chieftain, kepala suku; prob. in noelanakan, downstream; cf. Rot. langa, head
nake -- J. k.o. stocks, pillory, s.v. Rot. lange
naki -- J. to bind laths together, s.v. Rot. lai
nama -- aknama, J. crawl, creep, s.v. Rot. nama
namat -- knamat, J. k.o. grasshopper, s.v. Rot. lamak, Kup. klamat
nami -- [for na-mi?] M. (he) looks for; perh. cf. m ?
namo -- J. harbor; coast, shore, s.v. Rot. namo
nanan -- (nana- ?) interior, inside; in: snanan, inside; nimak nanan, palm of the hand
nanat -- once, ever pernah
nani -- ~nanif, J. comb of a rooster, s.v. Rot. lali-k (dial. -r-), Savu lari, Tet. lalarit; Bug. lali
nansa -- why, mengapa [morph.complex?]; nansaan, to cause, menyebabkan
nanum -- M. a Ficus sp.
na -- go, walk; M. nau
nao -- namnao (~ -nako), to steal
nap -- manap, fast; cf. laba
napan -- butterfly
nape -- ui nape, J. to wave, beckon, s.v. Rot. nggapek, Sav. gape
nasa- -- nasan, M. (his) scrotum
nasi -- woods, forest, wilderness
nasi -- mnasi, J. old, s.v. Rot. k-lasi; see also nas
nata -- ~naten, J. grave, s.v. Rot. late-s
natai -- ~natai [for na-tai ?], M. to tremble
nati -- M. may... (optative?)
natu -- namnatu, namnaut, ripe; M. natu, eggyolk [perh. cf. mnatu, gold?]; cf. next
1. natun -- in: ika in natun, J. fish-roe, s.v. Rot. manu-natuk, embryonic egg in a chicken
2. natun -- hundred-- natun ms, 100, natun nu, 200
1. nau -- M. hearth; J. nao, hearth, the 3 hearthstones, s.v. Rot. lao
2. nau -- M. scrape, rub with the fingers; perh. = J. nau, scoop with the hand, s.v. Rot. lau, Kup.daku, Savu dau
naub -- umnaub, remember; pity, console
naun -- namnaun, high, long, deep. M. also, mnanu
naus -- stinging nettle, jelatang; J. cactus s.v. Rot. laus, Kup klaus
1. ne -- six
2. ne -- umne, to dream; M. namnai; see also nehi
nebt -- unebt, to lower
neet -- nakneet, J. sour, astringent, s.v. Rot. maka-lee (dial. r-)
1. nefo -- lake; M. nifu
2. nefo -- M. to touch; also ~leo(f), Amar. refo
neh -- J. fathom, s.v. Rot. lea, Kup. dea
nehi -- M. to dream
nek -- manek, cold; M. nik
nk -- to kiss; M. also, to love
nka- -- nkak, (my) soul, semangat; perh. in: ufnkan, to hope; M. nka, Roi dial. neram
nk -- kapok
1. neku -- namneku, M. (has) disappeared; Intan, namneuk, to disappear
2. neku -- J. eat like an animal; gnaw, s.v. Rot. hengu
nem -- to come
nn -- to hear
1. nne -- J. to press, s.v. Rot. ne
2. nne -- ~nnel, J. sesame, s.v. Rot. lena
nns -- tree sp., Erythrina, dadap; M. nenas
1. nen -- in: knen, lightning [poss.compd., cf. next]
2. nen -- ~nn, day; sky; nni, today; nnmab, afternoon; M comments p.378, "/e vary in this word"
n -- man, true; straight; M. neo, true
np -- unp, to think
nes -- more; M. nesi
ns -- namns, flat; quiet, lonely, sunyi; peaceful, calm; cf. nsat
ns[sic] -- day after tomorrow, besok lusa [the cluster n- seems anomalous, perh. something has been omitted or misunderstood. Poss. contraction/fast speech? < nen s]
1. nsat -- amnsat, flat land, plains; desert
2. nsat -- split bamboo
nesi -- M. stand at the edge of; appear
nso -- M. to hit, ~naiso etc.
nesu -- door
netb -- bridge
ntn -- M. mountain
neu -- right (hand)
neuk -- umneuk, (financial) loss, rugi; perh. same as neku, disappear (?)
ni -- (ni ?) pole, in: nium, house-pilings; nienaf, mast
1. nia -- askew, miring; cf. nin
2. nia -- in: nafnia, J. to offer, s.v. Rot. ponia
niah -- maniah, thin, tipis; M. id., ~manihis, mainihas
nik -- to turn around, balik
nifun -- thousand, in: ...ms 1000, ...nu 2000, ...bs 10,000
nikid -- wall, dinding
nim -- five
nima- -- nimak (my) arm, hand
nin -- in: matnin, leer, ogle, jeling; perh. cf. 1.nia
1. ninn -- edge
2. ninn -- wing; prob. in bl ninn, outrigger
1. nin -- glass, kaca-- perh.both this and next ult.< *li(n,ng)aw?
2. nin -- in: nekak nin, M. pure of heart
nipu -- fog, mist
nis -- very, sangat; M p.473, also as an intensifier of verbal action, as anbius nis... he struck dead...
nisa -- ~nise M. a tree sp., same as nitas
nisi- -- nisik (my) tooth
nisum -- M. a palm sp.
1. nitas -- mnitas, M. vision (ability to see)
2. nitas -- ~nites, nisa, M. a tree, Ml. kelumpang, Sterculia foetida
niti -- bracelet
nitu -- corpse
niu -- uniu, to bathe, mandi
1. niun -- maniun, sour
2. niun -- (for niu-n?) J. backstrap of a loom, s.v. Rot. liu-dea, Kup. slikung
nizan -- land, tanah; floor (presumed glide-z); perh. cf. nain
noa -- ~noas, M. clothes
na -- loose, slack; M. noal; cf. also nofal
nah -- coconut
nobah -- enough; M. noba, ~noka, nola
ne -- J. to melt, s.v. Rot. id.
n -- capable, cakap
nk -- to sharpen
noel -- river
noen -- in: noen fatu, silver
noen -- M. to call
ns -- to wipe
nofal -- M. to loosen (clothing)
noi -- J. almost, on the point of..., s.v. Rot. noi
noka -- M. enough
nka -- morning; M. noka
noko -- thin, skinny, kurus
nola -- M. enough
nolok -- M. canal, ditch
nn -- usnn, carry (on the hip), menggendong
nne -- J. to lead, s.v. Rot. nle, carry in hand, or nuni, lead, pull
noni -- na-noni, J. to teach, s.v. Rot. na-noli, Tet. hanorin
nn -- a stream, brook
nno -- J. a liana, s.v. Rot. llo, Kup. id.
1. nonu -- J. strip off with the hand, s.v. Rot. kolu; cf. honu, perh. next
2. nonu -- M. to separate
n -- hau n, leaf; kananof, bare, leafless
np -- cloud
nopu -- M. hole; cf. kopu, opu
nse -- J. rub, wipe, s.v. Rot. lse ~rse, Tet. rose, Savu roho; cf. ns
nou -- namnou, M. complete
1. nu -- two; nua, second; M. nua, two
2. nu -- J. of birds, to brood, s.v. Rot. luu, Savu roku
3. nu -- ~nuf, J. tears, s.v. Rot. lu-e
1. nua -- nanua, to boil
2. nua -- manua, wide; M. mainuan
nuaf -- ~nuaf, nuuf, M. mountain
1. nuan -- ~nuun, M. to tell, relate
2. nuan -- tainuan, J. half-full, s.v. Rot. hailua (~ -r-), Kup. tailuang
nuat -- J. cave, grotto, s.v. Rot. dial. luak, luat
nu -- wound, wounded
nuena -- unuena, to teach; study; cf. noni
1. nui -- J. take off, remove, s.v. Rot. lui
2. nui -- nasnui, J. to sear, s.v. Rot. nuli (~ -r-)
nui- -- nuif, bone
nuin -- to slash, sayat
nukat -- M. lack
nuni -- taboo
nunu -- M. to roll up; cf. next
nunu -- kainunu, pillow
nunuh -- Ficus sp., banyan
nunus -- in: nainunus, earthquake
nuruf -- J. (Amar.) lip(s), s.v. Rot. dial. nudu; cf. luluf
nus -- M. blue
nuta -- J. burning brand, s.v. Rot. (hai) lutek
nutu -- mnutu, fine, halus; J. also s.v. Rot. lutu
nutus -- J. rust, s.v. Rot. lutu
nuuf -- mountain; cf. nuaf (M.)
nuun -- nanuun, to inherit



af -- stable, corral, tempat kerbau/kuda; M. oof
f -- fluid, liquid; nuef, pus; hauf, sap, resin; sis f, sauce, gravy; one f, honey; cf. l
of -- M. tail feather
l -- water; prob.in e fat, J. west monsoon; M p.397 notes: on S. coast, l elsewhere
1. n -- to call; cf. next?
2. n -- J. to seek, ask, s.v. Rot. n-ke, Kup. -ken
t -- in: t mat, hoe, cangkul
k -- ~nk, (be) with; M. also ka; M notes-- takes the personal prefixes
kam -- cucumber, ketimun
k -- ~kk, all, semua
kn -- already, sudah; all gone, finished, habis
l -- to swallow; lsan, choke, gag, salah telan; J. gives lo, Amar. ro, s.v. Rot. lo, ro, dial. do
n -- to (prep.), ke-; nm, how?; M. onm
one -- bee; M. id. ~oni
pan -- to spill, pour, tumpah
opi -- J. (Amar.) knife, s.v. Rot. dope
opu -- M. hole; cf. kopu, nopu
opu -- J. female, of animals, s.v. Rot. upuk, id. of very young animals
ot -- to burn, membakar


P pa -- upa, to cut off, kerat; M. na-fa, to chop
1. pak -- to use, to wear, pakai; perh. cf. next
2. pak -- to decorate; cf. pakai below
3. pak -- napak, stingy
paet -- to clear land
pafa -- J. to herd, watch over animals, s.v. Rot. papa; cf. faf, bab
pah -- J. split, cut through, s.v. Rot. faa, Savu baka
pah -- island; M. paha ~pah id., land; in pahanakan, north; pahahaen, south
paha -- chisel, pahat [likely < the BI/Ml.]
1. pai -- ~pai, M. rotten, musty, rancid; J. pai id., s.v. Rot. sa-pai, Savu bai, Bima mbai
2. pai -- ~pai, M. a grass sp.
pai -- J. a beetle, klappertor, s.v. Rot. id., Savu mo-kebaki
pakai -- to carve, ukir
paku -- lamp, torch; damar-resin
pal -- napal, short; low; shallow; M. pala
pali -- ray (fish) [likely < BI/Ml.]; cf. haif
palsai -- to believe, trust [< BI/Ml. percaya]
palsuma -- in vain [< BI/Ml. percuma]
palu -- greedy
pana- -- panak (my) nose
panas -- M. rainbow
panbutasi -- oyster; snail; according to M., pan-bu round nose + tasi sea
pania -- M. bitter melon, Ml. paria, Momordica charantia; pania is said to be Molo dial., pnia Amarasi, bania Amanuban; cf. Rot. paliak
papa -- M. wound
pas -- J. to hit, box the ears, s.v. Rot. dial. mbasa ~mbasa
pasan -- to bet, wager
pasu -- M. skin, huid
1. pau -- upau, to stab
2. pau -- M. to await
p -- J. split, chop, hew, s.v. Rot. bia; cf. 2.pa
1. pa -- to rise (sun), come into view, terbit
2. pa -- napa, to break; cf. next
peat -- upeat, to cut open, cut into
pela -- ~bela, M. set/lay down (Amar. bra); J. pela s.v. Roti peda
pen -- upen, to get, obtain; M. na-pen, na-peni
1. pn -- upn, to see; to look at
2. pn -- natpn, to fly
pna -- maize; J. pela, s.v. Roti pelak
pnn -- thatch; in: um pnn, roof-peak
pni -- M. layer, base (dial. feli); J. peni, native-style saddle, s.v. Roti peni(k); Tet. beni-ain, shoe
penu -- J. bend, bent, s.v. Rot. fenu; Intan: peon, bent; curving, winding
pes -- filter, sieve
pesek -- J. to throw, s.v. Rot. pesi, Savu phi
pesn -- wave, ombak, gelombang
1. pt -- napt, break open, burst; cf. pa et al. above
2. pt -- upt, wet; cf. Rot. peta-k
pet -- anpet, M. sated
pete -- ~peti, M. to stretch
petu -- bamboo; perh. in: pet nh, nipa-palm; see also piut
peu -- sleepy
peu -- rasp, scrape, grate; cf. eu, keu
1. pi -- J. to pull, s.v. Rot. na-la-p, pull on; naka-p, stretched tight
2. pi -- ~pif, J. Achilles tendon, s.v. Rot. ei-pipk
pika -- plate, pinggan ; cf. Rot. pingak
1. pin -- in: pin nis, excessively decorated, gaudy (nis very)
2. pin -- in: pinhae, footwear of banana bark; see also peni
pina -- M. flame; also J. pin, to flame, burn, s.v. Rot. pila
pinu -- J. snot, s.v. Rot. pinu id.
pib -- onion [off-glide -b?]; M. peo, kalapeo
pik -- to tell, narrate; pilasi, compose, arrange
pis -- upis, M. to stop, do no more
pius -- upius, to rip, tear; natpius, torn; J. pisu id., s.v. Rot.......?, Kup. pisu, Savu hiu
1. piut -- in: piut tl, bamboo shoot; cf. petu
2. piut -- M. unbroken
plelo -- M. a Ficus sp., F. septica; ~pllo, Amar. pnro
p -- J. to herd, drive along, s.v. Rot. f, Kup. poa
p -- nap, M. to explode, roar
pa -- upa, to hunt; M. an-pon, hunt for
pa- -- pak (my) skin; (muit in) pan, (animals) hide; prob. in: ikapat, fish scales; cf. pua
pan -- garden
poef -- to spray, rinse, siram; J. pofi, to pour, s.v. Rot. fui, Sav. buwi
pl -- to handle, menjamah
1. ps -- to split, membelah
2. ps -- shrimp, udang; ptasi, crab; J. po hei, a crab sp., s.v. Rot. po hek, Kup. ng
poho -- M. hold in the hand
poi -- ~poibon, poibun, M. to tell a lie; see puebk
pk -- fat, gemuk; J. pok ~apokat id., s.v. Rot. po-poka-k, swollen
pola -- M. split
poli -- J. to throw (Amar. pori), s.v. Rot. poli, pour out [?]; see puel
poni -- ~boni, M. to hang; see bone
posi -- natposi, J. release; escape, s.v. Rot. poi, Tet. hahusik [?]
pouk -- M. blanket, large sarong, selimut
pu -- M. to blow; see also pupu
pua -- to skin, flay; cf. pa ?
pue -- appear, arise, timbul; go out, keluar; M. na-poitan, bring into view (?)
puebk -- to tell a lie; cf. M. poi ~poibon, poibun supra
puel -- ~puil, to throw; see poli
puen -- upuen, to reduce, make less, mengurangi
pui -- M. partridge
pukns[sic] -- some, several [for pukns? as the written schwa is surely transitional]; cf. M. puku-s, a herd of...
pune -- J. to wind up, s.v. Rot. fule, mbule, coil around
punn -- ear (of grain), bulir; M. pune; cf. Rot. pulek, ear of corn
punjamu -- J. mouldy, dirty, s.v. Rot. ngga-ngganu, Jav. jamur
punuf -- M. coconut fibre
punut -- apunut, rotten, busuk; M. punu
pupu -- ~pup, J. use a blowgun, s.v. Rot. fupu; cf. pu
puse -- pusel, J. to sweat, s.v. Rot. puse, Savu kebahu
pusu -- ~pusuk (my) thigh
put -- maput, hot, panas; naf put, burnt smell, hangus; cf. putun
puta -- sago palm; sago
putal -- to turn, rotate, putar [likely < BI/Ml.]
putun -- uputun, to heat, memanaskan; J. putu, s.v. Rot. putu, scorched; see put
puu -- J. mushroom, s.v. Rot. puku



sa -- M. what; Intan: saan, what, apa; thing, anu
sabalu -- shirt, blouse, baju
1. sa -- to climb, go up; sanuuf, climb a mountain; usab, to raise, menaikkan
2. sa -- usa, carry on the shoulder, memikul
saha- -- (sahan, sahak) M. thigh-bone
sahan -- ~sahak, J. whetstone, s.v. Rot. sak
sai -- to flow
sain -- M. a sp. of millet
saiz -- to touch, sentuh [off-glide -z? base sai ?]
saka -- in: saka tenu, M. use an umbrella
sakau -- who?; M. sekau
sak -- M. flooding (of a river); full
sakpin -- to slip, slide [a compd.? components somewhat unclear]
sala -- ~sal, M. to peel; J. sal ~sar, s.v. Rot. (sa)sada, Savu hada
salat -- ~sal, J. a net, s.v. Rot. dala, Kup sala, (< Ml. jala?)
sama -- ~sam, M. to rub, massage
san -- false, wrong, salah
sana -- M. bunch (of bananas)
sanut -- usanut, to lower; ai sanut, sloping; cf. san
sao -- in nsao, kaun-sao, J. a poisonous snake, s.v. Rot. kaisao
san -- to descend, turun; M. nam-sau; cf. sanut
sap -- to sweep, sapu [likely < BI/Ml.]
sapi -- J. to remove bark with a machete, s.v. Rot. id., Tet. sabir
sapus -- M. Savunese
1. sasi -- M. to overflow
2. sasi -- M. a bird sp.
1. sau -- to bite, bite into
2. sau -- matsau, M. to marry
3. sau -- a basket
sbake -- J. branch; [perh. wrongly extrapolated < nasbake, having branches?], s.v. Rot. bae, dial. bake
sbuik[sic] -- ant, semut [prob. for sbuik]
sbu -- ~sfu, M. use a blowgun; sbut ~sfut, blowgun
sba -- to rent, sewa [ surely < the BI/Ml.]
sefi -- J. to untie, s.v. Rot. sei, Savu dial. sefi
sei -- J. to roast, s.v. Rot. id., Savu hngi; M. anse, to smoke food; Intan: se, to roast; to smoke food
sk -- usk, to cook; fry; bake [cf. Rot. se-sena, Kup n-engan, Let. sekra]
skal -- to change, substitute, mengganti; sk bal, move, pindah; sk baln, move, pindahkan
ske -- na-ske, J. to force, insist, s.v. Rot. ka-see, caught, stuck [?]
sekau -- M. who? cf. sakau
seki -- M. to pick, pluck, break off; J. cites s.v. Rot. sengi
sekit -- in: lal sekit, crossroads
sko -- J. to hunt with dogs, s.v. Rot. sko, fish with a net; cf. sk
sl -- to mix, stir; J. id., (Amar. sero), s.v. Rot. sdo-k, Tet. sorok
1. sn -- umsn, sated, kenyang
2. sn -- to plant, menanam; sntin, plant(s), tanam2an
1. senu -- ~seun, M. substitute, exchange
2. senu -- to meet, pick up,berjemput [cf. Rot. selu ~seru, Tet. ha-soru]
3. senu -- in weaving, the woof, pakan; J. cites as weavers batten s.v. Rot. selu, Kup.silu, Savu kehadu
so -- J. to whisper, pray, s.v. Rot. se-so
sk -- to hunt, berburu; cf. sko
spo -- naspo, J. to go elsewhere to trade, s.v. Rot. spo, perh.cf. Bug. sempo cheap [?]
ss -- J. to stuff, press into, s.v. Rot. sse, perh. < Ml. sesak
st -- nast, hoarse, parau
setul -- to push
seu -- M. to pluck
seul -- to hiccough, sob; M. id.
sfu -- ~sbu, M. use a blowgun
si -- to sing, nyanyi; M. sit, song
sibliu -- spark(s) [compd. of unclear elements?]
siel -- J. cites as equiv. s.v. Rot. sikak, loom part-- a pc. of bamboo that keeps the warp threads separate and taut
sifi -- J. a k.o. weaving, s.v. Rot. id.; cf. next
sifin -- ~sefin, M. to insert
sikaloti -- (Amar. sikaroti) J. to jump about, caper, s.v. Rot. sikaloti ~sikiloti [app.compd.]
sikanolo -- M. to drift [app. compd.; cf. Rot. dolo ?]
sikum -- J. a medicinal root, Ml. kencur, s.v. Rot. sokus, Kup. sukung
simo -- ~siom, J. to receive, s.v. Rot. sipo, Kup. simu, [Tet. simu]; Intan, sim, receive
1. sin -- they, 3rd pl. pron.; their
2. sin -- in: sinmak, to want, to wish [stress indicated on -mak]
sine -- M. light
sipi -- J. to miss (a target), graze, s.v. Rot. (and Ml.) id.
sisi -- meat, flesh; sis f, sauce, gravy
1. siu -- nine; M. id. ~seo
2. siu -- ~siu, na-, M. to jeer, taunt
siu- -- siuk (my) elbow; prob. in: M. um siun, eaves of the house
skaf -- carpenters plane [< Du. schaaf]
skan[sic] -- thing, anu [prob. for skan]; see saan
skiki -- brush, sikat; cf. kiki
smanak -- [for smana-k?] soul
snan -- sand; J id., s.v. Rot. solokaek, Kup slaen, Savu (la)halae, Bima sarae
snamu -- J. fringe, s.v. Rot. oka-samuk, fine roots [?]
snas -- to breath; snaskeut, gasp, wheeze; snaseup, hold the breath
snuna -- umbrella
s -- to sew
se -- J. scoop up (of solid things), s.v. Rot. id., Kup. soke
sel -- J. disastrous, s.v. Rot. se
1. soi -- J. natsoi, to open, s.v. Rot. soi
2. soi -- J. ransom, redeem, s.v. Rot. id.
sk -- spoon; M. soko; see also sno
solat -- ~solot, M. pick up with the hand
sol -- M. to wean, to separate (Amar. sor)
solo -- J. a net, schepnet (Amar. soro), s.v. Rot. slo
solok -- to sway, be unsteady, goyang
sn -- nasn, M. of rain, to stop
1. sna -- interval; perh. = J. sona, interval, opportunity, s.v. Rot. soda, opportunity, have time for; sodak, interval of time; cf. next?
2. sna -- usna, nasna, to permit, allow, ijinkan
snbiko -- a small bird sp., pipit; M. id. ~sonkiko, a bird
snlait -- lean on/against; cf. also nait
sono -- to send, kirim
sno -- M. (Amar.) spoon; J. id., s.v. Rot. sulu, spoon; slo, to scoop
sopu -- M. to end
ss -- to buy; cf. next?
ssa -- ussa, to sell
sot -- ~so, M. to scoop/bail water
1. su -- to carry on the head
2. su -- J. to dig, s.v. Rot. id., Kup. sulu; prob. M. an-sub, to bury; cf. sub ?
suaf -- M. rafter
suak -- J. digging stick s.v. Rot. id.
suat -- ~suut, M. to measure
sub -- to dive, selam; perh. here cf. M. an-sub, bury?
subat -- asubat, to accuse
sue -- to count
suel -- nasuel, sprain, keseleo, salah urat
suet -- to embroider
sufa -- ~sufan, M. flower
sui -- naksui, M. to fart
sui- -- suik (my) cheek; chin
sukat -- M. curse
1. suki -- M. lay s.t. as a base; cf. next?
2. suki -- wedge
sum -- J. to steam, s.v. Rot. suma
sunaf -- horn, tanduk [cf. Rot. su-sulak]
sune -- mantrap, sharpened bamboo stakes
suni -- M. sword
sunu -- M. (Amanuban dial.) spoon; see soko, sno
susal -- to suffer; sad; cf. J. sus, difficulty, s.v. Rot. susa [Tet. susar]
susu- -- susuk (my) breast; usus, to suckle menyusui
suta -- to bear, endure, tahan [compd.?]
suti -- M. a marine mollusc



1. ta -- uta, to answer, jawab; M. id., ~na-tah; J. gives both s.v. Rot. na-t, Kup. take, Tet. ha-ta(n)
2. ta -- M. belly; cf. tei
tae -- to read, membaca
taf -- ~tof, M. branch
tan -- to promise, menjanji
1. tan -- in: tan bese, chain, rantai; cf. tani
2. tan -- matan, strong; hard; expensive; nafun matan, invulnerable; M. matani
tai -- to weigh
taif -- dregs, ampas
tainusat -- blanket, selimut
taiz -- a womans sarong
taka -- J. sign, mark, s.v. Rot. tana ~tanda, cf. Ml. tanda
tal -- to forbid, larang; M. talas, prohibition
talan -- M. to, up to, tot
talu -- to knead, ramas
tam -- to enter
1. tan -- natan, to ask
2. tan -- na-tan, J. to cover, s.v. Rot. tana, Savu katanga
tana -- in: tantana, J. chisel, s.v. Rot. tala
tani -- ~tani nak, rope; tani ana, string, tan bese, chain
tanu -- fish-hook
1. tao -- J. make, work, s.v. Rot. id., Kup. Savu id.; cf. next?
2. tao -- to put, place, taruh
tao -- large scoop, ladle
tap -- J. to patch, lappen (Ml/BI tampal?, s.v. Rot. tapa, to glue; cf. next?
tapa -- M. to tie
tapaf -- sheath [app.for tapa-f]; M. suni tapan, sheath of a sword
tasa -- mtasa, red, merah
tasi -- sea; also in: tasi ana, bay, teluk; tasi ninn, shore, beach; prob. in panbutasi, oyster, po tasi crab; segmentation of the -k- is unclear in: tasikana, cape, tip, tanjung; tasiknana, strait(s), perh.misheard for tasi tnana if compd. sea+middle/waist(?)
tasu -- J. skillet, s.v. Rot. id., Mol.Ml. tacu
tata- -- in: au tata (my?) older brother [for au tatak?]
tau -- umtau, afraid; nkamtau, nervous
tau -- in: tau ten, to add, tambah [unclear compd.]
tau -- an tau, rice-straw, jerami
taum -- M. indigo
t -- to arrive, sampai; cf. tia
tal -- crippled, lame
teb -- J. break off (with the fingers), s.v. Rot. tei, dial. tebi
tbe -- J. truly, s.v. Rot. te-te, Kup. Tet. tebes
tee -- in: anitee, moss [compd.?]
tef -- (uncertain) if in: kantef, less, kurang; see kah
tefen -- thatch; M. tefi(n), tnf, atap
tefu -- sugarcane
tei- -- teik (my) stomach; teif, guts, isi perut [Intan writes "tey..." in both]; perh. M. ta, belly
teis -- excrement, tahi [written "teys"]
teko -- manu teko, egg; see also teno
tele -- katele, scissors, gunting [cf. Rot. kateli, Tet. kateri]
teli -- M. step
1. tm -- natm ~natmel, J. whole, s.v. Rot. tema-k
2. tm -- natm, J. accustomed, s.v. Rot. tma
3. tm -- in: nkatm, confused
tmuku[sic] -- village head, kepala kampong [for tmuku or temuku ?]
tn -- natn, of sediment, to settle
tenu -- M. in: saka tenu, use an umbrella
1. tenu -- loom; see teun
2. tenu -- third, ketiga; see teon
t -- nat, slow
tb -- to hit; M. tpo
teon -- three
tes -- J. of sun, moon, to go down, s.v. Rot. tesa
ta -- ~tas, J. heartwood; hard, s.v. Rot. tea-k, tea-s
tsan -- stick, staff
tta -- M. other, different, otherwise, anders
1. tetu -- mantetu, J. upright, s.v. Rot. tetu-tetu; cf. next?
2. tetu -- ~tet, nam-, M. reach to top/highest point; cf. next?
3. tetu -- ceiling
tia -- antia, M. to arrive, reach; cf. t (?)
tias -- antias, M. doubt
tibak -- J. bamboo tube, s.v. Rot. dial. id.
tif -- in: tifkaiz, fishing net, jala; M. tifkai ~kifkai
tik -- utik, to kick; cf. next
tikaf -- [for tika-f ?] J. heel, s.v. Rot. tinga-k
tilo -- J. to aim (Amar. tiro), s.v. Rot. tino
timif -- [for timi-f ?] J. jaw, s.v. Rot. timi-k, Tet. timir
tin -- in: sntin, plant(s); see sn
tina -- J. female organs, s.v. Rot. tila-k, Mak. telang [?]
1. tipu -- in: bikase tipu, M. colt
2. tipu -- natipu, M. broken
titbk -- to depart, berangkat, bertolak [compd.]
tit -- M. push away (Amar. titar)
titu -- ~tiut, M. to watch over
tliaf -- in: niman tliaf, M. el, cubit
tnana -- half, middle, tengah; tnanak (my) waist; paha tnana, inland, interior; perh.misheard in faidnanan, late at night, tengah malam; and tasiknana strait(s); J. gives tnana, s.v. Rot. talada, Kup. tlala
tnf -- M. thatch; see tefen
tnopa -- M. lead (the metal)
ta- -- (tak, tan) neck
ta -- uta, angry; M. toas, anger
tb -- mitb, to steam; J. na-tobe, s.v. Rot. tobi-k, burn, scald; cf. tb ?
te -- J. to wander, s.v. Rot. tofa [?]
t- -- in: haubtf, haubtn, branch of a tree
tb -- to cover, tutupi; M. tbn, lid
ton -- anton, M. in a line/row; perh. also: M. ma-ton, take turns speaking, beurtspraak
tof -- J. to weed, s.v. Rot. tofa, Kup. topa
toi -- J. to bore, chisel out, s.v. Rot. toi, Kup. tuki; M. an-toi, to hollow out
tois -- J. triton-shell, trumpet, s.v. Rot. toik
tk -- to sit; tk, chair; tk-k (my) buttocks
tol -- J. boundary, border (Amar. tor), s.v. Rot. t, Kup. ton, "perh. < Du. tol"
tolas -- M. gathering, assembly
tl -- in: piut tl, bamboo shoot
tn -- year; M. ton
tnan -- utnan, to inform, beri tahu; M. na-ton
tn -- deaf
tp -- antp, M. pay respects/homage, a sort of sembah
topu -- M. to lead
totan -- ~toton, M. to obey
toti -- M. to ask; see tuet
tu- -- tuk (my) knee; also in M. liba-tu, lika-tu, li-tu, leo-tu, all to kneel
tua -- utua, to stay, dwell, tinggal; cf. 1.tun ?
tua -- palm-wine, tuak
tuet -- to ask; M. toti ~toit; Intan, also glosses to borrow
tufal. -- kill (e.g. lice) by squashing; cf. tufu ?
tuf -- a fish-poison, tuba
tufu- -- tufuk (my) fist; mattuf, to fight; M. tuf, tufu, hit with the fist [Cf. Rot. tufa id.]
tui -- to write; J make stripes, s.v. Rot. dui-dui, duik, Tet. tui
tuin -- J. to follow, s.v. Rot. tui, Kup. tuing, Tet. tuir
tuis -- to pour
tukal -- mantukal, to exchange, tukar [likely < BI/Ml.]
tuk -- a bamboo cup; M. atuk; J. tuk s.v. Rot. tukek, bamboo tube for storage; cf. next?
tuki -- a funnel
tulu -- jet, spout, pancuran; M. id. ~tunu; J. overflow, s.v. Rot. (tu)tulu (-turu)
tulun -- to help [likely < BI/Ml.]
tume -- louse
1. tun -- tun-on, J. to sit, s.v. Rot. tu-tk; cf. tk ?
2. tun -- ustun, nastun, to trip, stumble [Rot. katunu, Savu kedune]
1. tuna -- in: na tuna, heart-of-palm
2. tuna -- in: tuna nak, dropsy, swollen stomach
tunaf -- stove [perh.compd. with tunu q.v.?]
1. tune -- ~tunel, J. an eel, s.v. Rot. tuna ~tune
2. tune -- ~tunel, J. the gebang-palm, s.v. Rot. tula, tule
tuni -- J. press down on, s.v. Rot. id.
tunis -- J. a bean sp., s.v. Rot. tulis ~turis
tunu -- J. to bake, s.v. Rot. id.; Intan, tun, burn
tup -- to sleep
tupu -- utupu, to pile up; J. na-tupu s.v. Rot. tupu
tusa -- to owe, berhutang
tusi -- M. to rub
tusu- -- tusuk (my) fingernail
tut -- J. to tie, join, s.v. Rot. tuti
tutu -- M. to pound, hammer; Intan, in: bese tutu, a hammer



u -- in: u-meke(l), J. a snake, s.v. Rot. mnge
ua -- [for ua-k?] J. vein, tendon, s.v. Rot. ua-k
uab -- uuab, to speak
uan -- M. destiny, life
uas -- (Amar.) J. a tuber sp., s.v. Rot. Tet. id.
ubak -- to steal
uel -- rattan
uen -- in: min uen, sweet
uena -- uuena, to carry, angkut
uki -- banana
ul -- sit with legs stretched out, belunjur
ukul -- to measure [likely < the BI/Ml.]
ulan -- rain; ulana, drizzle (Amar. uran)
umak -- paumak nearby, close; to approach; paumakan, side by side, next to; pumakab, move s.t. closer, mendekatkan
ume -- house [note um elsewhere, mis-written here?]
un -- in: haubun, tree-trunk
1. unu -- not so long ago; ununu, very long ago; J. ununu, previously, voorheen, s.v. Rot. uluk, ahead of, earlier
2. unu -- in: namaunuleu, crazy; M. maunu, anxious
unud -- to slice; hack, chop [app.misheard, as there is no /d/ in the lang.]; cf. next
unut -- to chop fine, to mince
unus -- red pepper [cf. Rot. kulus ~kurus, Tet. kunus]
untun -- profit, untung [prob. < the BI/Ml.]
upan -- price
upu -- storm, tempest
upu -- cousin, sepupu
upun -- mango; M. up-heum, a wild mango sp.
usa- -- usak (my) navel [cf. Rot. usek]
usi -- grandfather; usif, king; M. Uis-Neno, the Lord, God
uta -- in: sauta, M. explain
ut -- M. chaff, bran; J id., s.v. Rot. u, uk, Kup.Tet. ut, Bal. oot
utaum -- to chew (food); M. utamu id., cites Rot. tamu-tamu, chew/eat noisily
uti -- J. penis, s.v. Rot. uti-k
utus -- nautus, whirlwind; nautus nak, typhoon [stress indicated on na-]; cf. Rot. kutus, dial utus


Return to the Indonesica page